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St. Paul daily globe. [volume] (Saint Paul, Minn.) 1884-1896, March 15, 1896, Image 20

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And the Diplomats— His Renin rkn ble
Ability as a Worker — Mrs.
1596, by Frank G. Carpenter.)
WASHINGTON, March 13.— Our trou
bles with Spain will make Richard
Olney more and more prominent in
the minds of the American people. He
has been secretary of state for only a
few months, but his work has made
that department the most important
branch of the government. He stirred
up our patriotism in his letter to Lord
Salisbury as to Venezuela. By his ac
tion he brought the English to time,
and he may be called the father of
the fighting spirit which is now abroad
in the land. Within the space of three
months he has shown himself to be
the strongest element in Cleveland's
administration, and today upon him,'
to a large extent, rests the question as
to whether America shall have peace
or war. Within less than three months
he has jumped from comparative ob
scurity to international prominence,
and the situation at present is . such
that he may be a strong presidential
quantity' at the Democratic national
convention. .. . .y
And still, with all >. this, neither the
politicians nor the people know much
about Richard He was not per- .
sonally known to the people of Massa
chusetts before he was made attorney
general, and today the majority of the
statesmen of the Democratic - party,
have no close personal relations with,
him. He has never been a politician, r
and does not know what it is to play ■
the toady- and lick boots to get office."
He was, one of the biggest ; lawyers '• of
Massachusetts at the time of his '[ ap
pointment. He. had a practice largely
connected with railroads, which I am
told was worth at least $50,000 a year,
and, like most railroad lawyers, he was
to a great extent an autocrat in his
own office. He saw whom he pleased
and did as he pleased. He has carried
the same principle into his work here
at Washington, and congressmen and
senators have at times had to cool their
heels in his ante room before they
could get to see him.
But before I go farther as to Mr.
Olney, the secretary of state, let me
tell you something as to Mr. Olney,
the man. He is one of the most strik
ing figures in Washington. His face is
that of an Irishman, though his blood
is of Puritan blue. The pictures which
have been published do not do justice
to him. His face is strong and pug
nacious. It is Irish in every feature,
and though it is said that his ances
tors emigrated to this country from
England, they must have originally
come from the vicinity of Cork. The
first Olney settled at Salem, Mass. He
was a preacher and his name was
Thomas. He is said to have been the
founder of the Baptist church in Amer
ica. One of his sons was a colonel in
the Revolutionary war, and another
was a captain, who received a num
ber of bullet and bayonet wounds dur
ing the struggle, y Another 01ney-~
who, I think, belonged to -1 the same
family— was the author of the Olney
geographies. These were used in the
public schools of America for more
than thirty years. -.-•.They had, it is said,
a larger sale than any* other book out
side of Webster's Spelling Book. .They
ran through ninety-eight different.edi
tions, and millions of copies of them
were. sold. • .;.'*;- -
Secretary Olney's father was the
cashier of a bank Jn > Oxford, Mass.
Richard Olney, the secretary of state,
was his oldest child;. He was -born in
1835, and he is now' just 61 years of
age. He was educated at Brown uni
versity and the Harvard law school,
arid he began his study of law under
Judge Benjamin Franklin Thomas, one
of the most famous lawyers of Massa
chusetts. He soon showed his fitness
for the law, and it is. said that he has
made a fortune out of his. legal ability.
Secretary Olney has better physical
machinery than other, man in the cab
inet. He keeps himself: in perfect con
dition by exercise. His joints are well
: oiled' His blood is full of iron, his eyes
shineywith life, and he has the spring
iest step of all those who tramp Penn
sylvania avenue. There ; is. no public
man who goes to more dinners. There
is no man who has a .better digestion
and a greater physical activity. He is
the champion walker of the. adminis
tration. He takes from a three to a
five-mile walk every day. He surpasses,
in this respect, old John Qulncy Adams, 1
who, - when he was : president,- used to .
take a" ; trot ■ now . and •*- then out ".to * the ',
capitol and back. Secretary Olney
leaves the state, department at 4 o'clock
every, day, and he usually walks out
to the capitol, takes a turn around . the '
national library on the ; other "side, ; and
then goes to his home, not far from the
nue. This walk, all told, Is; about
nue. This wallk, • all told, 'is about
three miles in length, and the secretary
makes It In less than an hour. He
walks at the rate of about . four miles
an hour. He has a quick, springy step,
and when he comes" to a gutter, he, like
as not, goes over it with a jump. His
stride is greater than that of most men,
and only those who are good walkers
can be persuaded to attempt a pedes
trian jaunt with him. On Sundays dur
ing the summer he often walks out to
the president's country place, and you
may see him any morning at 8:30
o'clock starting from his home opposite
that of Mrs. Gen: Sheridan's on Rhode
Island avenue to walk down to the
state department. He uses other exer
cises outside of walking to keep him
self in trim. He has, I am told,. a pair
of pulley weights in his bed room, and
he takes a turn at these night and
morning. He has a punching bag also,
and the agility with which he jumps
about this is said to be surpassed only
by the noted James Corbett.
Some people think that the secretary
of state is snobbish. I don't believe
it. He Is full of plain, practical com
mon sense, but not having been
brought up in the school of politics, he
does not think it necessary to lick his
lips and say sweet things whenever
a politician comes in sight. He is, in
deed, decidedly independent. This Is
to be seen n his dress as well as in his
actions. The dress of the average sec
retary of state has been a long Prince
Albert coat, dark pantaloons and a
high silk hat. Secretary Olney's favor
ite suit is of a business cut. He wears
a sack coat, and I have seen him
going down Pennsylvania avenue when
the thermometer was not far from zero
without an overcoat. He wears an
overcoat only in the coldest and storm
iest weather. He has, like as not, his
hands in his pockets as he walks, arid
his hat is of a soft felt. He puts on
the Prince Albert coat, or the double
breasted frock, only on diplomatic days
when he receives. his callers. On other
days he is dressed like the most ordi
nary busmess^anari,V;aridiheircoul^\jake
a bicycle ride- Without changing'-bis
clothes. /.y • " -fS&T :-■"••.• y "^y^V ■ ' \. \ \ . '. '
';..';, ..." : . FOND OF ' TENNIS. \''-\'L-'
The secretary believes . working
while .he works, and In playing while
he plays. He also evidently believes
that all work and no play makes Jack
a dull boy. Hence his walks; hence
also his tennis games during the sum
• mer. At half past 4 o'clock every aft
*. ernoon ; from April 'to ' October Secretary
Olney has a game of tennis. He leaves
the department, goes to' : his : home and
puts on a tennis suit of white flannel.
He then takes his racquet and walks to
a tennis ground on Massachusetts aye
■ nue, situated on a little vacant lot right
next to where Mrs. Grant lives, and
there plays tennis until dark. Several
other statesmen play with him, and
they hop about between the nets with
as much agility as a lot of school boys.
After the secretary has .finished his
tennis in the summer, and his walk
in the winter, he goes home, -has his
bath, and dresses for dinner. He puts
on a swallow-tail coat at tuch times,
and appears at the table in full evening
dress. He has to do this in most cases,
at least, for during the winter he is in
vited out to dinner nearly every night,
and his position as secretary of Ltate
keeps him busy in giving and returning
such invitations.
And here, by the way, is one feature
of our social festivities ■ which many of
the good church people at Washington
do not like. It is .the Sunday evening
dinner, which is common among many
of the diplomats, and, which, I regret
to say, *Is not unknown to Secretary
Olney. He frequently gives dinners of
a Sunday evening, and at such times
has many of his friends at his table.
Washington with all Its sin has- a
strong religious element. One of the
leading pastors preached against these
dinners not long ago, and it will not be
strange if an anti-Sunday dinner so
ciety should be formed. '..vi--
Secretary Olney is, I am told, the
first man at the state department . in
the morning. He is one of the hardest
workers of the present -' cabinet. He
rises at 6 o'clock and reads the paper
before breakfast. He has his break
fast at 7:30, and by 8:30 he is ready to
start to the office. He reaches the de
partment at 8:45, and very often Olney
himself and his private secretary, Mr
Blandford, are the only men there at
that time. The .-average secretary of
state does not appear before I*o, and he
usually takes at least two hours for
lunch. James G. Blame: seldom spent
more than a couple of hours a day at
the department. He had - a telephone
connection with his house, and his
butler, could never tell you whether
Blame was at the house . or the state
department until he had gone in to
Mr. Blame and asked j him where he
was. if Blame didn't wan? THee you
he was always at the state department
„ Mr : Olney begins his work at m f3£
He does not sit at the large desk in
the middle of the office. He has a little
roller-top desk away off in one Corner"
of the room. It is situated just in front
of the window, and. Olney is so shut off
that you can approach , him only from
one side. There is one chair. near: this
desk, and the others who wish to see
him must either.take a seat at the other
side of the room, or, what is more prob
able,* wait: in the ante-room until he is
ready tto receive them. . * -*> - '.•--
The first thing the secretary does
upon reaching the department is to go
through his mail. The . letters which
• -;•:••■- -■-: •■-^', -^y ■--.-• ■,_■ ■.-'-■■■ -
come . to '•• the > secretary, of state ' every
day would fill a number of bushel bas
kets. The mail, however.is sifted again
and again before it is brought t*» the
secretary. : Every letter which can "be
attended to without his ; advice ;is weed
ed out, ; and only the Important 1 letters
are left. Mr. Olney has learned from
his work as* a lawyer to. leave details
to others and to save himself where he
can. He first takes, up his; personal
mail and goes through it.- He then ap
plies ' himself to the letters of the de
partment. He takes up a letter, rapidly
glances through it, and then dictates
his reply. He dictates quickly, seldom
stopping for a word, and seldom chang
ing a sentence after it has been dictat
ed. This work goes on until about 10
o'clock.' ' At -tliis ('me he begins to re
ceive his. callers. : On his busy days he
sees only those who have something of
importance to discuss with him. He
takes one man at a time, and finishes
up with him before he goes to the next. -
He appreciates the value of his time,
and. he. gets to the point quickly. If a
man does not say what his businesses'
he asks him." He decides most matters
off-hand, and as a rule, knows his own
hand. • •'.**> * v vy
- After having finished with his callers
his mail is brought in to him to sign.
He is very careful as to his part of his
work. He dictates the letters very
rapidly, but he signs them very slowly.
He reads over every letter, word for
word, before he signs \ it, and in case
there is a doubt as to policy or meaning"
he lays the letter aside or changes it.
At 12:30 his Boston mail comes in. He
looks over this, and by 1 o'clock is
ready to leave for luncheon. He drives
home in the department carriage, and
is gone about three-quarters of an
hour. He - eats moderately, drinks but
little, an does not chew or smoke. After
he is through with his lunch he goes
back to the . department and works
steadily until 4, when he leaves for his
walk or his tennis.
I have said that the secretary dic
tates answers to all of his letters. It
is interesting to know how he prepares
his state papers. When he has any
thing very important to write, he does
not use a stenographer. He first takes
a pencil and pad, and writes out care
fully just what he wants to say, and
then hands the manuscript over to his
typewriter to be copied. He revises
carefully, and when the paper is com
pleted it represents his exact thought.
All of the important state department
papers which have been sent out during
his administration,- have been whitten
by him. He wrote all of the Bayard
instructions except the last paragraph.
This was written by President Cleve
I called upon Secretary Olney some
time ago at the state department. He
talked with me for some time, but
would not permit me to quote him in
the newspapers. I could see, how
ever, that he has a number of new
ideas as to our diplomatic service, and
that he is a big enough man not to
be twisted around the fingers of Ju
lian Pauncefote, the Briish minister, or
any of the other wily diplomats of
Washington. He is, I judge, a man
with a strong backbone. He has opin
ions of his own, and is not afraid to act
upon them. ' He comes out in striking
contrast with Secretary Bayard, who
had no backbone at all, and who was,
I believe, the weakest man who ever
held a portfolio of state. Bayard was
always an English trimmer. When he
was secretary of state he knuckled
down to the English, and he was only
happy when he was giving a luncheon
to some of the Englishmen who now
and then come to the capital. # .
Secretary Olney has a summer home
not far from Gray Gables, where Cleve
land has been spending his summer
vacations, and it was probably through
the acquaintance there formed that
the president chose him as attorney
general. I am told that Olney took
the place thinking that his work* would
be, to a large extent, judicial in "its
nature. He found it was much more
political than anything else. It is said
that he was much disgusted with it,
and that he was glad to leave it for
the secretaryship of state. While he
was attorney general Cleveland ad
vised him as to state matters, and the
two are very '.' close to one another
upon all matters relating to the ad
ministration. Olney is made of dif
ferent stuff from the average cabinet 1
minister that Cleveland has had. Dur
ing his last administration the differ
ent secretaries were only clerks to tli2
president, and this is, to a large ex
tent the case today, with the exception
of Secretary Olney. Olney has an opin
ion of his own on. every subject. He
always has a reason for his opinion,"
and Cleveland, obstinate as he Is on
most matters, is always amenable to
reason. As to whether Cleveland really
wants a third term or not 1 1 am not
able to say. As to whether he wants
Olney to be president I do not know,
but it is very certain that Olney would
make a better presidential candidate i
than any other man in the cabinet. \
- Secretary Olney lives here at Wash
ington In a house on the corner of Sev
enteenth and Rhode Island avenue.
His house is within two blocks of the
British legation, within a stone's throw
of the statue of Gen. Scott and about
six blocks from the White house. It !
is a cream-colored brick of three stor
ies, and contains in the neighborhood
of twenty rooms. His wife presides
over the establishment, and one of
his daughters, -Mrs.* Minot, is with
him. He has, I. believe, a second
daughter, who is married to a physi
cian and who lives in Germany* Mrs.
Olney comes of an ancestry quite as
noted as that of the secretary. She
is a daughter of the Judge Thomas,
with, whom Mr. Olney studied law.
While the future secretary was court
ing Blackstone he courted* Miss Thom
as as well, and the result of • his court
ship was marriage. The Thomases
came over to this country from En
gland at a - very early date. - Mrs.
Olney's great-great-grandfather was
Isaiah Thomas, one of the founders of
the Massachusetts Spy. . This paper
began its publication in 1770. It was a
triweekly, and : was very • strongly
anti-British. The Tories tried to break
it up, and Mrs. Olney's great-great
grandfather had to flee a number of
times .with his type and , machinery in
order to save it. This man Thomas
was s with .. Paul -Revere *on . that j famous '
ride, when he carried the news of the
crossing of | the Charles river by the '
British * troops ;to the inhabitants of
the interior, towns, y It was the ride
celebrated by , Longfellow in that l
poem which begins as follows:
Listen, my children, and you shall hear
i Of the midnight ride of Paul Revere, .'
On the eighteenth of April, in seventy-five;
Hardly a man is now alive
Who remembers that day and year.
He said to his friend, "If the British march
.By. land or sea from the town tonight.
Hang that lantern' aloft in the belfry arch
Of the North Church Tower as a signal light-
One, if by land, and two, if by sea;
And I on the opposite shore will be,
Ready to ride and spread the alarm
Through every Middlesex village and farm ■■".
For the country folk to be up and to arm." •
Well, Mrs. Olney's great-great-grand
father was .with Paul Revere when
he took the ride, and it was in his
"Massachusetts'." Spy," :on the 3d of
the next : month, ; that he printed the
motto: "•■ ' . : . :'
"Americans, liberty or death! Join
or die." '- ...'"... ". -
Now, . 120 years later, the great-great
granddaughter eof this man -is : wife : of
the secretary "of state who is causing'
England ; more trouble ■; than any secre
tary we have had for the past two
generations. It is queer, is it not, how,
to ! a ; certain extent, history repeats
itself ? ; —Frank G." Carpenter. ,' ■
A . Thing: of Beauty
Is the • new *. folder - just .' issued by the
"Soo ; Line,"; describing ; the Alaska • gold
fields. Write or call for a copy, at "Soo
Line" Ticket Office, 398 Robert street.
138% -■■-■-■. y : r- r.
| fin flftefflooo Willi Injurants, S
mnr mmmsm mermg jTgreiireg ffffrigßrreir . <grariißHg -^^
Special ; Corfespondence; of the Globe.
NEW YORK, _ March 11.— The tide is
ebbing and down, through the Narrows
the waters of the up=;r bay are pouring.
• The ocean •is coming to its own again.
Blocks of ice as big -as the top of a
Harlem shanty are rolling awkwardly
along, jostling: each; p^her and gouging
out each other's. Wdes. A strong, sharp
cold wind is blov^ng-V off shore, chasing
the frozen blocks^faster and faster out
to . sea, . and making a nasty bluff In
the £ aces of incoming skippers. A big
.ocean liner is coming, up. The captain
of the revenue cutter.dells me she is an
Englishman. I don't ask him how : he
can tell. Anyway, sh**; has had a hard
trip across, for "as she comes nearer
and nearer we can see : her guards
wrapped in Ice, the smokestacks white
with the salt spray, the "davits on the
port quarter -broken"' and the boats
swept away, and sheets of ice in her
rigging. " ;" „ . .:'
Along the rails are hundreds of peo
pie, some of whom are looking-for the
first time on the shores of America.
These latter are the people whom I am
after. It takes but a moment or 'two
when I run up the ship's side on the
ladder with the federal officers, those;
whose duty is to prevent smuggling
and those who are to inspect trie; char
acter of the immigrants, the state offi
. cer who first boards the ship having
just given her' a clean bill of health.
I leave the federal officers and go
alone among the immigrants. It's as
much as one's life is worth. The poor
things look as woebegone as a starved
camel. The wind comes cold and
heartless, and the question comes up to
them whether, after all, they had not
better have stayed at home. They are
dirtier than a Welch miner," and they
are -wearing the same clothes through
out that they have slept in for a year
last past You find yourself pushed and
run into, and as you slip over the deck
you feel as if you were in the. middle
of a herd of wild cattle whom a word
may stampede | Finally .we get to the
dock, and there we are, bag and bag
gage, .hustled into another boat, and
presently, with a lost-to-the-w-orld look
on every face, we steam over to Ellis
island, in the noise of the tongues of
the world. You have recognized Ger
man, Italian, French, and you think
you know a Pole, a Turk, a Scandi
navian when you see one. There are
others, but they don't mean anything
to you except you think you know they
are not Chinese or Esquimaux. And
these hundreds of your fellow creatures
want to become your fellow citizens,
Uncle Sam's adopted children! Shades
of Baxter street! ; y\yy:. . };?->:'
When w*e get to Ellis island we are
hallooed to by some one who wears a
cap with an eagle and a gold band on
it, so we scramble out with bags and
bundles and fumigated - stuff and held
in leash, as It were, we get led to the
enormous waiting room on the second
floor of the Ellis Island Immigration
station building. Here I became inten
tionally separated from my father,
brothers and sisters, and under the
charge of an inspector, I watch such
things as prove interesting. - """'
I learn that the- new smell in the air
is due to the disinfectant with which
the floors are ; scrubbed. rt I see that on
this immense floor space there are
many small divisions, one which con
tains a telegraph office for the use.: of
immigrants, . a branch of: the United
States' postofflce," a series of railroad
ticket offices; another is a carefully
guarded cage in "Which' are kept those
poor. devils who haVe | been unable to
pass the examination of J the federal
officers, . either : through disease, pover
ty, crime or violation ; of: the contract
labor law. Looking ; out Of one of the
windows facing north I see the sep
arate hospitals for men and women for
other than contagious diseases, 11 which
are sent -to Brothers island, r further
down in the lower bay.
After a while the immigrants get di
vided into groups of thirty or less, ac
cording to the sheets of paper on which
their histories are written by the mas
ters, of the ships which brought them
to America, and each group is'- placed
in a compartment' by itself. Each indi
vidual is given a card bearing his num
ber on the sheet, and one by one each
is cross-examined as to the truth of the
statements on the master's manifest.
Each is examined as. to the money he
or she has, and if it seems from the
amount of money possessed that he or
she will likely become a charge on
charity, back they go to the country
whence they came, and at the expense
of the steamship company which
brought them; then \ their moral char
acter is r inquired into, and if it is as
certained that they are Sicilian toughs,
or otherwise dangerous to the welfare
of the community, back they go. And I
If, for instance," some unmarried woman
about to ' become a mother, though ■
with .money -in her pocket, ; is among
the newcomers, she; is not allowed to
land. And so with those who were hir
ed abroad to come here to labor. They
were a sorry looking lot I saw held and
guarded waiting for the i steamers jto
carry them away, from the promised
land whose streams of watered milk
and glucosed honey they fancied they:
could see. However sorry I felt for them.
I was glad they. were' riot to be adopted,
for -they were mostly moth-eaten, hy
drophobic, germ-bearing * degenerates,
half-witted or of 3 promising talents in
the immoral class. Still it was hard
luck to get nipped so near the close of
the game. ,->: : xh-iS- - " .^
Another large space was devoted to
those who were waiting for friends to
come to sign a bond and become surety
for their not becoming a charge on
the 5 town . they wished .to I settle in ;
children waiting for., their parents to
come and take them, or : parents wait
ing " for their children; or " those hav
ing no money to pay railroad fare
waiting for promised funds; a young
woman 1 waiting, for her * husband and
for * whom ten alleged husbands had
already appeared. r
y Most of the newly arrived knew
where they wanted to- go, and had
railroad tickets •to their ; destination or
money ito buy them. All of these with
in twenty-four hours were; placed on
a barge under care of ■■ accredited
agents of . the company chosen - and
taken directly to its station. This is
so delightfully different . from the old
Castle Garden- days when immigrants
having passed the flimsy governmental
inspection were turned . loose * in ; the
Battery park, where .a', shoal of \ ra
pacious sharks were waiting for map,
woman and child, and lucky was the
-immigrant who escaped ; their maw.
Now if an immigrant goes • ashore *to
a 'hotel the hotel *-* keeper, . subject -to
loss of his license,- must keep an eye
on his guest \ and report i. to .the immi
gration bureau V from time J . to }. time. In
fact, the bureau's records show the
movements 7 of . every . immigrant '[ from
the time :of leaving its station to that .
of permanent -location.-. • - :
I watched ; a lot of \ immigrants board
a barge *on their way to various rail
way : stations from ;" the * island. rX Most
"of ': them " were : going >to the ; coal mines
of • Pennsylvania, and were Poles. They
' were a sturdy looking . lot : of men and
; women, the latter ' wearing high boots
like the men: I There were no ; children
here, they having jail been left jat home
- with •■<■ grandparents ..ipr. friends till the
workers Zof r the si -family had **.- made a y
home ■-' for -:; them -^oiH this ;•; side '. of ; the
ocean. g Others were going jto ; farms in .
the Northwest, ,sss,, were Swedes or
Norwegians. . : Trifyyjiad '.: all i'- come :to
work,' and would in all probability add
to the strength/of ; the country. They
were in i marked contrast to the : feeble
frames and sallow faces of the Italians
and Polish Jews. '-
Then.after ; passing through the med
ical department, where the immigrants
undergo • a superficial but sufficiently
rigid physical examination, I went
for an Interview ...with* Commissioner
Dr. Senner, who left an editor's desk
to assume his present position. Under
him system reigns, and every depart
ment is as open to inspection as a new
book, while he himself, like . the thor
ough, intelligent, ; painstaking official
that he is, is full of statistics and in
formation connected with his business
in hand. ;■;..'
"Commissioner," I said, "to what do
you attribute the falling off of immi
gration during the last few years, from
623,384 in '92; 502,918 in '93 to 314,467 in
'94 and 279,948 in '95?"
"To decrease" in our" prosperity most
ly. But the tide is changing and Im
migration is growing larger and larger
with a better class of people on the
whole. Besides this, we have become
much more strict in our examination of
immigration, and owing to this the
steamship companies, owing' to . their
fear of being obliged to carry back at
their own expense the people we re
ject, are much more careful and will
not take as a steerage passenger every
one who can scrape together enough
money to pay for passage; and then
foreign governments have instituted a
sort of quarantine system, which holds
others from coming. But the number
of immigrants thiS year will be greater
than last."
t„^ d lt is a prett fair test of re
turning prosperity this increase in im
migration After panics come and our
foweTeTwl ° rld 'iS Paralyzed with
raH?oad *, gr&at enterprises like
railroad . building stopped and every
body economizing, down go the
LZefime!, ?£ Ures ' someUmes^lowly!
sometimes with a jump. This little
table seems to point this fairly, well
Tear of panic . 1837 ■ Immis r^g3
Year of panic..;.........!? "' ' .Sis
Year of panic.....:.;..;. S 2:88
Year <>< pan*. -SI StS
thM e _^SfH^ wa^ lower ' ta -SJit
tv l^ ce Q PaniC ,° f *s 1890 was s ° lowe r result
than any of the previous ones, for it
v«r. o« felt *? Emigration till two
ears afterward, when from an immi
gration of 623,084, at the end of the
fiscal year ending June 30, 1892 it de
clined to 279,948,. June 30 1895 The
KT° wn iffS ' , the Mc Kinley 'in 1890, and
£Ls_ !F 11 * n - 1894 cannot be said to
have entered very largely into the
causes restricting immigration, for it
is well known that panics occur the
same years in free-trade, as well as
high-protective countries . •
fnS=m^ S 1 show further, a number of
facts little known, but very, interesting.
iS« Cc the « a le of Watrloo" (1815 to
S L Say / Mulha »- fewer than 27,
--000,000 of people in Europe have left
their homes, broken up family ties and
sought their future in new lands Of
this total England, Ireland and Scot
land lost 9,BGo,ooo,Germany 5,670,000, and
Italy 3,580,000, and ; the United States
gained 14,963,000. Of this total gained
to the United state s might be added at
*•& nAn ?' 000 ' since 1888 ' adding about
18,000,000 to our population by immigra
tion since 1815, the immigration after
the Revolution to 1815 being about'loo.
--000. Of this 18,000,00 about 50 per cent
were men, and if Mulhall's figures be
correct, each one of these men brought
with him about $50, so that the 9,000,000
men enriched the country in cash by
some $450,000,000. Besides this it is es
timated that in the United States the
value of immigration, is most appar
ent, and this is given as an example:
A group of 200 persons settled in 1858
on the territory now known as the state
of Colorado, and In 1880 there were 1,120
miles of railway, 14 newspapers, 190,000
inhabitants, real and personal proper
ty valued at $45,000,000, agricultural
products worth $35,000,000 • per annum;
while in 1887 the value of the property
in Colorado had risen to $135,000,000. In
Australia is is found that each immi
grant, big and little, increases the rev
enue by $20 yearly." .;.
The United States census report
for 1880 showed an increase of wealth
over 1850 of $37,965,000,000, to which the
Immigrants are supposed to have con
tributed $4,745,000,000." . And'of all the
Immigrants .who * have come to us, the
Germans furnish more of the . educated,
the Irish and Italians the least, the
Italians j and Germans the most farm
laborers, the Swedes and Irish the most
servants. -. . ■..: — Featherstone.
Lang's Mbl Cf Q. 75
waica.. J)I jjf^
A^S'^' : 'M •^*JS-_s. karat solid
/*J. : . WXjWttlßßfiS&mmm. Gold Hlint
jißß ' V; -** *y HKHc_H_v ,ng Casts,
ffl/-"' s*yy.y *v : - • ' - S_^ handsome
s-pM^s^Ss-Ba S^ls-feCfflim ly engrav'il,
&**&(&&*] 9NBp&n -■ witn .1° W
fk^ymW^TS^mSml ttfikZWH B-s eled Elgin
E« ■sMWiltt^S -ssffiJssMP " or Waltham
iaffl^B^Btf^vWßsW stem- wind.
ftw^Aw mWmx^wSavmmW K"* r: inteed
V^flPiTSTi ¥ ffi -T-kftrjfls-F accurate
BS^JJWB-B-wßSaljy 'I'uo !*«•!>
- WW cr '
.fhrri-S llffiwwF^' Send u»
your mall
A IX CI 11 All Whole-ale end Retail
■ Hi jlPlUnl, Jewelry Hou «,a».l'»ul
: .vy.-> y tack.
___ -' ■ ■ - '"-v"" '^'~" fc ™^sgfr***---y*M3BL?
Tbe Peters Expose iv the Relcbstas
Hun Already Had a Serious
Effect, yy .:
BERLIN. March 14.— A1l the sur
roundings of the visit of Count Golu
chowski, the Austrian minister for for
eign affairs, to this city, testified to
its significance. ' Emperor William per
sonally showed him the greatest con
sideration and closest attention, of
which the bestowal upon the count of a
decoration, the diamond-studded cross
of the Red Eagle, was ony one proof.
Emperor William conversed with the
Austrian 'minister for about an hour
and a .half in private, and. everybody
understands that the- dreibund was the
main subject of their conversation.
There is no doubt that the Italian crisis
was also discussed, and a number of
important dispatches were exchanged
between Berlin and Rome during the
stay of Count Goluchowski in this city.
The count of course refused \to be
interviewed during his stay, but it is
learned upon reliable authority that
the main objects of his. visit were at- j
tamed and that in view of the weak
ening of Italy the Austrian-German un
derstanding has been widened so as to
embrace armed resistance from Austria
in the event of a French or Russian
attack upon Germany. Italy's share in
such an event will be a passive one.
Count Goluchowski has received
promises that Germany will in the fut
ure adopt a more friendly attitude to
wards Great Britain, whose entente
with the dreibund Austria regards as
an important factor in the situation.
There has been no formal written ex
pression of this readjustment of the
alliance and none will be made.
The details of Emperor William's
Mediterranean trip are still kept secret,"
but it is understood that he will join
the imperial yacht Hohenzollern at
Genoa, where his majesTy may meet
the emperor of Austria and King Hum
bert. Emperor William will then make
several .trips accompanied by the em
press, and the Hoheneollern will ' re
turn to Kiel about the middle of May
in order to take his majesty north
again during the summer.
Germany throughout the week has
been vfsited by snow storms and heavy
rains, and as a result there are floods
almost everywhere. There . is much
snow in the Northeast and center parts
of the country, and telegraphic and
telephonic communication has been fre
quently interrupted. -
The Alastian diet has voted the sum
of $100,000 for the relief of the suf
ferers from the floods in that province,
and the diets of Baden and Wurtem
burg have done the same for the relief,
of the distress in their provinces. Thir
teen people were drowned near Basyle,
Switzerland, and several others were
drowned at Speyer, on the Rhine, which
river, with the Main, Necker and Mo
selle, has overflowed. A bridge was
swept away at Freiburg, Baden, drown
ing nine persons. The hereditary grand
duke of Baden was- in danger of drown
ing^'y^'r ;>...., qi) v £*»«.,r. \ .-■ • :y.v : ,:
At the request of the state depart-
ment at Washington the United States
embassy here has formally invited all
the German universities to \ send dele- '
gates to the Princeton celebrations in
October. Some of ; them, including the
University of Goettingen, v nave accept
ed. ' ' The universities of Freiburg, Ros
tock and Erlangen have declined.
. .Itl is stated that, a Roentgen's rays
experiment ; with Emperor William's
arm- has ; revealed the nature of the
malformation. The photograph taken
is said tto : have been submitted to emi
nent surgeons who are reported to
have expressed the belief that a simple
operation will restore the partial, if
,not complete use of the arm and hand.
-y, The - Peters exposure in the Reich
stag, > resulting; yfrbm • the charges
: brought,; against . they former imperial
commissioner in Africa by Heir Bebel
has had a great adverse effect upon the
colonial ; extension agitation;- Dr Pet
ers is the head of the colonial 'party ;
and one of the leaders "of the. agitation
for a large Increase In the strength of
the German navy. : A leader of the cen
trists has ; already announced that the
changes ..will considerably modify the
attitude of. that party towards I the col
onial policy of the government.
"1 '■'.'
Ludlow's £4 and $5 Ladies
Fine Kid Boots, $2.48. \
Ludlow's $3. 50 Ladies' Kid'
Boots, $1.98.
Ludlow's $4 Ladies' Finest
Ankle Boots, $2.75. (No
need of changing buttons on
Ladies' $5.00 Street Boots,
new style, $3.80.
Misses' $2.00 and $2. 50 Kid
Patent Spring Heel Boots,
Misses' School Shoes/
■sr. ' . r-i ■» 'si r~n . I
.Misses' School Shoes, sizes
11 to 2, 98c.
Children's $1.50 FineHand-*
Turned Boots, $1.00.
Children's Shoes, 50c.
Big sale of Small Oxford 4
Ties. $4.00 grade for $2;
$3.00 grade, $1.50; *2.00
quality, $1.00; some more
for 50c. Sizes Ito 2£.
Lamb's Wool Soles, sc.
Bicycle Leggins and Over- .
H-HH Shoe Company, .
and 388 W aba-ba Street.
Real Estate and Loan
No. 216 Manhattan Building.
Northwestern National
Principal Office: Milwaukee, Wis.
CASH CAPITAL, - - $600,000
"■ — — — ' . ' '•-..
--y .I. ASSETS. ...''. ''' ; *
Loans secured by Mortgages on
Real Estate ....;...... $773,856.67
Interest due on said Mortgage
Loans ........ .'.......':... 6,976.02
Market value of Bonds and Stocks 938,025.00
Cash on hand and In Bank 144,315.81 -
Premiums in course of collection. 91,020.18
All other assets ' . 2,658.33 •
Total admitted a55et5.....;... $1,956,852.01
11. LIABILITIES. .'-"'.
Capital Stock paid up......'....;.. $600,000.00
Unpaid losses . .......:.... ..•..;•.. 53,595.10
Reserve for reinsurance, ordinary
-policies .*' 770,913.45
Other liabilities ......;..-.......... 27,661.04
'■-■"*.'-■ •
Total liabilities, ' including
'-::. y Capital .......... ........ $1,452,169.59
Net Surplus ....'............" .'. $504,682.43
' 111. INCOME IN 1895.
Net cash actually received for *
premiums..... ...;.;....... 769,395.40
Received from interest and divi- *
dends ...... „..;.,. 88,700.13
Total income '..'..........'* $858,095
Excess of income over expendi
tures ......... . *, ; 114,377.70 ~
Net amount paid for 1055e5........ $350 244 °1
Paid dividends v- 72,000.00
Commissions and Brokerage ... 174,111 21
Salaries of officers and employes.. .84055 83
Taxes '....-.... .......... : 16 947 02
All other disbursements 46,359.50
Total disbursements........... $743,717.82
Fire risks written in '1893.\.....V. $74,056,309 00
Premiums received thereon % 907,986.06
Total risks in force Dec. . 31, ' * "
1895.... .... .............. -...5128,755,575.00 •/..
Total : premiums received from ~
commencement to date.........*. $12,186,249.14
Total losses paid from commence- 1 ■- '■■.'..
ment to date 6,375.811.80
Excess of ;. premiums over
y.-y losses .......:v..;.;.;;.;.... $5,810,437.34. -
Fire- . - ' .
Risks written ... ..;: $2,123,914.00
Premiums received -...:........;.. .27,885.98
Losses Paid— ! ■ • . : ;
Fire ....;.....• ..............;..... $23,637:50
'•'-• Losses Incurred— '. '.'- '-■' -:<
Fir .'.......;........ i.V.y.'.T^.V.r '-' $24,826.24 >
• y -f. .; . , .■,,.- St . Paul, Jan. 22, 1896. '
- I, the undersigned Insurance Commissioner
of the -State of. Minnesota, do hereby- certify "
that : the Northwestern '■■ : National :*■ Insurance
Company, above , named, ■• has complied - with
the laws ; of this State relating to insurance,
and is now fully empowered, through its au
thorized: ae-»nts, to transact its appropriate "
business of F're Insurance ln this State for th» ■'.'.'■
voir ending January 31st. 1897. : -v ->•" •: ■■ *—j :****>*■' '*• -.
Insurance Commissioner. '.:

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