LIFE Op BARfIATO
HEW BIOGRAPHY OF HIM PRE
PARED BY AX OLD
HIS VERY METEORIC CAREER.
WORK AS A SPECULATOR DE.
BCRD3ED BY A SOUTH AFRI
HARD FIGHT AT THE START.
Hi* Success Finally Wonderf
Suicide From the Steamship
The story of Barney Barnato's origin
and meteoric career in South Africa
and later in London has been told fre
quently and each time with a different
assortment of facts. For two years the
effect of his name in London was mag
ical. Everything that he touched be
came profitable and English Investors
went crazy over Barnato stocks. Much
was known about his financial opera
tions, but Aery little definite informa
tion cnuld be obtained about the man's
history. According to one story he
went to South Africa as a circus clown
and according to another he was a
younger son of a titled family and a
man of much culture, and the news
paper-reading public struck an aver
age between these two portraits. Bar
nato's millions were not myths if the
stories about him were, and he seldom
took the trouble to deny the latter.
What purports to be practically an
authorized biography of Barnato has
Just been published under the title "B.
I. Barnato; A Memoir." Harry Ray
mond, the author of it, was a reporter
on a South African newspaper during
the years when Barnato was fighting
his way to great wealth, and knew him
Intimately. If his sketch of Barnato's
life is authentic, the previously pub
lished biographies were chiefly fairy
tales. Mr. Raymond tells his story ln
& simple, straight-forward fashion with
out attempting to portray Barnato
other than as a shrewd financier with
a ready wit and the money-getting in-
Btinct. Many of Mr. Raymond's anec
dotes of Barnato are new.
It was in 1871, when there were gath
ered in the diamond fields ln a series
of camps some 4,000 white men and four
times that number of Kaffirs, that a
young Hebrew named Henry Isaacs
made his appearance in Kimberley,
and, assuming the name of Barnato,
began to give public enterta'nments for
the miners. Harry Barnato didn't take
long to discover that he could make
more money in diamonds than on the
stage, and at the end of a year he sent
home for his brother, Barnett Isaacs,
to come out and help him gather prof
its. Barnett Isaacs also assumed the
name of Barnato, and It was his gen
ius which guided the new firm to suc
cess. They were the sons of a pious
Hebrew in London n.;:med Isaax? Isaacs,
and the grandsons of a rabbi of some
reputation. When Barnato became fa
mous and one of hi® friends chlded
him on the amusement that he derived
from the absurd stories told about him,
"Well, why shouldn't I? A man who
doesn't care twopence al>out me comes
with a yarn and asks if it ls true. I
Bay 'Oh, I suppose so; go and ask So
and-So, he will tell you what really oc
curred.' Now, If I was to say there
was not a word of truth In the whole
etory I should not be believed. I have
had hundreds of men come to me for
details of my career. If I told them
the truth they wouldn't believe me; If
I didn't tell 'em anything at all they
would go off angry and try to write
Tiasty things. So I let them talk, find
cut what they want to hear and then
tell it to them; and they believe It all
and go away and say what ls, perhaps,
the only absolutely true thing they
w ill say, that I am not a bit ashamed
of my origin and never put on side.
If you do not like it, tell me what else
I can do better."
The history of Barnato's dealings in
the gold fields has been told frequently,
and Mr. Raymond adds little that is
new. According .to this biographer
Barnato was an amateur actor of great
repute in South Africa, and his favor
ite characters were Bob Brierly in "The
Ticket-of-Leave Man" and Matthias in
As an Illustration of Barnato's busi
ness methods this incident is related:
"On one occasion, after being very little In
the office for some twelve days, he suddenly
entered and asked what the balance at the
bank was and what business had been done.
When told he sat down and made some brief
" 'No, that ls not right,' he said. 'Have
you gone through the books?'
" 'Yes- I have checked everything this week.
All is in order.'
•' 'Well, you are wrong, I tell you. You are
about £4.000 out. You had better find out
where it is.'
"The books were re-examined, every detail
of the business of the firm was closely scrut
inized, and in the end— after six weeks' con
tinuous work — it was found that an employe
had misappropriated a single parcel of shares
of a little over £4.000 in value, consisting of
100 Kimberley Centrals at £41. and had very
cleverly falsified the entries. Barnato had no
knowledge of the misdeed, and never dreamed
of suspecting the individual; but he happened
to want to know the exact position of affairs,
and he could at any time roughly balance the
whole of his vast business to within a few
pounds. I never heard him enunciate the
time-honored maxim 'Look after the pence, the
pounds will take care of themselves' — he gen
erally preferred to clothe his thoughts in his
own terse phrases — but it was never better ex
emplified than in his conduct of business."
Barnato's philosophy was of the get-there
kind, and Mr. Raymond quotes him as saying:
"If you are going to fight, always get in
first blow. If a man is going to hit you, hit
him first and say, 'If you try that, I'll hit you
again.' It is no use your standing off and
saying, 'If you hit me I'll hit you back. D'ye
" 'Yes, I understand,' I answered; 'but you
are quoting Kingsley ln "Westward Ho!" '
" 'Who was Kingsley and "Westward Ho!" '
he sharply queried.
"After 1 had explained and quoted the pas
sage from Drake's letter to Amyas Leigh, he
" 'Ah! I did not know anything of King
sley, but when he wrote that he knew what
life was and he was right and I am right,
though it is queer for me to get a si'- ->orter
ln one of your parsons. If he was a truj man
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he would also have to agree with our law of
"an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth,"
but, being a Christian, of course he couldn't
do that. Pah! never let a man wrong you
without getting square, no matter how long
you wait; and never wrong a man If you can
help it, because he will wait his time to get
back on you, and at the worst possible mo
ment. I. don't care whether It la Jew or Gen
tile, It ls all the same.' "
Barnato was a member of the Cape Town
assembly, and he delighted in mildly scan
dalizing the members of parliament. During
a debate on the Cape liquor law, which pro
hibited the sale of intoxicating drinks on Sun
day, except as an accompaniment of a sub
stantial meal, a local Raines law, Barnato
"A few Sundays ago I walked some dis
tance from Cape Town, for, being busily en
gaged in mentally reviewing the course of
business of the honorable house, I went on
much further than I had Intended, without
noticing the time. I at length retraced my
steps, and, being then both hot and thirsty,
went into a decent and most respectable hotel
for refreshment. I only wanted to quench my
thirst, but, according to law, a drink could
only be supplied as the accompaniment of
a bona fide substantial meal. Mine host set
before me a bottle of beer and a leg of roast
pork. He had no other eatables. What was
I to do? If I ate the pork I broke the law
of Moses. If I drank the beer without eat
ing I broke the law of the land. Between
the chief rabbi and the chief Justice I stood
ln a very awkward position."
Barnato had no sympathy to waste on the
broken-down adventurers who came to South
Arflca to live by borrowing. When he be
came known as a very wealthy man he was
frequently bothered by requests for small
"At Johannesburg some years ago." says
his biographer, "a well known individual
of a type rather common there borrowed £10
from Barnato, and although asked for the
money several times, always put off pay
ment. One day between the chains Barnato
Bald openly to some friends: 'Mind, none
of you ever lend F. D any money. He
has £10 of mine, and It ls time he- was
"The man heard of this, and, coming up
to him, said: *I hear you have been talking
" 'Yes; I want my money.'
" 'Well, here is your £10, and don't talk
about me any more.'
"A short time afterward the same man
asked Barnato for a loan of £25, as he was
" t [No; I can't do it,' was the reply.
'.'. ) Wfl J Lot 1d 0 not owe you anything.'
' 'I know you don't, but you've disap
pointed me once. You paid me back £10 I
never expected to get, and I won't risk an
other disappointment.' "
Barnato's education was very elementary
and he almo-:t never read books or news
papers. He did read Kipling's "Story of tho
Gadsbys" on one of his trips from England
to Cape Town. His nerves were badiv shat
tered and when he found that he could not
sleep Mr. Raymond gave Mm K : pllng's story
'I did not see him again until the second
morning after, and then asked him If he liked
" T like It very much, It ls very good very
clever. I did not begin It until" early yes
terday morning, and then wondered what you
had given me. The first chapter Is all about
gins and darning stockings. But do you
know, I put It in my pocket when I went
down to the office, and looking at it again
I Bat there tl3 I had finished It. I did what I
do not ever remember to have done before
and clean forgot a board meeting. C ■
reminded me of the meeting, but I sat to
" 'If it made you forget yourself for a
while you had better try the same prescrip
■m-2? 0 i J 1 takes U P too much time. The
Herlot Woman" played her cards badly
but she had no chance."
"We discussed the loves of Capt. Gadsby
until breakfast time. I repeatedly tried to
induce him to make another incursion into
light literature, but without succes-. Hf- had
no time for it, he said. The laet occasion
on which I saw him was about a fortnight
before he left England, In November 18&G
for the trip to South Africa, from which he
wasnct to return alive. He said:
" 'I"l get the book of Kipling's you lent
me ln Johannesburg. I think it. wiii do me
good to read it again.' "
One of Barnato's early partners in Kim
berly was Louis Cohn. They icnted a litte
corrugated Iron shanty, and there they
bought diamonds and lived. Mr. Cohn tePs
a new story to Illustrate Barnato's shrewd
ness. He says:
"There was one man then, a dlam ird bu<-
er in a comparatively large wav, whose bus'
ness we both envkd. He seemed to have a
regular and large connection, and made con
stant rounds, riding an old, veKow, rather
lame pony. We tried to follow him several
times to see which way he went, and who
among the wilderness of tents, huts, and
debris heaps, he called on, but without avail
"One day Barnato said to me. 'That chan—
has a rare good connection; we must get
hold of a bit of it sorm-how.' •
" 'All right: we want it bad enc-jgh."
"At that time we were very hard up Indeed
and prospects were poor. A few days later
Barnato came to m<? In great glee.
" 'I know what we have to do to get 's
customers. I've seen him come home three
" 'If you had seen him go out and followed
him un it would be more to the purpose I
should think.' I answered, rather sharply per
haps, for I thought he was fooling.
" 'Have patience Lou, and I'll tell you If
you give me a chance. Look here, I've seen
him come back from his rounds three days
Servant— Please'm, there's a poor man at the door with wooden legs.
Mistress— Tell him we don't want any.
running, and he always stops first at Hall's
canteen. Mind this, however. He does not
guide the pony to that place, but just Bits
still all the while with loose rein and the
pony stops of his own accord. New, it is my
firm conviction that all day long he rides just
the same way, and that the pony knows all
the stopping places. I've known this for
some days, hut It don't he'.p so long as he
had the pony; today he has seen some other
beast he likes better, and wants to sell his
whole present outfit.'
"I agreed. We bought that old, worn-out
yellow pony and Its bridle for £27 10s., and
with it the man's whole connection, for the
morning after the purchase Barnato started
out early, and the pony, without trouble,
took him In and out among the debris heaps
to every one that chap had been in the habit
of calling on. We paid £27 10s. for it, but it
brought us a good connection and very much
To lend Barnato small change was to say
good-by to it. He never repaid small loans.
He was also absent-minded. His biographer
"I have seen him, lost in thought, go up to
a stranger in the street and hold out his
cigarette for a light without a word, only
walking up when asked angrily and abruptly
what he meant. At the race meeting at
Johannesburg he went on the grand stand
to see a race In which one of his horses was
to 6tart. As usual he had no glasses, and
only managed to borrow a pair for the race
as the flag fell. After one glance at the
beginning of the race he turned to a stranger
next to him and said excitedly:
" 'For goodness sake, man, tell me what
my colors are.' "
Barnato's career ended with his suicide
from the steamship Scot, which was bearing
him and his family to England less than a
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THE SAINT PAUL GLOBE: MONDAT, JANUARY 2i, 1898.
WITH A SflOSflOflE
SERGEANT GAMBLER MEETS A
BLANKET SHARPER AT
THE SERGEANT WAS GAMY
UNTIL THE SHOSHONE MAN CON
FERRED WITH 810 RING
WHO HAD JUST STROLLED IN.
Then the Shoshone Called— Besides
Cards He Held Two Army-
An army officer who was stationed at
Boise barracks told this of his gam
bling sergeant, says the Washington
"By the time taps was sounded the
sergeant was out $450 on bis chuck-a
luck game, and it was given to me that
he was about as miserable a looking
man as ever wore a stripe on his leg,
when the recruit, stuffing his last rake
off into his bulging pocket, announced
with a grin that he had had enough
for that night Th« recruit said 'Cert
'nly' when the sergeant pathetically
asked him if he wouldn't give him a
show to get back on blm on the fol
lowing night, and walked out ln the
direction of the quarters, but he never
got there. Instead, he took the mid
night train on the Oregon Short Line
for the- East, and they haven't got him
yet either. When he failed to turn up
for reveille the next morning the ser
geant was torn by a sudden agoniz
ing thought, and he raked out h;s mus
tang dice in a hurry. He found that
they weren't his own dice at all, but
first-class imitations of them, and two
of them were just almost bewitched to
roll over so that a club on one and a
heart on the other would turn up. The
grief that consumed him when he mad?
the discovery was not assuaged by the
hoaise hooting he got at the hands of
the men who had financial dealings
"This thing, as I said, started the
wheels in my sergeant's head to whir
ring, and he got haggard with anxiety
to get even. He wanted to win that
$450 back the worst way, and it was
for this reason that he fell into the
habit of playing draw poker with some
of the Shoshone Indians who used to
hang around the post at times. Some
of those Shoshones always had a good
sum of government money stowed
about their clothes for a while after
their quarterage days, when the agent
would make them their payments, and
the sergeant took It Into his head to
have a try for some of it. He had
pretty good success at first, for he
knew a good deal about the game of
draw, and got $50 or $60 each from four
or five of the Shoshones without much
"Then he fell in with Charley Daw, a
chief with a face as hard as an Easter
Island lava statue. Although the ser
geant didn't know it at the time, this
Charley Daw had mastered the game
of draw poker right here in Washing
ton, on a visit that he had made with
some other Indians for the adjustment
of some Shoshone claims — and when a
wooden-faced man becomes a really
good player of draw poker it is a wise
thing to steer clear of him. The ser
geant was too much rattled, however,
over the way he had been looted by the
recruit to weigh considerations of this
sort, and he also forgot to remember
until It was too late that Charley Daw.
since his return to the reservation from
Washington, had become known to the
men of his own tribe as the most mag
ical dealer of poker hands that ever
chucked one of his papooses under the
"Charley permitted the sergeant to win
nearly $300 from him on the first night the
two sat down together, and on the next night
he donated him $200 more. He fed the
sergeant on coin for nearly a week, ln fact,
and exhibited such opaque stupidity at the
game that the sergeant must have had his
real estate office furnished pretty gorgeously
in his mind. The games took place in
Charley's wickieup, the best on the reserva
tion, and the only onlooker present on the
final night of the game was the post ordnance
sergeant, who told me all about it.
"The sergeant, about $700 of the Indian's
money to the good, was so infused with joy
on this final night that at the beginning
of the play he stiarted the bluffing system.
It worked splendidly. Charley Daw appear
ing to lay down his big hands out of pure
fear of the man with the cross-guns on his
cap. But when the soldier attempted to bluff
the Indian out of a jack pot that the Shos
hone had opened on his own deal, he struck
a snag; Charley Daw let him get in very
deep, making very 6mall raises himself in
a half-hoarted kind of a way. The soldier
fancying that the Indian was only trying to
protect himself, and would sooner or later
lay down, kept on raising It with $25 bets
until there was about $500 in the pot. Then
the Shoshone, not caring to scare his man
out on the play, called, and spread out his
queen full. The sergeant jammed three kings
up into the deck with a nervous oath. To
ease the soldier up a little, Charley Daw
let him win $100 back on the next four plays.
Then he settled back firmly on his haunches
to play poker.
"The last play was a natural jack, and It
was the Indian's deal. Charley Daw was one
of those poker dealers that make men nervous
by covering the whole deck up with they
hands while rifling the cards. The sergeant
was ln a pretty rattled frame of mind, and
the only thing that relieved his nervousness
while the Indian thus shuffled the cards
was that the latter seemed to be giving no
attention to the job, but kept his gaze fixed
dreamily to the top of the wickieup.
" 'Shuffle the cards on the blanket,' he said,
however, to the Indian finally.
" 'Huh?' Inquired Charley Daw, but he
showed that he had heard the remark all
right by giving the cards an ostentatious
riffling on the blanket.
"With a pat ace full, the sergeant, I was
tcld, looked as if he felt a revival of interest
ln life, and, ln order to entice the Indian in,
he opened tt« pot for only $5. The Shoshone
studied Ids hand for a long time, and finally
heaved a $8 gold piece into ttie pot with the
air of a man who believes he is making a fool
of himself. He looked quite concerned Vnen
the sokher stood pat with a self -satisfied grin
and threw one of his cards Into the discard
with the hasty, hopeless Jerk of a chap who
bobs to a straight or flush. For the first
time since the two had been playing the In
dian's countenance assumed a look of dis
gust when he saw the card he had dealt him
self, and the soldier looked as if he feared
ne ( couldn't make much out of his ace full.
" 'Fifty dollars,' said he, in a bluffy tone of
* Th® Shoshone gazed at him with the
stolid, injured expression of ft man of whom
a gross advantage ls being taken, and then
Ms jaws set with an expression that was
probably meant to convey, and did convey,
the idea that he dint intend to be bluffed
right along. Carefully conning his hand, he
raised it a hundred. This was pie for the
sergeant. He saw plainly that the Indian
was flustered and rattled.
'Five hundred more,' said he. reaching
inside his blouse and hauling out his re
serve bag of coin.
"Charley Daw now looked pitiful. He
dropped his hand ot cards on the blanket and
gazed smack into the sergeant's eyes for
fully a minute. Then he gave a long whistle,
and inside of half a. minute another Indian,
Big Ringdove, also- a chief, walked into the
wickeup. Charley Daw beckoned to his
tribesman, showed him hie hand, and the
pair had a conference in Shoshone, which
wound up by Big Ringdove looking as if he
felt ashamed of his brother chief. The ser
geant was the picture of complaisance
through it all, but the ordnance sergeant
who was present at the game told me that
the sure-thing noncommissioned officer some
how lost the finer edges ofi his grin when
Charley Daw grunted out a raise of $1,000.
That raise tapped the sergeant, all but $500.
But he was sti'l pretty confident, and so he
stood the raise and threw ln his last $500,
certain that it would drive the Indian out.
But a wicked smile now wreathed Charley
" 'That all you got?" he inquired of the
soldier. The latter, fear now gripping him,
'Then I call you,' said Charley Daw. with
his eyes now contracted like a serpent's,
and he allowed the sergeant to nervously
spread out his ace full on the blanket.
'No gocd,' said the Indian, flicking his
four queens onto the blanket one by one.
'Look a-here. you cursed, red-hided,
short-oaid player ' the sergeant began,
scrambling to his feet, and then he stopped
suddenly. The Indan sat perfectly still, hold- I
Ing a big army p/isiol ln his blanketed lap
with both hands.
,J' Yru g0 your barrack.' said Charley Daw. I
Tattoo, he go In a minute; you get in bunk !
and sleep; I play you again some time. You
"And. persuaded by Charley Daw's manner
(which was right chopped-off, I was told) and
by the guv. my sergeant returned to his
quart, rs, which he had no right ever to leave
to play poker with Shosho-nes. The drvil o."
It was that when It became known around
how he had been craned out all the men
made It a daily prac'ie for weeks to ask him
If he wouldn't give them a job clerking in
his real estate office over in Spokane."
SHAW WILL BE CHAIRMAN.
Bnnlnens Men's Convention Will
Meet In iii<!i;iiu:|)< ii •„ This Week.
WASHINGTON, Jan. 23.— Private ad
vices which reach here from Indian
apolis are to the effect that the busi
ness men's convention, which will be
held in that city on Tuesday and
Wednesday next, will be more largely
attended than was the first convention
of a year ago. The purpose of the con
vention is to Indorse the report of the
monetary commission, which provides |
a comprehensive plan for a reform of
the currency. Delegates to the number
of 380 have announced their intention
of being present, and it is expected that
the actual number will be greater. A
numfoer of Southern and Western
states will be represented. These cir
cumstances are regarded as significant
and as showing the wide interest in the
movement. Gov. Mount, of Indiana,
will deliver the address of welcome.
The permanent chairman of the con
vention will be Gov. Shaw, of lowa,
whose recent inaugural address showed
him to be in strong rympathv with the
work of currency reform. Mr. C. Stu
art Patterson, the president of the
Union League of Philadelphia, and one
of the eleven members of the monetary
commission, will present the report to
the convention and explain such cir
cumstances connected with its prepa
ration as will prove of interest to the
The principal address at the first
day's meeting av-111 be delivered by
Charles S. Fairchlld. of New York, who
was secretary of the treasury under
the first Cleveland administration. In
the evening the delegates will be en
tertained at a reception to be given by
the local commercial bodies. Among
the well known men who will address
the convention and urge the impor
tance of an active propaganda are
William E. Dodge, of New York;
Charles C. Homer, of Baltimore; John
C. Bullitt, of Philadelphia; Augustus
E. Wlllson, of Louisville; Jacob L.
Green, of Hartford: ex-Gov. Stannard,
of Missouri, and John W. Fries, of
CREW TOO HASTY.
Abandoned a Steamer Whleh Fi
nally Drifts to Safety.
PORT TOWNSEND, Wash.. Jan. 23.
—Three weeks ago the steamship Com
monwealth, of Liverpool, in command
of Capt. James, with a crew of thirty
men, while en route from Kobe to Port
land, broke her shaft and was aban
doned. The steamer drifted in mid
ocean, finally bringing up in Nootka
sound on Vancouver island, where she
was found Wednesday by the steamer
Willapa. Search was made for the
crew, and they were finally found in a
friendly cove. The following day the
crew were restored to the Common
wealth and the Willapa towed her to
Sydney. The Commonwealth is unin
jured, and the salvage to the Willapa
will amount to $400,000.
GO TO NEW YORK TO DINE.
Gov. Gricgs to Be Banqueted by
TRENTON, N. J., Jan. 23. — Gov.
Griggs, in honor of his selection as at
torney general of the United States,
will be complimented by a dinner giv
en by his personal staff and state of
ficials at the Waldorf-Astoria, New
York, on either Feb. 19 or 26. United
States Senators Sewell and Smith and
the New Jersey congressmen will be
Invited guests. Gov. Griggs on the oc
casion will receive a costly service.
The executive will resign as soon as he
is confirmed as attorney general, and
Senator Voorhees will become acting
Bergs Close ln on the Island and
ST. JOHNS, N. F., Jan. 23.— A succession of
northeast gales is driving the Arctic floe In
upon the whole northern coast of this island
and closing navigation for the winter. Sev
eral steamers and o.her vessels lying in this
harbor and loading cargo are likely to be
caught by the barrier and kept here until the
wind changes. Numbers of people in the
northern bays are in a destitute condition,
but it will be difficult io get relief to them
CLEVELAND, 0., Jan. 23.— Rev. Dr. Tal
mage and bride passed the day at their hotel
in this city. Tomorrow morning they will
depart for Buffalo and from that city they
will go to New York for a stay of a few
days before returning; to Washington. Dr.
Talmage said today that there was nothing
sensational. He has known his wife for about
three years. His wedding was a quiet affair
because of recent (deaths in the family of his
Will Defend Sailors.
BALTIMORE, Md.. Jan. 23.— J. Havelock
"Wilson. M. P., president of the International
Sailors and Firemen's union, with headquar
ters in London, England, Is in Baltimore on
behalf of the sailors of the British steamer
Ursula Bright, wiio are in custody here,
charged with mutinous conduct on the high
seas. The men are members of the interna
tional union, and hearing that Mr. Wilson was
in this country, telegraphed him ln New York
to take charge of their case, which will be
taken up tomorrow.
Hnnters of Men.
During the open hunting season in Maine
fourteen men have been shot in the woods
by hunters. It is claimed that the m?n who
do this kind of shooting know that they are
aiming at other men, but are so excited thai
they cannot help firing.
GOT A(IEAD OF GfIRIS
SUCH IS THE CLAIM MADE FOR
EARLY PORTUGUESE NAVIGA
THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA
SAID TO HAVE BEEN KEPT A SE
CRET FROM OTHER NATIONS
FOR SOME YEARS.
BARRED FROM THOSE WATERS,
To Have Pnhllshed Their Finds
Would Have Shown That They
Had Broken Treaties.
Did Columbus discover America?
A discovery has Just been made
which seems to prove that there is a
rival of the Genoese navigator, of Lief
Erlcson and other daring navigators.
It is the finding of an ancient chart
that furnishes new light on the discov
ery of America, making it appear that
it was not Columbus who first set eyes
on the Western Hemisphere, but pilots
of some caravels sent out by the King
of Portugal. It further shows that the
discovery was made ln direct violation
of an impending exploration treaty
with Spain; that Portugal's ships of
discovery penetrated waters that she
had expressly promised not to enter,
and that the news of the great find, if
made public, would have made trouble.
It would have caused her to forfeit all
right to the great prize she had secret
ly secured. Hence her silence. Or so
the explanation runs, says the New
Of the existence of such a document
nothing was ever known until Dr.
Henry Harrisse, the well-known his
torical student, who has for years been
making a study of the bibliography of
the Columbian epoch, recently discov
ered it hidden in the archives of the
library' of Modena. It ls in the form of
a huge, closely inscribed map, the flist
of America ever drawn, and was made
for the king of Portugal, showing in
the fullest detail then possible the out
lines of the new continent his caravels
Dr. Philip J. J. Valentinl, the famous
geographical authority, furnishes the
following account of the great discov
ery and what It means, showing how it
alters the whole early history of Amer
ica and upsets the theories that for
four hundred years have prevailed in
When Columbus returned from his
voyage of discovery he was forced by
stress of weather to put Into Lisbon
harbor. It was a delicate situation for
him, because he had left Portugal
secretly to pursue in Spain his quest
of a king willing to authorize his trip.
However, King John received him cour
teously, but Insisted that he should
come to the palace three times; and on
each visit, except the first one, pumped
him about his discoveries.
Columbus answered him truthfully
enough, because Spain and Portugal
had made a treaty limiting the area
open to exploration to each. The
islands he had found — Cuba and Haytl
— were clearly on the Spanish side of
the line. Then, after a final confer
ence with Queen Lenor, Columbus
As soon as he had weighed anchor
King John summoned the cortes. Dis
tinct pledges had been given to him,
he said, that no Spanish vessel was to
pass the line of the Canary islands
to the south, and yet Columbus had
sailed beyond this line and claimed
to have found new islands. There
fore, these Islands belonged to him.
There was a fleet at anchor at Ma
deira, ready to start on an expedition
along the African coast. Why not
change its sailing orders and send it
to search these new waters? It was
done. Then, ln order to gain time,
King John despatched a letter describ
ing the aggrieved feelings of the na
tion regarding the islands, but saying
not a word about his own expedition.
Notwithstanding, the speed with
which the messenger travelled, rumors
preceded him to Castile of the naval
preparations. Ferdinand hastened to
send an envoy to Lisbon, even before
the messengers of King John arrived.
This envoy, Don Lope de Herrera. bore
two missives to King John. One was
a friendly letter entreating King John
to avoid difficulties certain to arise
if ships had been sent to seize the new
islands. The second letter contained
a curt summons to stop naval prepara
Herrera found nothing suspicious,
for all preparation was being done in
Madeira. So he delivered the first let
ter. He returned to Spain and reported
hte fears to be groundless.
In the meantime, Portugal's cara
vels were speeding across the Atlantic.
A few days after King Ferdinand's
second letter, the ambassadors arrived,
but did not ask to be shown at once
Into his presence. Ferdinand began
to see what this delay meant, so he
wrote to Columbus in haste:
"You remember our last, in which
we told you that the king of Portugal
was to send ambassadors to us. We
! had a long conference, and It seems al
most as if no agreement can be reach
ed. They know plainly what our ideas
are, yet tell us that they wish to be
furnished with new instructions. Make
haste to sail as soon as possible. Avoid
! the coast of Portugal, so that nothing
i of your ships will be noticed. And now
about those caravels; the rumor has
been confirmed. The ambassadors pre
tended that one caravel sailed and that j
the king sent three caravels after it to |
seize it. Now, what other object can \
this have than that the three caravels
should join the first, and all four to
gether sail to search those waters
where you found the islands? Moreover,
the same ambassadors hint at the be
lief that there may be a mainland lying j
beyond them, and perhaps other tracts :
Columbus set sail again. But during j
this interval the Portuguese caravels
had crossed the ocean, had sighted the
islands, and sailing beyond them, -were j
the first white men to set eyes upon j
the outlines of the American continent, j
They discovered the Gulf of Mexico and j
landed upon the shores of Yucatan.
They made a survey of the coast, and
to the inlets, projections and other no
table features gave Portuguese names.
Many of the points bear the same
names to this day. Most of them are
what are known as "sailor names," as,
for instance. "Punta Roa" (red point),
"Cabo Delgado" (narrow cape), "Cabo
do Fin de Abrill" (end of April). "El
Golfo Baxo" (the shallow gulf). "Cabo
Arlear" (cape to strike sails), etc.
Among the twenty-two names on the
discovered document only two appear
to be personal names, viz.: "Rio de Don
Diego" and "Cabo de Don Martinho,"
and these are the names of two high
councillors of King John's court, one
the Prior of Crato, of the Order of St.
John, and the other the king's royal
chamberlain. Both the men were
among the chief inquisitors who ques
tioned Columbus, and both were deeply
connnected with King John's secret ex
The ancient map is defective in
measurements and proportions. Some
peculiarities of the coast, those which
most excited the interest of the pilots,
are rendered in disproportionate dimen-
Castoria is Dr. Samuel Pitcher's prescription for Infants
and Children. It contains neither Opium, Morphine nor
other Narcotic substance. It ls a harmless substitute
for Paregoric, Drops, Soothing- Syrups and Castor Oil.
It ls Pleasant. Its guarantee ls thirty years' use by
Millions of Mothers. Castoria ls the Children's Panacea
—the Mother's Friend.
THE FAC-SIMILE SIGNATURE OF
APPEARS ON EVERY WRAPPER.
THE CENT»UW COMPANY TT MURRAY ITRCCT. NCItl YORK CITY
slons. while others not so significant
are treated with less attention. But
it will readily be seen that not one of
the chief physical features escaped at
Now comes the bitter part of Portu
gal's great discovery. She could not
claim the land she had discovered, for
It was found to be ln Castlllian waters
and far beyond the stipulated line
across which Portuguese ships might
not proceed. She had really discovered
a new land, of which Columbus had no
Idea, but she hall done It dishonestly
and against the instructions of the
A chart showing that such explora
tions had been made In Castilian waters
was a dang-erous document.* and there
1b every reason to believe that it was
secreted in the king's private archives,
there to remain hidden forever. But
throug-h unknown circumstances it
eventually found Its way to the
archives of the ancient Este library ln
Modena, where, under the accumulated
mass of ancient records, It was dis
covered by Mr. Harrlsse. It tells who
were the real discoverers of America
and why they kept silent.
SAVED THE REST.
Man Who Knew a Klondike When
He Saw One.
The old man with long hair and an old
fashioned carpet bag, who was waiting in
the depot with the rest of us for a train, be
gan coughing almost as soon as he sat down
and It was a cough which pulled his feet
apart and humped up his shoulders until his
head almost disappeared fro-m view. Every
body looked at him, but nobody said a word
until he repeated his cough and his antics.
Then a man near him remarked:
"You seem to have a bad cold."
"I don't seem nothin' about It!" testily
replied the old man. "I ketched cold five
years ago and the blamed thing hangs right
"You've tried flaxseed tea, slippery elm
and all that, I suppose?"
"Yes, twenty times over, but nothin' does
any good. 'Pears to me — " Here he Inter
rupted himself to start off on another
coughing fit, and before he was through
with R he moved the bench five feet
back and set everybody's teoth on edge.
As the cough died away to a distant rumble
a well-dressed man, who was perhaps a
traveling professor of legerdemain, stepped
forward and said:
"My friend, you seem to be having a hard
time of It."
"Yaas, purty hard, but nuthin' to what
happens when I'm home. Last week I
coughed myself over a six-rail fence and
never touched a sliver."
"It can't be cold," continued the professor.
"You must have accidentally swallowed some
thing while drinking.
"Mebbe I did, but I didn't know It."
"You will excuse me. but the next time you
cough I want to try an experiment. If you
have swallowed any foreign substance I think
I can relieve you."
The old man told him to go ahead with Ms
experiments and five minutes later was seiz
ed with another "performance." The stranger
seized and held his head and of a sudden
grabbed at something and opened his right
hand to reveal a $10 gold piece lying on his
"This was what ailed you. my friend." he
observed, as he pocketed the coin, "and there
are probably eight or tern more where this
came from. Please cough again."
"Not much!" exclaimed the old man. as he
rose up. "No. sir-e-e! You bet your life I
don't. If thar's $70 or $S0 more down thar'
they belong to me, and I'll wait till I git
home to cough 'em up. It was a blamed
mean thing for you ter grab that one, but
you don't git the rest of 'cm — not If William
Henry Wallace knows his biznessi"
"WHAT A WOMAN DID.
To Europe Six Times in Twelve
Years and Learned Six I.iinKiiaai-i.
A plucky American woman, who began to
support herself at 18, cays the Phi lad el phi a
Times, has shown how a poor school teacher
can see Europe to the beßt advantage ln 12
years. Earning a small salary in a public
school. Bhe has taken private pupils and lived
frugally and has been able to go to Europe I
every other year for a two months' holiday.
Her first journey was made to England
and Scotland, and was enjoyed so keenly that
She planned another one and saved money
for it during the next two years. The second
tour was through France, Belgium and Hol
land, and In order to travel comfortably she
loarmd French during her leisure hours.
Returning to her school work she began to
study German, and at the end of two years
was ready for a journey up the Rhine and
to Vienna, and thence through Dresden and
Berlin to Bremen. With renewed ardor she
plunged Into the study of Italian, and at the
end of two years she started for Rome. She
made the round of the- Italian cities, and
spent a fortnight in Switzerland. Two years
afterward she was in Spain, and was able
to speak the language.
During the last year she has made her sixth
journey to Europe, traveling through Dan
mark. Norway and Sweden to Russia, and
spending a fortnight in Moscow. She carried
with her a fair knowledge of Swedish, and
not only knew the Russian alphabet so as to
read the street signs, but could make her
own bargains with drosky drivers and go
about without a guide.
In the course of twelve years she had made
six journeys to Europe and learned to speak
six modern languages, and she has supported
herself entirely by her earnings as a school
teacher, and has paid every penny of her
traveling expenses. Starting with a pains
taking study of the language of the country
which she was to visit, and also preparing
herself by a course of reading, she has made
the best possible use of her time abroad.
The reward for all this energy and per
severance has come ln her thirtieth year. Her
knowledge of foreign languages has fitted
her for broader work as a teacher, and she
has left the public schools to take a posi
tion as Instructor ln French. German and
Italian ln a high school for young w?**an.
There may be higher alms than those or
dinarily Involved ln foreign travel, but the
persistency of this American girl In carylng
out her plans is worthy of praise. It Is a
great gain in any human life, if it is gov
erned by a definite purpose and keeps that
purpose steadily in mind.
ENGINEERS "WILL, BALLOT.
Will Probably Decide to Resume
LONDON, Jan. 23.— The executive
committee of the London engineers has
Issued a circular advising the men to
accept the employers' terms. A ballot
of the men has been fixed for Tuesday
next, and it is probable that work will
be resumed on the following Monday.
Ilerx Able to Drive Oat.
LONDON, Jan. 23.— Cornelius Herz, of Pan-
ama canal notoriety, was permitted to take
a short drive yesterday. It was tho first Urns
ho had left his house at Bournemouth ln flvi
French Huron Dead.
PARIS, Jan. 23.— Baron Rene Charles Fran,
cols Rellle, member of the chamber of dep*
utles for Castres, department of Tarn li
dead. The late Baron Rellle was tho son oi
Marechal le Comte Rellle, one of the most
celebrated soldiers of the first empire, and
grandson of Marechal Massena. He was born
in Paris Feb. 12. 1535. He cast his ballot ln
the chamber for the war with Prussia ln 1870.
and took an Important part ln the defense of
Paris. In 1877 he was appointed under sec
retary of state by M. Fourtou, ln tho min
istry of that day.
Government's Veto Ignored.
ROME. Jan. 23.— Signor Amlllare Caprlanl,
the Italian Socialist leader, whose election
to the chamber of deputies for Forll in July
last was annulled by the government, has
been re-elected deputy for Forll.
Reduced Grain Turlffs.
ROME, Jan. 23.— King Humbert has signed
a decree reducing the customs tariff on ce
reals from VA to 5 lire until April 30. It will
come into operation Tuesday next
Pittsburg firemen are now permitted to
wear service stripes on their sleeves, differ
ent colors denoting various terms of service,
up to a golden stripe for five years.
English Navigable Streams.
There are nearly 5,000 miles of navigable
waters In the United Kingdom.
A 16-page paper, published Mondays
by the Soo Line, contains Important
and direct information from Alaska;
gives Best Routes, Steamship Sailings,
Lowest Rates, How to Obtain Outfits,
and other Invaluable Information.
To be placed on the mailing list, send
six cents ln stamps to W. R. Callaway, *
G. P. A., Minneapolis, Minn.
GARVEY— In St. Paul, at late residence, 2SO
Grove street, Sunday, Jan. 2C, at 3:30 a. m.,
H. C. Garvey, aged 66 years. Funeral from
above residence Tuesday, Jan. 25, at 8:30
a. m. Service at St. Mary's church at 9
GERMAIN— In St. Paul, at lato residence. No.
971 Dayton avenue, Sunday, Jan. 23, at 2:30
p. m., N. E. Germain, aged 55 years.
Funeral from above residence Tuesday,
s^n. 26, at 8:30 a. m. Service at St. Luke's
cuurch at 9 o'clock.
FOR FUNERALS— Hearses, $4: carriages, %2;
at Schroeder's Livery, 20 West Fourth st.
and at Morehead A Horrigan's, 370 East
Ninth and 488 Selby ay.
PAID ADMISSIONS TO THE
Last night to witness New York Journal's farce,
Theni^s!/n Uofth ' ; ALL THIS WEEK.
Next Week— The Cherry Pickers.
To laugh ls to live. Tonight, matinee Wednes
day—2Sc and 5 c.
FIN and mom? VI V
Thursday night— Donnelly and Girard in HE
Baturday. Feb r th, the World's Greatest
ALEXANDRE "gUILMANT I
Reserved seats will be on sale TODAY— for
one day only.
Prices— Sl. OO, 75<-and 50c.
Seventh t»t.. bet. Robert and Jackson Sts.
Unrivaled Accommodations for
Social Entertain ments,
LECTURES AND CONCERTS.
FOR TERMS APPLY TO
J. J. WATSO* G:rmania Llfa Bldg .
SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES.
ST. AGATHA'S CONSERVATORY
Of Music and Art,
26 East Exchange St., St. Paul.
Piano, violin, guitar, mandolin and vocal
music taught. Lessons given In drawing and
painting. Call or send for prospectus.
Official 9tat3 Historical Photozraphar.
OO AND 10l EAST SIXTH STREET.
(Opposite Metropolitan Opera House.)
PHOTOGRAPHS tieft : its
Rembrandt, Tom />;//.-<-, lie /iio'di, R-jrnney
And Other Mttsters.
Mr. Zimin- rmtu's personal attention to
appointments. XEL t.l? HO Sl£ lull.
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