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*T*HE3RE is something startling in the statement that a drag made of a split log and costing only the price of a pocket knife is the imple ment that is going to revolutionize the wagon roads of this country and save many millions of dollars to the rural population of the United Statesyet I make this statement and put it upon it all the emphasis of which I .am capable. "Downright absurd" do you ex plain? I have had hundreds of farm ers greet with jeers a less sweep ing statement of the caseand then go home and prove for themselves its absolute correctness. Have you any idea of what it would mean to the people of the United States to change the bad wagon roads of the country into good roads? dirt roads of these Commonwealths still constitute a very important and perplexing element in the problem 7 of transportation by team. Fully ninty-nine per cent, of the highways of Missouri and Iowa are earth roads, and a State official of Iowa once said to me that to have fifteen *r per cent, of the main traveled roads of yjais State macadamized would be to realize the most ambitious dreams of I those men of the State especially interested in improving the condition of its highways. So much by way of suggesting the size of the problem which the spilt-log drag has come to solve. What has already been accomplish ed, so far as~the spread of the move ment is concerned, may be put in a few words: It has been backed and pushed by the Missouri Board of Agriculture one railroad, the Northwestern, has sent out a "Good t* Roads Special" for the purpose of evangelizing THE SPLIT LOG DRAG. Simple Method by Which Good Roads May be Made and Kept in Repair.By D. Ward King.Published by Courtesy of The Saturday Evening Post.Illustrations by Courtesy of the Thief River Press. Such a revolution in transporation would climb so high into figures that the sum total would be absolutely start ling and almost beyond comprehen sion. Net very long alter I had madethefirstcomplete demonstration of the split log method of road-mak ing on my farm in Missouri, Col. G. W. Waters, Secretary of the Miss ouri Geod Roads Association, said to me "If th road commissioners oi the State of Missouri could stand here and see what I see, the result would be worth a hundred thousand dollars a year to this Common wealth'" It is impossible to express tig ures even the most general estimate of the value of such a revolution in road-making as must result from the general use of this new and *'absurdly simple" method. How ever, it is well to keep in miaad the facts that in almost all States the mileage of common dirt roads is many times double that of macad amized or other expensive roads in tended to be permanent. Ian a State so long settled, so pro gressive and prosperous as Ohio, for example,mor than fifty per eent. of tfae roads are of earth, and the interest shown by Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, New York and other Eastern States in the work of the split dog drag indicates that the the farmers of its ter- ritory other roads are eager to in stall the same kind ofabroad-guage, public-spirited campaign thousands of miles of wagon roads have been permanently reclaimed from bad to good, and hundreds of meetings have been held in the nine States in which this gospel has been dissem inated by means of practical demon stration. At these meetings thou sands of persons have pledged themselves to make and use a split log drag hundreds of newspapers have taken up this movement, giv ing it generous space and a spuare deal hundreds, if not thousands, of dollars have been raised and have been raided and offered in prizes for the best miles or half miles of drag roads, and most important of all, perhaps, the public sentiment of scores of communities has been stirred to self-respecting hopeful ness and energy by this new gospel of "good roads without money." Eight years ago I was devoting almost my entire time to my farm, three miles north from the little town Maitland, Missouri. My in terest frequent travel over the road between my farm house and the villiage, and I always felt a keen resentment when bad roads made it it difficult or impossible to drive to towna state of things that was al together too frequent. A little investigation and exper ince demonstrated to me that this was by no means the result of in difference or inactivity on the part of our road commissioners. Then I reached the convicition that it was the fate of the farmer to spend $1500 to $3000 a mile for macadamized road or else travel in the mud in all periods of continued wet weather which is to say a very large propor tion of the year. This conviction is almost universal among farmers who have really wresteled with the road problem and know from experience its difficulies. However, this state of doubt and discouragement did not long con tinue, and I began to investigate and experiment in an irregular sort of a way. Acting under this per sistent Impulse to experiment, I one BEFORE AND AFTER. day hitched my team to a drag made of a frost-spoiled wooden pump stock and an old oak post, held parallel to each other by three pieces of fence board about three feet long. Smooth wire served in place of a chain, and a strip of plank laid between the post and the pump stock gave me a rough platform upon which to stand. The horses were attached at such a point of the wire as to give the drag a slant of about fourty-five degrees in the direction required to force the earth that it would gather from the side of the road up into the centre. We had just had a soaking rain and the earth was in a plastic condition. I had driven this drag but a few rods when I was fully aware that it was serving at least the initial purpose for which it was intendedthat of leveling down the the weel rut ard pushing the surplus dirt into the centre of the road. 3 1 At my neighbor's gate, toward town, I turned around and took the other side of the road back to my home, The result was simply as tonishihg. More rain fell upon this road, but it "ran off like water on a duck's back." From that time forward, after every rain or wet spell, I dragged the half-mile of the road covered by my original experi ment. At the end of three months the road was better than when it had been dragged for three weeks, and at the of three years it was immense ly improved over its condition at the end of the first years work. I studied the result of each step in my experiment and finally learned that three elements are required to make a perfect'earth road and that the lack of any one of them is fatal to the result. To be perfect an earth road must be at one and the same time oval hard and smooth. All of these indispensables are acquired by the use of the split-log drag in any soil that I have ever come in contact withand I have worked in the various kinds of clay soil, in the gumbo of the swampy lowlands and in the black mud of the praries. Observation of my experiment taught me that two weeks of rain would not put this bit of road in bad condition at a time when the high way at either end of it was impass able for a wagon. Of course, it was plain that the reason the road was not bad was that there was no mud in it. But why mua would not collect in it was not clear to me un til I was taught my lesson by the very humble means of a hog wallow. One*day I chanced to notice that water was standing in one of these wallows long after the ground all about it had become dry. Probably I had many times before observed this fact, but not until now had it ooeured to me to inquire into its cause. Examining the edges of the wallow, I was impressed with the fact that it was almost as hard as a piece of earthenware. Clearly this because the wallowing of the hogs had mixed or "puddled" the earth and water together, forming a kind of cement which dried into hard and practically waterproof surface. The mext important lesson in my understanding of the real elements of road-making was taught me by studiog what we farmers call "a spouty spot" in the side of a clay hill. All who live in a clay country know the unspeakable stickiness of one of these spouty places, and are familiar withweekfact the that, afte ten days or two of bright,r hot sunshin, you can take an axe and break from one of these spots a clod so hard that with it you can almost drive a ten-penny nail into a pine plank. Naturally, it occured to me that if this puddled clay soil would stay hard for three months when left in a rough condition, it would surely stay longer if moulded into a smooth roof, so that the water which fell upon it would easliy run ofl. This original half-mile of road was dragged steadily for four years before I had a single active recruit in my new crusade. At first my neighbors poked good natured fun at me probably because the thing was so new and so absurdly simple and, perhaps, also because I did the work without pay or any ex pectation of it. Road-making in the country, it may be well to explain, is not generally followed as a fash ionable philanthropy or a popular diversion. Continued on page 2.'"" Sfi^B THE RESTLESS SEA. Ont of the bright boys who road theal notes wants us to write something aboul the ocean, the wonderful waste of Waters of which he has read, but has never seen. He has found out that the sea covers a large part of the face of the earth and has a history all its own. The ocean is many sided, its moods mysterious, its power almost immdhaurable. One's first impression of it is that of its illimitable expanse, that sense of infinity of space which cornel to us as we gase at the stars in a bate black sky on a winter's night, a sedse that here is something which neither the changing seasons nor the lapse and wear and tear of time can ever affect, and with it all an over powering sense of the utter insignifi cance of man. It has a language of its own, kn incomparable music, giving as it is touched by the zephyr or the tem pest winds harmonies which run from the lullaby of a summer sea to the an gry diapason of storm swept waters.! Its restless bosom ever heaves even InI the calmest weather, the crested waves as they break on quiet shores telling of storms and great winds which long since died away, the tireless swell be ing the stored energy of the winds of all latitudes. The murmur of the sea is music to all land dwellers, whether It be the monotonous roll of breakers on a lee shore or the crash of moun-l tains of green water on beetling cliffs,) and one born to the music and moods' of the ocean is ever their slave, more so than is the Arab in love with the des-i ert or the hoodlum with the Blums of the great city. It possesses a wonder-' ful color schemeblue as the heavens1 of a June day when It smiles upon It, grim, -gray and gloomy when shrouded with cloud rack and tempest, green of richest emerald as fair winds fleck its surface with whltecaps, black as night when it shrinks from the impact of the typhoon or the cyclone It has, more over, a wonderful life of its own, all the myriad life of the great deepthe bird life which on tireless wings ever circles the seathe frigate bird, the al batross, Mother Carey's chickens and the uncounted millions of sea birds which live on it and in it and from it. And then the life of the water itself the uncanny monsters of the deep, the fish in endless type, some in such vast schools as to be unbelievable. Then the shelUtf^l^ ,Uwl LJ?A 4Ra variety, with the walrus, the seal ana their kind which are at home on both land and sea. Then there is the deep sea lifethe queer things which live in the ever dark and fathomless abyss of the deep sea. While the land is most prolific of life, it is not more so than the see. The harvest of the sea is as much a harvest as is the ingath ering of the crops of the land. Millions of money and vast armies Of men are associated with the fish horves*-the salmon of the Pacific, the cod of the Banks, the herring of the Nortb see, the seals of Newfoundland and Labra dor and Alaskan peninsula and the1 oysters and lobsters of the Atlantic coast For centuries the'doeanTep-' arated the peoples of the earth, formed the dividing lines between nations, be gat peculiar peoples and many tongues, but In these latter days man has mas tered it, and now the high seas have become the world's great highway of commerce and communication. Every, man and woman should see the ocean before they die, for not to have seen ItI In some of the phases referred to is to' have missed the greatest sight in the whole world. A "BROTHER TO THE OX." As compared with the wage received by his class in all other countries the wage of the American laborer is on al high plane. The most common unskilled1 laborersthe diggers of dirt, the shovel brigadeare nowhere being paid less than $1.75 per day, many of them working only eight hours dnd many getting $2. While a few of the things which such a man will have to buy are slightly higher in this country than in other countries, he still is able with such a wage to have better food, better clothing and a better home than his fellow workmen In any country onI earth, while his family Is In every wayI better cared for and educated. A Bo-l hemian not long from the fatherland has done a good many days' work for us. It Is always $1.75 for each day,' and yet this man tells us that he never' earned to exceed 40 cents for the same1 class of work In Bohemia. Here he1 has meat three times a day at one half the price in that country, his chil-j dren are having the benefit of the pub lic school, he lives In a comfortablei home and not a hovel, he Is constantly] adding to his savings In the bank. In-j tellectually and physically the men isi not very far removed himself from Markham's "brother to the ox," but the next generation will show a marked Improvement, and a bandied years from now some great man's ped igree will run up against this crodej ancestor who gladly and well did thej dirty work of life in the dawn of thei twentieth century for $1.75 per day. W B-po-d. to WhtrE. There is a girl in Hamburg, Ger many, who has trained a beautiful bird to come at her whistle and perch upon her hat She goes abroad with the bird roosting there, and the effect is described as very smart, to say th least Old Settler Dead. Halvor Skoglund, who keeps a farmers' stopping place east of the Great Northern depot, died Tuesday evening at 10 o'clock, of heart failure, aged, 58 years. In the morning he went to Tom Schey's place in Alma to work at thrashing, but in the afternoon he commenced to get ill and was brought back to town by his son Emil,| who also worked there. He grew worse and death finally came to relieve him. His health had not been very good for some months. Wife and four grown up children mourn his sudden departure. He came from Sweden to this county in 1882, andhas until a few years ago lived in Foldahl. The funeral will be held at 2 p. m. to-day. Killed in a Self-Feeder. John Holmvig was literally sliced into pieces in a self feeder in town of Reis, Polk county on Friday last. He was working around the mach ine when accidently his foot slipped and he fell head long into the self feeder and was mangled beyond recognition as a human being. The machine was immediately stopped and the scattered pieces of his body picked out of the feeder and cylinder. The whole interior of the seperator was spattered with blood, making a very sickening sight. Work was scopped for the day. Holmvig lived at Rindal and had a family. A High Class Newspaper. Thei'e is not a newspaper published in the United States that is so universally read and circulates so generally in its territory as does The Duluth Evening Herald Duluth and Northern Minnesota. Its correspondence and tele graphic reports from all cities and towns in^ Northern Minnesota, tdgefi^^rith its Ml Associated Press reports over its own leased wires, and its complete market page, make it the most desirable newspaper to subscribe tor in Minnesota. Send for a sample copy, or 25 cents for a month's trial subscription. Duluth Weekly Her ald, $1 per year, six months, 50 cents, three months, 25 cents. The Yoke! The Yoke! Rev. Ludyig Holmes, D, D., of the Swedish Lutheran Augustana Synod, who by the way is himself a poet and author of no mean ability, says of "THE YOKE," the story that is begun in the SHEAF last week: "The story as such is very cap tivating and retains an air or plaus ibility througout. Except BEN HUB, know no modern work that compares favorably with THE YOKE. It is beneficial in many respects and ought to be well received and ap preciated by all classes.'' Astray. One weight notify three-year-old black steer, about 1,000 lbs Please C. J. JOHNSON & SON. Warren, Minn. For Sale Cheap. A well matched pony team, new buggy, a fine jersey cow. Call or write to Rev. N. C. HANSON Stephen, Minn. a*.V**$*K* NUMBEft 40. THE VACATION HAS ENDED. The Warren Schools Commenced the Mental Grind on Mon day this Week. The Warren schools opened Mon day with all the teachers and a large number of pupils present, all eager to tackle the grave mental problems that will confront them during the year. Prof. Wm. Angus charge as superintendent and principal, Miss Clara D. Adams is the assistant principal, and Prof. W. B. Young is the science teacher in the high school. The grade teachers are as follows In the High School buildingEthel Graves, Eli za Ireland, Emma Langvick, Ber tha Angus, Marie Bauer, Minta Watkins, Myrtle Naylor, in the Washington buildingDorothy So mers, Jennie Wood, Anna Stearry. Obituary. Mrs. Lucinda Bates departed this life at her home four miles north west of Tweet post office Sept. 10, aged 37 years and four months. She was born in Mower county May 10,1868. June 9, 1894, she was married to Adelbert L. Bates, who with three children survives her. Mr. and Mrs. Bates moved to Marshall county in 1901 and settled in town of New Solum. About twelve years ago she united with the Methodist Epescopol church and died triumphant in the faith The funeral occurred from the home Monday, at 2 30 p. m., con ducted by Rev. Flesher, of Thief River Falls. The interment was in the Hegland cemetery. THRESHERMEN, ATTENTION! The SnEAF has printed a record book that will help you to keep the accounts of every job straight. Serves the purpose of a note. Copy for customer detached. Best thing out. Only 50 cents a book, 60 cents by mail. The Churches. M. E. Church. GEO. E. TINDALL, Pastor. The services next Sunday will be as follows Preaching at 10 30 a. m. The subject of the sermon will be "A Heavenly Ambition." Sunday school at 11.45 a. m. Epworth League at 7 p. m. Preaching at 8 p. m. Subject, "The Fool's Finale." Mission Church. O. J. LtTNDELL, PASTOEv Services Sunday at 1Q:30 a. m. and 8 pm. Sunday school at 12 a. m. Prayer meeting Thursday at 8 p. m. Service will be conducted by Rev. O. J. Lundell at Aug. West berg's in Vega at 3 p. m. next Sun day. Baking* Powder Not made by the trust. Food preparedPowdehwitBallin Calumet is pure and healthful and is free from Rochelle salts* lime, alum and ammonia. 59ft *-*f ,?v? te Trust Baking Powden sailfor45 or SOcants per ponnd and may be iden tified by this exorbitant pries. They area menace to pnbllc health, as food prepared from them eon* tains large quantities off Rochelle dangerous eathartie drag* I I v.