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THE DfflLY- GLOBE 'is published every day AT NEWSPAPER ROW, COR. FOURTH AXD MINNESOTA STS. SUBSCRIPTION RATES, Payable Jn Advance. Dnlly nnii Sunday, Per Month J>O Dally and Sunday, Slsc Mo-ntlis ?2.75 Dally und Sunday, One Year - $3.00 Daily Only, Per Blonth « 40 Dally Only, Six Month* $2.35 Dally Only, One Year $4.00 Sunday Only, One Year ----- ?I.E>O Weekly, One Yenr fI.OO Address all communications and make all remittances payrble to THe GLOBE CO., St. Paul. Minn. Complete Hies of the Globe always kept on hand for reference. TODAY'S WEATHER. WASHINGTON, Dec. 19.— Forecast for Mon day: Minnesota— Fair, followed by snow; ■warmer; southerly winds. Wisconsin— Snow; warmer; light to fresh east to southeast winds. North and South Dakota— Snow; preceded by fair in eastern portions; warmer; southerly ■winds. lowa— Snow; warmer; variable winds. Montana— Local snows; warmer; south to southeast winds. GENERAL OBSERVATION'S. T'nitod States Department of Agriculture, Weather Bureau, Washington, Dec. 19, G:4S p. m. Local Time, 8 p. m. 75th Meridian Time.— Observations taken at the same mo ment of time at all stations. TEMPERATURES. " Place. Tern. I Swift Current .... 6 St. Paul 14lQu'Appelle —4 Duluth SJMinnedosa —10 Huron 10 Winnipeg —6 Bismarck 4 — Williston G Buffalo 10-18. Havre 2] Boston 16-24 Helena 18j Cheyenne 8-20 Edmonton 28 Chicago 24-24 Battleford 0 Cincinnati 32-32 Prince Albert .. ..—lO Montreal .. . .. 4-6 Calgary 20 New Orleans .. ..SG-74 Medicine Hat .. .. 10 Xew York 22-28 Place. Tem.'Pittsburg 24-.8 DAILY MEAN'S. Barometer, 30.44; mean temperature, 4; rel ative humidity, SG; wind at 8 p. m., south; •weather, cloudy; maximum temperature, 14; minimum temperature, — 6; dally range, 20; amount of precipitation (melted snow) In last twenty-four hours, 01. —P. F. Lyons, Observer. STILL RESISTING I'ItOGRESS. There has always existed In society an element that opposed Improvement It has left Its records all along the line of history. It exists today dimin ished in numbers and Influence. It op poses progress in all its fields, material, eclentific, theological, partly because Its indolent comfort is disturbed; part ly because material interests are im paired; mostly because of mental tor pidity. English weavers smashed the spinning machines; Galileo was forced by the Inquisition to disavow the Co -1 t rnican theory, and within our own times ["he storm of fury that Darwin's th ii.. cf i voli ; :<:;i mused is not whol ly spent. So II . not surprising that there y t remain men and women who denounce with bitterness as "fads" the progress that educational methods have i:,ade in harmony with the ad vance in every other field. Whenever hard times make every one study household economies, these old fogies come to the surface and attract the ear with their lamentations for the good old days of the three Rs and the decadence of our modern schools. Minneapolis is just now furnishing these antiquarians with an opportu nity, and they are utilizing it. The Tribune is their organ and their vent. It quotes an lowa paper's doleful plaint of the "fads," and applauds it. It "is the tone now assumed by the most en lightened exchanges that reach this of fice from all over the country," it says; all "enlightened exchanges" being those holding its own antiquated no tions and prejudices. If it were asked to specify these "fads," it would an swer that "their name Is legion," but It names "manual training, cooking, Bewing, modern languages, all the dead languages except Latin, and a vast emattering of miscellaneous Informa tion embraced under the name of na ture study." It is not that the Trib une objects to education, but to what modern educators esteem education to be. This attitude, where it is not duo to a sensitive pocket nerve, or to a Btolid conservatism that believes that all good things were with the fathers and that the race is steadily degener ating, is due to a failure to keep that touch with progress in educational methods that has been kept unavoid ably with the progress made in other fields. We doubt, for Instance, if the Tribune would have the Mergenthaler dismissed, or the electric motor demol ished, or the germ theory discarded, or the tallow candle reinstated, or the sewerage system destroyed, or the roll er mill sent to the rear and the wind mill and burr stones restored. It ac cepts them because it has kept in dally touch with them and believes their ad vantages to the material welfare of tho race. But with education and its methods no such touch has been kept. We doubt if any one of all these "anti-faddists" has spent half a day in any school since they packed up their books and bade the schoolroom good-bye years ago. If they are parents, they have had key-hole glimpses of school meth ods as their children have told of their studies or floored them with questions. But their lives and school work have been apart. Their concept of teaching end studies Is naturally that which they gained in their own school days, and, if they were then the best going, It is not surprising that these persons Btill think they were the best that could be. But would it not be a re flection upon our intelligence if edu cators should not have gained wider conceptions of what education is and how gained, while their fellows in the shops and laboratories were making such tremendous strides? Would it not be a reproach if they sh6uld not have realized that the very basis of state education, the better fitting of youth for the duties of citizenship, required much more than making pupils "able to read, write and cipher more or less ■well," as Huxley described the English Idea of education thirty years ago? Why should not the eye be trained to Quick and accurate observation and the hand to dexterity in aiding the tongue in expression, when both eye and hand are bo essential in the work of every man and woman? Why should men and women go into their life work ignorant of those laws and forces of nature to which their lives must con form under penalty of nature's disci pline, which "is not even a word and a blow, and the blow first; but the blow without the word," leaving you "to find out why your ears are boxed?" True, no full instruction in all this can be given, but what is given serves pre cisely the same purpose that the three Rs do; it opens the intelligence to what may be learned, and is that not help ful? Is it not better than sending children out Ignorant of the vital truth that there are such things to be learn ed at their peril, if they do not? The solemn fact is that education errs in providing too few instead of too many "fads." -«» AX PERSON. We will not make the obvious return compliment of the Preston Times which finds "the obtuseness of the Globe, when it comes to tariff mat ters, simply astounding," preferring to believe that, while the Times, with the object lesson of the lumber tariff and its uses before its eyes, perceiving the outrage of it, still is unable to realize that the lumbermen, in advancing prices after the tax was laid, have simply put into practice the theory of all protective tariffs. We take it as an encouraging sign, however, that our contemporary is able to see it work in the case of lumber, as It indicates a possibility of seeing that may take a wider range later. Meantime, if it will aid the Times any in clearing the fog that envelopes It, we will assure it that the Globe is not "imbued with the fixed idea that the tariff In all cases is a tax, 1. c., the price of a commodity is increased in exact proportion to the tariff Imposed," if the commodity meant Is one of which we produce a surplus. We have on several occasions pointed out how the efforts of makers of these commodities have failed to take to themselves in increased price the ad vantage given them by the taxation of their foi-eign competitors, but this fail ure was due, not to any Intent of the law or to their own action, but because there is a law of gravity in production and prices that is superior to congresses and human greed. What we do insist on, however, and what it surprises us to have so intelli gent a person as Is the editor of the Times deny, is that it is the effect of any tax laid on imports and it is the express purpose of every protective tax so Imposed, to permit the domestic makers of similar articles to increase the price of their products comraen surately. What is always the argu ment? If no tax. or one too low, is laid, our manufacturers cannot com pete with foreign makers of like wares. Why? Because the foreigner can make his goods and lay them down in our markets at a le6S price than our mak ers can produce them. Therefore a tax is laid on the imported articles to in crease their cost In our markets to the cost level of our goods, so that the former cannot be sold cheaper than the domestic articles. If our contemporary paid any attention to the hearings al ways had by the ways and means com mittee whenever the tariff ia touched by congress, he will know who it is that informs congress what and how high this tax should be; and, if he will take the pains to compare the tax im posed with the amount asked by the manufacturers at these hearings, he will learn how complaisant congress is to the class of tax increasers. We apprehend that the editor of the Times has not given to the current news Items, since the adoption of the Dlngley act, that attention he should have given if he wishes to gain Infor mation. The action of the lumbermen he could hardly avoid seeing, for it is a local matter, and we are glad to know that he views with proper horror their utilization of the tax, thereby showing their accurate appreciation of Its purpose. But he must have missed the numerous other like actions of those whose privileges are written In the Dingley act The list is too long to repeat here. We have noted them as they appeared and made suitable com ment on them. Hardly an article is missing. Glass, cutlery, nails, woolens, boots and shoes, leather, sugar and a hundred other articles have moved up In price to embrace the opportunity given them by our gracious congress. But, If the Times man has missed these news items, it cannot have failed to note the impetus given by the new tariff to the increase and growth of those commercial combinations for which it affects such a horror, the trusts. If he will compare their prod ucts with the Dingley act, he will find them amply protected. What does he suppose these trusts are formed for? Why Is there a rise In the price of their products following their organi zation? Why should they not increase the price to get the protection given them? If they do not, where is the protection? If our lumbermen did not raise prices, why should they have labored as they did to get the oppor tunity to? We apprehend that the lumbermen and all the rest of the gang will think the editor of the Times is a very simple, unsophisticated fellow who does not know what protective tariffs are for. DEFICITS Alilj ALONG THE LINE. Some years ago, when the customs and Internal revenues were surpassing the expenditures, before Republican congresses had discovered that the way to reduce a surplus was to spend more Instead of reducing taxation, Col. Fred Grant, a candlate for lieutenant gov ernor of New York, jauntily observed in one of his speeches that "it Is easier to handle a surplus than a deficit." Thereafter congress began to handle the surplus easily, and the result has been the disappearance of the surplus and the appearance In Its stead of a deficit now getting to be chronic. But this Republican method of getting rid of the excess of money in the public fisc, by increasing the expenditure, in itiated by the Fifty-first congress, has been adopted by that party wherever it has obtained control of the public purse. Its press occasionally "points with pride" to the superior financier ing abiiitv of their party, and, if it , THE SAINT PAUL, GLOB 3: MONDAY, DECEMBER 20, 1897. consists In ability to change surpluses into deficits, we find ample evidence about us to confirm their claim. We have alluded, with what our con temporaries on the other side of the gangway regard as "damnable itera tion," to the success of the Fifty-fifth ! congress in creating a deficiency in the treasury, both presently and, In the opinion of the secretary of the treas ury, continuing. But there are others. A few days ago we had occasion to call the attention of the state to the fact that Minnesota legislatures, after lagging some years behind their con gressional exemplars, had succeeded In creating a deficit in the revenue fund of their state treasury, the great business fund that supplies the wants of the state's various affairs. True, it wasn't much, only 553,000 for Novem ber, and it is true the state auditor took a cheerful view of the future, but the state treasurer was not so cheer ful and anticipates a worse showing this month. One of the organs of the party noted the payment of some $100, --000 into the treasury by the warden of the prison and said that this pay ment made the revenue fund solvent again. It was not aware that this money belongs to the "revolving fund," established to run the twine factory, and cannot go into the general revenue fund. Now come together the trustees of the state insane hospitals and con firm the statement of the Globe in its Investigation of those institutions that a deficit was probable, by announ cing one of $130,000, which they are trying to cure by reducing expenses, mainly by cutting salaries. Thus it appears that Minnesota Republicanism Is proving itself quite as capable in financing as Is the national party. Over in "Wisconsin a somewhat sim ilar condition prevails, not quite bo embarrasing yet, but the statement of receipts and outgo shows a balance on the wrong side of the ledger, and when once the balance gets there, whether In the account of a state or an indi vidual, it is as difficult to eradicate as is the Canadian thistle from a pas ture. Meanwhile th« press of that state are engaged in making and refut ing charges of increased taxation un der Republican control. Whatever the truth, the books show that spending has outrun Income, and thus Republi oan financing in that state keeps touch with the national financiering of that party. Down In lowa there Is the same annoyinar condition, and over in Illinois the governor has oalled the legislature in extraordinary session to correct the methods of assessing prop erty under whioli there Is so much tax dodging that the revenues are falling behind the expenses; a condition not new, for Gov. Altgeld had to call a hostile legislature together a few years ago to devise means for correcting a deficiency of a million or two dollars. Out in the Dakotas the same Impe cunioslty prevails in the publlo treas uries, the spending outrunning the in come. In New York it Is found that the f0.000,000 voted to deepen the canal is used up and that it will need $3,000, --000 more to carry out the plan, the spending having been so far In excess of the limits of the plans of the en gineers: And so it goes all along the line, this splendid demonstration of the capacity of that party for public finan ciering. «•» MUST THEY BE FOUGHT AGAIXT In the brief debate In the house Tuesday on the civil service bill Mr. Barrett, of Massachusetts, touched upon a phase of the history of this reform which those Republicans who are now so eager to "take the starch out" of the law will do well to study carefully before they lay hands upon the fabric. When they shall have re read. If they ever have once read, that chapter they will hardly invite the con sequences that befell their party at that time. Mr. Barrett referred to the passage of the act in 1883 when only forty-seven members of the house put themselves on record as opposed to it while 155 recorded themselves In its favor. Why the bill had so tremendous a majority was not due to the sudden conversion of all those 165 members, but because of the history that had been made in the three preceding years. A brief review of it now may be helpful to some of these men, es pecially the younger men like Tawney and Eddy who may not be informed of the events of that time. The Jenkes civil service law had been throttled in the house during Grant's administration by the means now pro posed by Grosvenor, the denial of an appropriation to sustain the commis sion In Its work. The spoilsmen. Inso lent in their strength, triumphed, and it was thought the reform was stran gled. Senator Pendleton, a Democrat from Ohio, Introduced a new measure in the senate which was referred to a committee and was promptly pigeon holed. Then followed the election of Garfield in 1880. With him came a Republican majority in both branches of congress. Never before, so compe tent observers noted at the time, had there been such a rush to Washington of place-hunters. That in 1897 did not surpass it Senatorial courtesy, the right of senators -to dictate appoint ments in their states, was Insisted upon. Representatives and senators thronged the White house demanding appointments and leaving Garfleld ab solutely no time to attend to presi dential duties. Blalne in the cabinet used his Influence to antagonize Conk llng In the senate and interfere with his desires for federal appointments in New York. Robertson was appointed collector of the port, and Conkllng and Platt made their theatrical exit from the senate. No issue divided parties. Democrats were still charging fraud in the elec toral commission of '76; no currency question, except the troublesome sur plus, aroused contention. The activities centered on spoils. The nation was stir red to its depths by the resignation of Conkling and his efforts to get from his legislature a vindication of his po sition that he had the right to say who should be appointed to federal of fices in his state. Civil service reform was dead and the spoils system reigned in insolent triumph. Then came the assassination of the president by Gul teau, a half-crazed seeker after ap pointment, killing the president be cause he did not get the place he want ed. " The nation was brought with shocking suddenraiess to the culmina tion of the spoils system, the incar nation in the assassin of its spirit. Universally the murder was charged to that vicious system. Politicians af fected to pooh-pooh the sentiment. The senate refused Pendleton's motion to consider his bfll. Then followed the congressional elec tions in 1882. Thff civil service reform entered into the campaigns. The as sassination of Gagfleld was charged to the spoils system. The charge was generally taken to^ be true. The Forty seventh congress stood" 146 Republicans to 138 Democrats} with ten independ ents. The Forty-eighth congress, chos en In 1882, stood 198 Democrats to 124 Republicans, and one independent. The verdict was accepted as a rebuke of the Republican majority for its hos tility to the reform of the civil service. The Republicans in the senate admit ted this by Immediately hunting up the Pendleton bill and passing It. The Republican house also admitted the meaning of the elections and passed it by the great majority noted. The measure was more sweeping than the Jenkes act. It gave the president pow er to extend the lists by executive or der. The reform was established; the spoils system was discarded. The peo ple had decreed anti congress submit ted. Will Republican congressmen now Invite a repetition of the punish ment Inflicted upon their party fifteen years ago? lß> SENSE AGAINST NONSENSE. The "Wadena Tribune says: "If tha citi zens of Canada can get out the logs, saw the lumber and transport It to us at lower prices than we can do the same, Canadian lumber should be welcomed." If the Cana dians can get tho lumber prepared for mar ket cheaper than Americana, It la because they pay lower wages than the lumber manu facturers of the United States. The $2 rate make 3it possible for the sawmills to run In Minnesota, employing thousands of men and paying living wagos. That Is what the Re publican tariff Is for, and 1 the people of the Sixth district appreciate the benefits they get from the increased rate. — Anoka Herald. The Wadena Tribune speaks for the men who buy lumber and use It In house and barn and fence building. The Anoka Herald speaks for the few men who buy stumpage and make the lumber. The Tribune speaks for a million, where the Herald speaks for a hundred. There is another difference. The Tribune speaks the words of truth and common sense. The Herald speaks the language of untruth and nonsense. The Canadians do not pay lower wages. Labor moves unrestrictedly, and the law of demand and supply would draw labor from the lower to the higher wage region. The facts support the theory. Two years ago woodmen went from this state to Canada because the wages there were higher. They will come this way if thts condition is re versed. Carroll D. Wright, our labor com missioner, was asked by the senate finance committee to report on the wage rate in the lumber industry in Canada and this country. His report is on page 1808 of the Congressional Rec ord for June, 1897. The editor of the Herald should get and study It He would know more after it, perhaps. Sufficient for this purpose is Mr. Wright's statement that the cost of labor in five mills in the United States in 1,000 feet of lumber was 91.46 cents; in five mills in Canada $1.4164. No $2 tax or any tax whatever is needed to "make it possible for saw mills to run in Minnesota" or anywhere else In this country. It Is only necessary in order that the gang -who own the stumpage and run the mills can make the men who use the lumber pay $2 more a thousand for it than they would but for the tax. That Is all there is to It. <- Those people who hoped to see the new tariff bill fall short In providing revenue suf ficient to meet tho requirements of the gov ernment are likely to ba disappointed. The revenues are steadily Increasing and will come fully up to the amouat figured on with in the next few months.— Wheaton Gazette Reporter. , You owe It to yourself to'wrlte to Secretary Gage remonstrating against his statement in his annual report that the revenues this fiscal year will fall short of expenditures some $25,000,000, and bo behind outgo in 1899 $21, --000,000. It Is disheartening to you patiiotio editor*, who are pumping Joy and confidence Into the hearts of your readers week after week, to have a cold-blooded secretary of tho treasury sending out such an official chill. ■^*- Some of the people suspected Hank Far mer's "paw" would spank him when he went home after the first night of the Elks' min strels, but as he appeared last evening with out a mark, it Is believed the "old settler" didn't seriously object to Hank's Joke.—Still water Gazette. Stlllwater, we believe, is the only town In tho state where marks so made are displayed in public. -^^ "W« are not as a rule as healthy and strong as our grandparents were, yet our grand parents never heard anything about their dan ger from countless disease germs. — Gaylord Hub. You should have heeded Oliver Wendell Holmes' advice then, and been more careful in your selection of grandparents. m MARRIES ADOPTED DAUGHTER. Lisbon, Mich., Man Hears a Girl and Makes Her Hi* Wife. LISBON. Mioh., Deft. 19.— William Morose, aged eighty-five, surprised the community this week by marrying Jen nie Douglas, aged sixteen. About six teen years ago Mr. Morose lived on his farm with a housekeeper and her in fant daughter. The girl? was known both as Jennie Morose and ' Jennie Douglas. The moUier died three months later and the daughter has ever since lived with the old man as his adopt ed daughter. He seems to ba very much In love with his girl wife and his affection Is returned, -«E>> Dalton "Wants a Pardon. KANSAS CITY, Mo:. Dec. 19.— 1 a a letter to Judgo J. D. MeOuo, who sentenced him, Enk mett Dalton. undergoing a life sentence In the Kansas penitentiary for his part In tho bank raid on CoffeyvtUe, Kan., five years ago, the convict asks that the Judge's Influence to se cure his pardon b» used. In the raid, four of the desperadoes and four citizens wers killed and a number were, injured, Emmett Dalton was severely wounded and captured walla at tempting to assist his brother, Bob, who w*s fatally wounded, to escape. To a reporter Judge McOue said that he could not consci entiously recommend executive clemency now, but would not aajr -what he night do la a low yean. \ FLEETS Op SHIPS USED BY P. D. ARMOUR IN DELUG ING JOSEPH LETTER WITH WHEAT. WILL THEY BRING VICTORY? AIIMOUR'S SUCCESS MEANS A LOSS OF AT LEAST $1,000,000 TO LEITER. MILLIONS OP READY MONEY Being Made Use of by Both Sides— Armour's Great Water Achieve ment. There Is being made manifest to Chicago and to the world at the pres ent moment the most stupendous gen eralship in connection with the han dling of a food product that the eyes of man have ever seen, says the Chi cago Tribune. Day after day, two weeks after the close of navigation in the regular course, Chicagoans have been perplex ed by the arrival of steamer after steamer laden to the water's edge with choice wheat, the best that the wheat fields of Minnesota, Dakota and the entire northern belt of agricultural states raise. And this in spite of the fact that Chicago has always heretofore shipped wheat and not imported it. The public is aware that one of the largest wheat deals within the history of the board of trade Is being fought out between the Leiter clique on the one hand and the elevator men, headed by P. D. Armour, on the other. It is aware that there Is a vast amount of money involved in this deal, and that somebody is likely to come to financial harm through the ultimate turn of the market. The reading public is dally scanning the papers to learn whether Mr. Armour has covered his rumored short sales or whether the Leiter con tingent has taken to the woods and come from under the price of Decem ber wheat But the general public has been ed ucated to believe that these wheat deals are purely gambling for a mar gin to the good in the settlement, and Is not prepared to believe that any of the great guns in the market can real ly take the sale of six or seven mil lions of bushels of wheat so seriously as honestly to intend to deliver the grain upon the day of settlement. This same confiding public, with its memory of the deals of "Old Hutch" of long ago and of Pardrldge of yes terday, is quite certain that which ever set of operators comes out sec ond best in the deal will step around to the captain's office, as represented by the other fellow's broker, and set tle for all or part of its fortunes. Possibly that is the way that any other man than Armour would settle this wheat deal. But the bulls forgot that "The Old Man" was a merchant and an elevator man before he was a speculator, and they overlooked the fact that he probably knows more about the acreage of the wheat belt and more about the concentration of vast quantities of the staple than any man living. They thought they had cornered the market, and at the close of navigation caught the elevator man short for minions. This article has nothing to do with the financial side of this great wheat deal. For the purpose of this story it matters not whether wheat sells at $1 or $2 before the Ist day of January. It matters not whether the Armour interest Is short 7,000,000 bushels sold around 87 to 90 cents, or only 1,000 bushels; whether the elevator man adds the Leiter millions to his pile or gives up all of his yellow wagons and all of his elevators and the mil lions behind them to satisfy the ra pacity of the boomers; It is with the wonderful and unprecedented coup in steamer freights that this has to do. WHAT GAVE BIRTH TO THE PLAN. Along about a month ago, when Ar-" mour saw that the bull clique was bound to buy in all the December wheat that offered, and that, as a con sequence, wheat would be a mighty scarce article in his huge elevators, he called his generals about him and bade them figure out where the visible and the possible supply of the staple was located in this country and in Canada. Mr. Armour was circumscribed In the territory from which to draw grain to make up the local deficit, for all deals upon the floor of the board of trade must be In contract wheat, which means No. 2 red or No. 1 northern. Thus the millions of bushels of Cali fornia's white wheat was barred, even though it could pay the freight, as also was the Southern wheat, the three grades of Colorado wheat, and other grades. . No. 1 northern spring wheat is that grain raised in the Dakotas, Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Manitoba, and must be sound, reasonably clean, of good milliner quality, and of not loss than 50 per cent of hard varieties of spring wheat in the mixture. No. 2 red winter wheat is the second grade of the long-berried varieties, sound, plump, and reasonably clean, that Is grown In our own state, and In Mich igan, Ohio, Indiana, lowa and Missouri. Mr. Armour had a great deal of No. 3 and No. 4 wheat, milling and brew- Ing varieties, In his warehouses, but that wheat could not be tendered in settlement. Hence the council of war in the busy La Salle street office. The problems to solve were: First, was there enough wheat upon the mar ket to fill a shortage of 6,C00,0C0 or 7,000, --000? If so, where was it? In what quantities? How could it be transport ed, by rail or steamers? Could it be transported in time to meet the en gagements of the house? And if so, could it be warehoused and Inspected before the first day of January? It was determined that 3,000,000 bush els of wheat could be got in Minne apolis. A couple of millions lay In the warehouses in Duluth, and two more millions lay in tha granaries throughout the Northwest. Next it was figured that by impressing every possible grain steamer and barge that lay in Superior or Michigan water, the Duluth and the Fort William wheat might be got to Chicago before the canals and straits froze up. As to the ability of the house to take care of the grain upon its ar rival, Mr. Armour smiled a smile, and quietly remarked that he would teach those fellows a thing or two about warehousing. POSSIBLE BY SUPERB ORGANIZA TION. The superb business organization of the great house was immediately brought into requisition. The wires were kept hot for a couple of days, and the stenographers wrote out dicta tions that called for the expenditure of millions of dollars, the knowledge of tha contents of which would ba worth a small fortune to an operator on the floor of the exchange. Agemta were secretly dispatched to Minneapolis and to Duluth with orders to buy through resident brokers all the December wheat that offered. Fred Hlffglne had charge of most of that end of the deal. He operated In Minneap olis through Van Deusen, of Van Deu sen, Harrington & Co. Then Higgins as quietly slipped away and was later heard of In the Northwest, where h» bought up big blocks of wheat. All this time the clique was hugging 1 itself and counting, in its mind's eye, the millions of the "Old Man" that it expected to absorb. The newspapers fell into the habit of speculating upon the number of millions of bushels that the Armour house was short, and how much the house stood to lose. An<s some mighty good people fell to com miserating the great packer and recall ing his big benefaction in the shape of Armour Institute and Mission. And they sermonized over the iniquity of speculation. But the "Old Man of the Wheat Pit" never said a word. He Just sat In that little inner office and fired telegrams all over the "West and gobbled up grain enough to feed all Chicago for five years, and he paid his good, hard cash for it. He likewise sent his young men to Interview the steamship agen cies, and learned Just where the fleets were scattered. He computed tonnage and chartered vessel upon vessel, with what appeared to be reckless extrava gance. A score of the biggest vessels upon the lakes, boats that carry from 100,000 to 200,000 bushels of grain, wera turned back westward and ordered to sail for Duluth for cargoes. Some of these boats were speeding homeward to go into winter berths. The winter was upon the lakes and the close of navigation had been declared. Some ofl the vessel owners demurred. They feared that they might be caught out in the ice. Big iron steamers had been caught in the ice before this, crushed like egg Bhells, and sent to the bottom. But Armour said that ho would pay the freight, and the owners and captains knew what that meant. The great warehouseman played all of his cards. He even refused to per mit old winter to dictate to him. He made a contract with Barry's towing; line to pay $50 a day each for five tow boats to plow the forming ice In Du luth harbor and keep open water for his big ships to get through. Barry sent the Industry, the Tomlinson, the Prog ress, the Raber and the Barry, all big, staunch tugboats, Into tho harbor. They plowed about through the ico, which was nine inches thick at times, and the harbor remained open. LEITER CLIQUE DOES NOT SUS PECT. But the boomers did not know this. They believed that all oi that good wheat would be unable to get away from Duluth — that it would bo literal ly frozen In. The "Old Man" never said a word. He Just chartered a couple of tugs from another company to keep the Soo canal open and three more to cut up the ice in Thunder bay, where the ships had gone for the grain stored in the elevators at Fort "William. And every one of these snorting, aggressive tugs was bunting into the ice fields and churning up the congealed surface of the lake for the glory and profit of the house of Armour. The big ships loaded down to the guards with wheat and set sail for Chicago, each with two little tugs snorting and chopping ice a little way In front, opening up a channel out to clear water. Thus the Onoka, with 112,000 bushels; the S. S. Curry, with 150,000 bushelsj the City of Paris, with 95,000 bushels, and the Selwyn Eddy, with 140,000 bushels, got away. And by the time the board got wind of the unprecedent ed movement of wheat for this port, still other huge steamers were out of the Ice on their way thither. The La Salle, with 96,000; the "Wright, with 95,000; the City of Genoa, with 105,000; the Gllchrist, with 86,000; the City of Venice, with 100,000; and the Hartsell, with 106,000 bushels, got safe ly away, and the City of Genoa and the Wright even hurried back for sec ond cargoes. The Wilson and her tow, with 180,000 bushels, crunched through the ice, and the W. B. Grover came through with 85 000 bushels. The Thompson and whaleback No. 115 started with 80,000 and 93,000 bushels, respectively. Other vessels loaded to a dangerous level and essayed the venturesome voy age in winter to Chicago. Last of all came the City of Bangor. laden with 160,000 bushels of grain. She nosed her way through the ice fields, piloted by the snorting tugs. It was a hard and dangerous passage, but at length ths ice was left behind and the open water of Lake Superior entered. But the Bangor was not yet out of trouble, for she got squeezed in the Ice in the canal and was run upon a bowlder. A big hole was punched Into her false bot tom, but she got off, and after hasty repairs finished her voyage. And more, two vessels on their way to Buffalo were actually turned back after entering Lake Erie and ordered to carry back to this city the grain that they had taken aboard but a week before. But the house of Armour had other agencies bringing in the wheat that now fills the elevators. Wheat came in by canal boat, and hundreds of car loads arrived over the various roads i from the grain belt. Never has so much wheat arrived thus early by train. The big elevators are surround- i ed by hundreds of cars waiting to be j unloaded. And all that Wheat came down and is still coming, hundreds of cars a day, from Minneapolis and ■ the Northwest. On Dec. 14 no less than 169 cars loaded with No. 1 northern and twen- ' ty-three loaded with No. 2 red stood on the tracks about the Armour ware houses, arriving upon that day. On the 11th nlnety-eig-ht cars of No. 1 i northern and twenty-one cars of No. 2 red came in. By Saturday, Dec. 11, Armour Ele vators A, B, and Annex, on Goose Island, had stored within their walls 2,321,484 bushels of choice No. 1 north ern. And the other Armour ware houses were rapidly filling. On Mon day, Tuesday and Wednesday, Armour \ stored more than 1,250,000 bushels of j ■wheat in his elevators, and of 3,500,000 j bushels of wheat arriving from Duluth Armour got 3.000,000. Does anybody realize what it means to move 6,000,000 or 7,000,000 bushels of wheat by boat and rail to Chicago? To move 6,000,000 of wheat from Du luth to Chicago would have required from fifty to sixty of the largest steam ers and the freight alone would amount to $180,000. The 3,000,000, about, that Mr. Armour got by water cost him in freights $90,000. You can only load from 600 to 1,000 bushels of wheat upon a car. Thus it takes 1,000 cars to move 1,000,000 bushels. To bring down the final 3.000, --000 bushels of wheat said to have been bought by Mr. Armour in Min neapolis would then take 3,000 cars, which would make over 80 trains of thirty-three cars each. And the freight would cost in the neighborhood of $150,000. But the boomers said that If the "Old Man" got hfs wheat flown .here In time he could not warehouse it In time for inspection p.nd delivory. Here again they forgot that Mr. Ar mour is a warehouseman from away back, and has the details of the eleva tor business at his fingera' ends. For the Armour Elevator company controls the largest and best equipped elevator plant in the country, or In the world. The elevators standing in this city have a capacity of 12,000,000 bushels. There are eight In all: Ar mour elevators A and B. with a ca pacity of 2,500,000 bushels; Armour B annex, with a capacity of 3,400,000; Armour elevator C, capacity 1,800,000 bushels; Armour elevator D, capacity 3,000,000 bushels; elevators E and F, with 2,000,000 capacity, and the Min nesota elevator, with a capacity of 600,000. C and D annex, and E and F receive grain from the Chicago, Bur lington & Quincy tracks. The other elevators are fed by the Chicago, Mil waukee & St. Paul. Through these lines North and South Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, lowa, Nebraska, Kansas and jilissouxi axe drained of their cereals. The elevator company even owns 4,000 cars engaged in transporting grain. When the crush came the corn and the oats that lay In the elevators in the way of the wheat were loaded into beats, where they will lie all winter un til the opening of navigation in tha spring, when they will be shipped away. These elevators were not constructed for taking grain from boats, but for elevating from cars and loading into boats. For be it remembered that heretofore Chicago has employed boats to ship her grain East only. This is the first Instance in the history of the city where wheat has been "brought here in bottoms. But expedients have been put into operation and the grain la fast disappearing into the vast gra naries. So here we see how the great house of Armour has reached out its hands over the entire middle West and North west, massing fleets at Duluth and pre empting hundreds of trains of freight cars that it may have the wherewith al to meet its obligations. It had the granaries and it secured the wheat and effected its transportation. If it had had the wheat but lacked the elevators it would have constructed the elevators. Had it lacked the ships possibly It would have emulated the exploit of Commodore Perry and built its ships for the occasion. By the way, the firm already owns and operates a line of grain steamers. Perhaps the "old man" has made a million or so out of the deal. Perhaps he has dropped a million. In either case the reader will never know, for tha "old man" will win silently or pay hia loss without wincing. But he has brought coals to New castle. He has accomplished a feat on the commercial world as signal and as brilliant in its way as Napoleon's pas sage of the Alps and demonstrated once again, that tradition cannot put a limitation upon the originality of hia actions. No man will know until settling day has come and gone whether the "old man" has called the bluff of the boom ers hard enough to make them lay down their hands. Meanwhile the riverway Is blocked with great steamers and huge barges and the! r captains are fighting for berths at the elevators. AT THE^THEATERS. ■Willie Collier in "The Man From Mexico" Is uniquely, characteristically and originally funny. Those who witnessed his performance at the Metropolitan last night cannot gainsay that It Is the lot of some comlo genluse», even though they have earned prominence and draw large salaries, not to win the unanimous verdict that they are funny. There aro people who cannot laugh at De Wolf Hopper, and othera who decline to be amused by Francis Wilson, but there would seem to be no differ ence of opinion regarding Collier. The only distinction noted last night was that some of the audience laughed louder than others. If anybody tried to keep a straight face, he cer tainly failed. "The Man From Mexico" Is one of those farcical creations with no design In the world except to provoke the risibilities. Mr. Collier would appear to have been constructed with the samo purpose In view. Ills propensities for wit are not located, as In some comedians. In his feet and legs. Ills humor Is not of the acrobatlo flavor. His Jeat3 aro not empha sized with a welt of tha bass drum or a flash of the calcium. They reach the spot without any other aid than, the quiet, droll, expressive manner and voice of the comedian. Mr. Collier 13 nothing U not original. Ills funni est sayings and doings are the most Bpontant ous of all. He betrays none of that effort to score "points" whloh robs witticisms of half their effect. In other words, Mr. Collier doesn't ever seem to know that ha has said anything funny. It Is the too apparent con sciousness of having perpetrated a good Jok« that often spolis It. In view of the fact that Mr. Collier Is obliged to repeat his night after night, It Is a compliment to his art that he can deliver them so effectively and yet bo Innocently. The vehicle provided for Mr. Collier by H. A. Dv Souchet, who. It is announced, adapted It from tho French. Is a "smooth-running" affair that never stops for lack of lubri cation or want of repairs. It Is as full of laughable absurdities, surprises and clever "conversation" as a merry-go-round on tha Fourth of July. The second net, which transpires In the warden's office at tho Black well's Island penitentiary, Is replete with novel farce-comedy situations and witty dia logue. Collier In a convlet's garb, with a loaf of bread under his arm, a tin cup In his hand, and eyeglasses prrched on his nose, all the while doing the lock sti-p, Is an Irresistible combination. "What aro you doing?" shouts tho warden, a gentleman with a Lemon-faced visage. "Doing time." responds ('oilier. Somebody asks Collier, who Is known In prison as No. 77, whr-n he expects to leave the place, and he answers: "I'm going to stay hrr<> till my number comes out. That's policy." Tho company surrounding Mr. Collier Is entirely adequate to tho demands of tha farce. Dan Mason, the well known Dutch comedian, makes tho most of Yon liulow Bismarck Schmidt, who Is very much tha victim of untoward circumstances. • * • The advent of "Black I'attl's Troubadours" drew a large audience to the Grand opera house last night, for local theater-grwa had not forgotten the excellent ent- rtainment afforded by this aggregation at the same theater last season. The peoplo have linger ing memories for theso good shows that so r'semblo angels' visits. Not only was there no suspicion of a dis appointment In store for the patrons of tha Grand last night, but It can be truthfully announced that the performance excelled that of last year In point of variety and cleverness. New specialties have been intro duced In place of old ones, the additions to the company have, for tho most part, Im proved It, and tho cake walk- well, nothing like It was ever seen In these parts before. It 13 no exaggeration to say that "the house fairly rose at it." Talk about "txcite ment running high," It absolutely boiled over when the two winning couples walked off a tie— for the applause of the au •: which was the thermometer agreed upon to test the "hottest couple." was so loud that the Judges couldn't tell whl'-U couple had won tho cake. Black Patti was in splendid voice, and de lighted all with her admirable singing. She sang "The Enchantress," Arditl's melodious aria, expressively, and received an i i.tliu slastlc encore. In the finale, which la aptly designated as "the operatic kaleidoscope," she sang that inspiring martial sons "The Sabre." from "The Grand Duchess," with good elect This dosing feature of the show Is In every way commendable, Inter preting, as It does, worthy music In a worthy manner. The ensemble singing of the In termezzo from "Cavallerla Rustlcana," and tho Klrmesse chorus from "Faust," was most creditable. The finest concerted effort of the evening was the singing of the luinior tel sextette from "Lucia," by lilat.-k Patti, Alice Mackey, and Messrs. Moore, I'.yrd. Burrls and Pierce. Mlsn M sesses a rich mellow contralto, which wus heard to excellent advantage In the opening skit, when she contributed two solc3. C. L. Moore Is also to be commended for his expressive sieging of "The Heart Bowed Down." The men of thi , :<:itly In evidence throughout. The mo ous, perhaps, is I la the composer and author of bu ir dit ties as "All Coon 3 Look Alike tv Me," ' Pas Ma La." "Honey, You Made a Hit With Me" and the like. Mr. H< the audience vastly. "wn creations In a decidedly cl style and with true Ethiopian eclcr. Sure of HI» Innoeencf. AKRON, 0., I»' Co.tell, the boy who v I tha penitentiary for Life about a ■ iiib Alvin Stone, his * the boy waa WrouJ that a confession was extorted f by deteotlvp-s, who. according Irresponsible. Th< - "".a real murderer ai^d have aim b evi dence to convict him. 1 . . l*« to Causa his arre3t soon.