Why will people attempt things for which
they arc entirely unsuited?
Why do women worry, cry and fret, when
they should be pleasant and happy most of
Why are men blue, despondent, melancholy,
stolid, so often, when they should be strong,
• hepeful, enterprising and vigorous?
Why are men blue, despondent, melancholy,
hfalth, possibly life, when a little care will
Why is the present season of the year so
depressing, enervating — the very air fillad
with chills, pneumonia, grip, and all bad in
Why, unless the seeds of disease are on
every hand, and need to be fought against con
Why will people permit the dangers, sick
ness and troubles of this season to affect
their health and undermine their life, when
they can easily be counteracted?
Why do people not realize that the best
thiiiK for overcoming these troubles is pure
whiskey, taken as medicine?
Why will people persist in taking impure,
aduiierattd injurious whiskey, when so pure
an article can be secured as Duffy's Pure
Why will unscrupulous druggists seek to
palm off inferior and injurious whiskeys?
Because they can make much more money out
of the cheap and impure than they can from
the sale of the genuine and valuable.
OFFICE «1.-» SOUTH KOlKi'il SillliKr.
Officer Charles Metzger remains In about
the same condition. He was somewhat n st
]( bs yesterday, but is said to be gaining
A burning chimney at 2917 Bloomington
avenue set tire to the roof of the dwelling
last night. Before the fire had been extin
guished damage to the amount of about ?2UO
had been wrought.
Charles I^annagger, whose sudden death was
noted yesterday, is supposed to have died of
heart failure. Dr. .Milvington. who had been
him. says that he was suffering
"im asthma, and he is vi the opinion that
■ N > disease with heart failure caused the
- sudden death.
The remains <>f Alexander Baker, which
were exhumed Friday, were taken back to
the burial ground at Plymouth township yes
terday and laid to rest for the second time.
The suspicions of poison proved to be ground
less, and the exhuming and post mortem ex
amination proved of no avail. Morgue K<< per
Jack Wals and Deputy Core nor Frank Dennis
drove out with the body yesterday.
Via "The Xortli-Western Line."
Tourist sleeping car through to Los
Angeles via the North-Western Line,
leaves Minneapolis 7:40 p. m. ; St. Paul
8:15 p. m., every Thursday night in
charge of a competent representative,
whose duty it Is to look after the com
fort of passengers. Hundreds of the
best people have ratronized these cars
during the past two years, and appre
ciate being accompanied by one of our
own employes, as it relieves them of
many petty cares of a long trip.
For tickets and Information call at
City Ticket Offices, 413 Nicollet avenue,
Minneapolis; 395 Rob: rt street, St. Paul;
405 West Superior street, Duluth, or
address T. W. Teasdale, General Pas
senger Agent, St. Paul, Minn.
Frederick T. Hay Dead.
Frederick T. Hay died yesterday morning
at his residence, 3721 Portland avenue, after
a three months' illness. Deceased has re-
Bided in Minneapolis for the past fifteen years
and was well known, especially among the
hardware trade, having been connected wltn
the firm of Januey. Semple & Co. for many
years past. Mr. Hay was forty-three years
of age and leaves a wife and six children.
Arrangements for the funeral have not yet
Patrick Flaherty, residing for several years
past at Kl7 Perm avenue north, died yesterday
afternoon at the age of forty-seven years.
Mr. Flaherty has been a resident of Minne- j
apolis for upwards of twenty-five years, and
has lately been In the employ of the Northern
Pacific railroad as car inspector. He leaves a
wife and family of seven children. The I
funeral will be held Wednesday morning at '
8:30 o'clock, interment at St. Mary's cemetery.
Deadlock in < liiss Election.
The senior law class at the university had
the hottest kind of a fight at a class meeting
Saturday afternoon. The meeting was called
for the election of a class president, but after
n two hours' wrangle an adjournment was
secured by a hard fighting majority. The
principal candidates were Einar Hoidale, Mad- I
lson, Minn.: William K. Naylor, Merriam
Park, and J. E. Gregory, of St. Paul. The
fight simmered down to Hoidale and Naylor,
and the former would undoubtedly have been
elected had not the minority successfully
blocked action. When it was seen that the
vote was to be very close both sides stuffed
the ballot box and several scrimmages took
place. Another, meeting will be held some
time during the week.
Daii/.'s Sixth Concert.
The sixth' of the series of the Danz Sym
phony orchestra concerts at the Metropolitan
opera house yesterday afternoon proved the
banner one of the present season. The
"standing room only" sign was used for the
first time, which showed that Mr. Danz's St.
Paul and Minneapolis admirers appreciated
his efforts. Two box parties from St. Paul
were present. George Benz Sr. led one, and
P. J. Giesen and family the other.
Peter JenMcn in Troulile.
Peter Jensen, of 254 Cedar avenue, spent
yesterday at the South side police station,
I)eputy Sheriff Christie having taken him
'nto custody on the charge of breaking the
seventh commandment. The complainant is
Thomas Johnson. 2117 Twentv-second-and-a
hr.lf avenue south, who is said to be the hus
band of the woman In the case. Jensen will
be up for trial today.
A Yontlifnl Mnrrtnire
A marriage remarkable for the youthfulness
of the contracting parties was celebrated last
Sunday at 1401 Franklin avenue, when Oscar
Navclon. aged eighteen, and fourteen-year
old Louise Lawrence were made man and
wife. Says the South Minneapolis Telegram:
Louise has five sisters, all of whom were
married before attaining their seventeenth
birthday. The young couple will reside at
the home of the bride for the present.
Poultry Sliotv Begins.
The Northwestern poultry show, which will
be held under the auspices of the Hennepin
County Agricultural association, at 623 and j
625 Nicollet avenue, will begin today. The
place was one of the busiest in the city yes- i
teday. Considerable of the time today will
be occupied in arranging the many snow- !
■white coops. The show proper will open to
morrow morning and will be open every day,
and will close at 10 o'clock Saturday night.
Fat is absolutely neces
sary as an article of diet.
If it is not of the right kind
it may not be digested. Then
the body will not get enough
of it. In this event there
Scott's Emulsion supplies
this needed fat, of the right
kind, in the right quantity,
and in the form already
As a result all the organs
and tissues take on activity.
50c. and $1.00, all druggists.
SCOTT & BOWNE, Chemists, N«w York.
WITH THEIR JfIITES
CHILDREN OF EPISCOPAL CHURCH
ES promise: to aid in mission
THEIR LENTEN OFFERINGS
TO BE PART OF $100,000 TO BE
RAISED FOR WORKERS IN
HAIGAN'S SUNDAY BEHIND BARS
Passed Mncli as That of Other Pris
oners — Xewx of the Mill
The children of all the Episcopal par
i>\i's in Minneapolis met in Gethsemane
j church yesterday afternoon, in what
• niight be aptly termed a missionary re
vival meeting. Every year the Episcopa
lian church thoughout the land makes
a special effort to raise funds for
missionary purposes, and the children
are called upon to do their share in this
good work. Last year from this source
there was received $59,000, and this year
the word has gone forth that $100,000
must be collected.
Yesterday's meeting was held for the
purpose of getting the children inter
ested in the task laid out for them, and
Rev. Dr. Duhring. of Philadelphia, was
present to tell them some reasons why
j they should not fail. Dr. Duhring came
j from the general missionary board and
explained to the children that the Len
ten offering this year must reach $100,
--000, to be raised in six Sundays; the
offering to be a memorial to the late
Dr. W. L. Langford, general secretary
of the board of missions of the Episco
pal church. The visiting divine told
many Interesting stories of missionary
amenture in many lands and laid down
with great care the principles of mis- !
siorary work. His speech created givat j
enthusiasm, and when he asked those in
the audience who would help to raise
the necessary funds to rise to their
feet, every person present stood up.
Bis-hop Gilbert and Rev. J. J. Faude
also delivered short addresses. Among
the clergy present were Revs. H. F.
Nichols. S. T. Purves, J. C. Purdy, a!
Al-xander, F. Tofteen, W. Wilkinson,
J. W. Prosser, Dr. Tenbrooke, Dr. Zolin
Tomorrow evening at Gethsemane
guild hall. Dr. Duhring will speak to
the teachers and parents of the Episco
pal parishes, the meeting to open
promptly at 8 o'clock.
President Carter, of Williams Col
lege, Im In Minneapolis.
Franklin Carter, president of Wil
liams college, Massachusetts, arrived in
the city yesterday, and is the guost of
Judge Charles H. Woods, 33 Tenth
street south. He passed the forenoon
quietly, and during the afternoon was
visited by Dean Pattee, of the univer
sity, and Rev. William K. Kincaid
Mr. Carter, seen by the G1 o b c, stat
ed that a matter at present greatly in
teresting the colleges of Massachusetts
was the collection of taxes on certain
college real estate. There is no state
educational institution in Massachusetts
this particular function being carried
on as the result of private donations
that have been made from time to time
It appears that the intention is to tax
such real estate as is occupied by the
professors and students, and without
the college proper. The tax must, how
ever, ultimately be borne by the collega.
It applies on professors' resid?r.cs situ
ated on the college g ounds. An Institu
tion at Harvard that becomes subjected
to it is the Foxcraft club, organized
solely for economy among the students.
It is a boarding club, and occupies one
of the floors in the dormitory. Mr.
Carter was of the opinion that if this
tax law should be applied to its fullest
extent, such buildings as Memoiial hall,
erected in memory of the students who
fought in the war, would also be sub
jected to it.
Mr. Carter stated that there is a feel
ing at present in the western part of
the state for a state constabulary.
The protection of women and children
from assault is at present inadequate.
He reports that there has been an
alarming increase in this particular
crime in Massachusetts. The truant
law is especially interesting to educa
tors. ♦ *
A matter that was of special interest
to Mr. Carter was an old parchment
in the possession of Judge Woods. It
was the programme for the commence
ment exercises of tho class of 1812, of
which his father, John Woods, had been
a member. The programme chronicled
John Woods as the valedictorian of that
occasion, he speaking on "The Excel
lence of Christian Religion." Judge
Wcods also has In his possession the
copy of the oration, as prepared by his
Mr. Carter will this evening be ten
dered a banquet by the Northwestern
Alumni of Williams college at the West
hotel. There will at this occasion be
present graduates of that institution
from different parts of the Northwest.
Tuesday evening he will be tendered a
reception at the home of Rev. William
M. KincaJd, 222 Tenth avenue south
east, at which event a large number of
educators will be present. Tuesday
morning Mr. Carter will address the
students of the university.
A QUIET SABBATH.
Andrew C. Haagan's First Day In
Andrew C. Haugan spent a quiet Sab
bath at the county jail. It was the first
full day of confinement, and the pris
oner, in commencing his term of four
months, seems determined to make the
best of a bad affair. From 3 to 4 o'clock
yesterday afternoon Mr. Haugan was
allowed to sit in the jail office. With
Jailer Duffield and several others he
chatted pleasantly, not referring, how
ever, to his sentence or trial. When told
by a visitor that he had a host of
friends, Mr. Haugan said he was well
aware of that fact, and felt very grate
ful to them all. As some expected vis
itors had not appeared by 4 o'clock the
prisoner was led back to his cell, No.
3, on the ground tier. Shortly after, the
ex-city treasurer's son and nephew
called and had a short Interview with
the prisoner through the bars. Mr.
Haugan was much interested in mat
ters pertaining to the jail, regarding
the other prisoners, how matters were
Just after sentence had been pro
nounced Saturday a number of influen
tial friends of Mr. Haugan went to the
Jail and requested that the prisoner
be allowed to remain in the hospital.
This is the pleasantest part of the jail.
Although quiet and lonely, it is prefer
able to the noise and profane language
used by many of the prisoners In the
jail room. However, Jailer Duffield de
cided that the new prisoner would have
to share the troubles of the others, and
occupy a cell with the rest.
Yesterday morning the usual religious
services were conducted at the jail. At
the request of the officials the after
noon services have been discontinued.
Iron Workers May Strike.
BELLAIRE, 0., Jan. 30.— 1t is thought that
a big strike may be looked for at the Wheel
ing Iron and Steel company's works at Ben-
THE SAIiXT PAUL GLOBS: MONDAY, JANUARY 31, 1898.
wood, W. Va. The company last week gave
its employes notice of a reduction of from 10
to 30 per cent in wages after Feb. 21. The
employes at the plate mill went out on a strike
last Monday. This afternoon the millmen met
and rejected the proposed new scale. A strike
affecting 800 mtii is probable.
TOBBACO FOR A CROP.
It Can Be Made to Pay in Almost
WASHINGTON, Jan. 30.-Secretary
of Agriculture Wilson has authorized
tho issue in pamphlet form of the pre
liminary report upon the soils of the
principal tobacco districts In the United
States, prepared by Milton Whitney,
chief of the division of soils. A study
of these soils was beprun when the to
bacco exhibit was being prepared for
the Columbian exposition at Chicago
and since that time quite a number of
typical tobacco soils have been ex
amined in the laboratory connected
with the agricultural department. The
present publication, which is copiously
illustrated, in a preliminary report of
the work that has been going on. The
main points of inquiry which now
reach the department are in regard to
the kind of tobacco which should be
grown in certain specified localities and
thp method of curing the product. Re
plying to these questions the rep ,rt says
climate and soil conditions should de
termine the kind of tobacco raised.
The tobacco plant readily adapts it
: self to a great 1 range of climatic con-
I di lions, will grow on nearly all kinds of
: soil, and has a comparatively short sea
! son of growth. It can, therefore, as a
matter of fact, be grown in nearly all
parts of the country, even where wheat
and corn cannot be economically pro
duced. But, while tobacco can be so
• universally grown, the flavor and qual
; ity of the leaf are greatly influenced by
j the conditions of climate and soil. A
nondescript tobacco is not worth grow
! ing and should not be grown, as it low-
I ers the price of really good types of
, tobacco, to the detriment alike of the
grower and the consumer. It is impor
j tant, therefore, to understand what
j kinds of tobacco are in demand and
I what the climatic and soil conditions
are which will most easily produce the
A glance at a table giving changes in
the production of tobacco from 1879 to
ISB9 shows that in this period of ten
years the acreage and yie'd of cigar
tobacco have bet-n very considerably in
creased. The manufacturing and x- o -t
districts cannot be sharply separated,
as both kinds of tobacco are frequently
grown in the same district and the
same kind is frequently used for both
purposes. On the whole there has been
a considerable decrease in the acreage
and yield. With the bright yellow and
burly tobacco there has been a large
increase in both acreage and yield.
Since ISS9 there has been considerable
change in many of these districts, while
other new districts, notably Texas and
California, are coming into considerable
prominence, both as to the area under
cultivation and the excellent quality of
the product raised. The acreage in
Florida has also been very greatly in
creased since 1889, but there are no re
liable statistics to show the extent of
the changes in the counties making up
the tobacco districts.
Some attention is devoted to the ques
tion of meteorological conditions as af
fecting the industry in the great tobacco
regions in this country, Cu'a and Suna
tra. "The plant," th? report continues,
"is far more sensitive to these meteoro
logical conditions than are our instru
ments. Even in such a famous tobacco
region as Cuba, tobacco of good quality
cannot be grown in the immediate
vicinity of the ocean or in certain parts
of the island, even on what would other
wise be considered good tobacco lands."
This has been the experience also in
Sumatra and in our own country, but
the influences are too subtle to be de
tected by our mrteorological instru
The remainder of the report is devoted
mainly to a description of the different
classes of tobacco lands found in the
United Spates, together with data as to
the yield per acre, whether used as
wrapper or filler, tho value of the to
bacco produced and valuable sugges
tions for obtaining the best results.
COST OF FREE DELIVERY.
It Ha* Xot Inerea«ed In Proportion
WASHINGTON, Jan. 30.— A table has
been prepared by Chief Machen, of the
free delivery division of the postoffiee
department, comparing the cost of the
free delivery service at fifty of the larg
est postofßces for the fiscal year 189G-7
with that for the fiscal year 1890-1. It
shows that the percentage of increase in
the cost of the free delivery during the
six years covered by the table has been
24.6 per cent, while the population has
increased 35.62 and the gross receipts
have increased 28.48 per cent. In some
of the leading postoffices the increases
in percentage in round numbers have
been as follows:
In Population— New York, 52 per
cent; Chicago, 65; Philadelphia. 43;
Brooklyn, 35; Boston, 25; St. Louis, 37;
Baltimore, 34; San Francisco, 20; Cin
cinnati, 30; Cleveland, 53; Buffalo. N. V.,
f>6; Detroit. Mich., 75; Denver, CoJ., 55;
Columbus, 0., 60; Toledo, 0., 72; Nash
ville, Term., 58; Atlanta, 67; Memphis,
54. In gross receipts the increases have
been: New York, 22 per cent; Chicago,
46: Philadelphia, 17; Brooklyn, 41; Bos
ton, 26; St. Louis, 30; Baltimore, 29; San
Francisco, IB; Cincinnati, 29; Cleveland.
35; Buffalo, 36; Detroit, 33; Denver, 30;
Columbus, 58; Toledo, 48; Nashville. 31;
Atlanta. 46: Memphis, 15. The increase
in the cost of the free delivery service
in the same cities has been as follows:
New York, 16 per cent; Chicago, 75;
Brooklyn, 40: Boston. 22; St. Louis, 20;
Baltimore. 28: San Francisco, 11; Cin
cinnati, 14; Cleveland. 48: Buffalo, 4G;
Detroit, 50; Denver. 56: Columbus, 63;
Toledo, 52; Nashville, 19; Atlanta. 24;
Memphis, 7. In New Orleans the popu
lation increased 18 per cent, the gross
receipts 23 per cent, and the cost of ser
vice 2% per cent.
GL.ADSTOXE HAS A RELAPSE,
But at Latest Account** His Condi
tion lit Improved.
CANNES, Jan. 30.— Mr. Gladstone has
kept his bed the entire day. He passed
a restless night, and there was a re
turn of his neuralgia. His physician
called during the night and again this
morning. When this dispatch is sent
tonight. Mr. Gladstone is reported as
feeling much relieved.
GOT LEAD, XOT TAXES.
Greek Peasants Resist the Sultan's
ATHENS, Jan. 30.— Seytullah Pasha,
with 2,000 soldiers and two guns, re
cently went to the village of Lazarina,
near Trikhala, to enforce the payment
of taxes. The peasants met the troops
with a sustained fire, and a regular en
The next day the attack waa renewed,
with results not yet known here.
Prominent French Surgeon Dead.
PARIS, Jan. 30.— Jules Emile Pean, the
eminent surgeon, is dead. M. Pean, who was
born at Chateau Dun (Eure et Loire) Nov.
29, 1830, practiced surgery continuously in
Paris for more than forty-five years. In 1565
he was appointed surgeon of the central bu
reau. Two years later he joined the staff of
the Lourcine, where he remained five ytars,
going then to Saint Antonio and flually to
Saint Louis, where he remained until 1592.
He became famouß fer his success in the deli
cate operations of ovariotomy. In 1887 he waa
elected a member of the Academy of Medicine.
Three years later he received the decoration
of the Legion of Honor, and in 1893 he was
made a commander.
WASHINGTON, Jan. 30.— Memorial services
for Hon. Benjamin Butterworth, late commis
sioner of patents, were held at Calvary church
today. Among the speakers were Congressmen
Dalzell and Grosvenor and Assistant Secretary
of the Interior Ryau*
THE RACE PROBhE|W
COLORED STUDENT OP THE SUB
JECT THINKS IT WILL SOLVE
CONDITIONS IN THE SOUTH
FAIRLY REPRESENTED BY STATIS
TICS GATHERED AT FARM
IMPROVEMENT IS NOTICEABLE.
Many Ex-Slaves Are Owning Large
Faring or Controlling: Mercan
Special to the Gi>be.
WASHINGTON, Jan. 30.— W. E.
Burghardt Dv Bois, a young colored
man whose historical and social stud
ies have already attracted considerable
attention, contributes to the January
i umber of the Bulletin of the Depart
ment of Labor an interesting paper on
negro conditions in the South. Mr. Dv
Eois selected Farmville, Prince Ed
ward county, Va., for his study, and
passed two months there last summer,
living with the negroes and learning
J all that he could of their condition and I
prospects. The facts which he sets
forth as a result are probably fairly
typical of the whole negro population
of the South, and hence of much value
to students of the race question. Mr.
Dv Bois was eminently qualified for
such an undertaking. He was grad- '
uated at Harvard college in 1890, and |
continued his study there and abroad,
earning a Ph. D. three years later. But
his greatest work is a history of the
slave trade in America, which has
been the subject of much favorable
The county which Dr. Dv Bois select
ed for his study has had an interest
ing history. A century ago it had a
population of 8,000, evenly divided be
tween whites and blacks; today it has
a population of over 14,000, but the in
crease is almost entirely among the
blacks, the number of whites still re
maining under 5,000. This great rela- j
tive increase of the black population
is not typical of the South, but rather
illustrative of the tendency of the
races to segregate, as it were, one
: township or county filling up with
blacks, while another will increase
wholly in its white population. Of the
total population of Prince Edward
county, less than one-third live in
towns of twenty-five or more inhabi
tants, leaving the great mass of the !
people thoroughly rural and agricul- I
tural. Before the late war more than j
75 per cent of the farms were of 100 ]
acres or over, and were worked by
gangs of from ten to fifty slaves. By
1870 these farms had become so brok-
I en up that nearly 40 per cent of them j
j were le;s than fifty acres in size. Since
| then something of a reaction has taken
■ place and more waste land brought un
der cultivation, so that, in 1890, 31 per
I cent of the farms were less than fifty I
! acres in size.
| The extent to which the negroes
: have become property owners is an in-
I teresting point. Dr. Dv Bois finds that
j in 1895, the 9,924 negroes owned 17,55") :
I acres of land, which, together with i
i buildings, was assessed at $132,189. The
I 4,770 whites of the county, in the same
i year, owned 202.962 acres, and the as
sessed value of their lands and build
ings was $1,064. 150, or, in other words,
the average white man was twenty
times as rich as the average negro.
After a general survey of the county.
Dr. Dv Bois selects its chief town,
Farmville, for a minute study. He de
scribes it as it is, thoroughly Vir
ginian In character — easy-going, gos
sipy and conservative, with respect for
family traditions and landed property.
It would hardly be called bustling,
and yet it is a busy market town, with
a long, low main street, full of general
stores, and branching streets with to
bacco warehouses and tobacco fac
tories, churches and substantial dwel
lings. It is the trading center of six
counties. Here a large proportion of
the tobacco of these counties is mar
j keted, and some of it manufactured
j into strips. On Saturday, the regular
I market day, the town population swells
to nearly twice its normal size from
the influx of country people — mostly
negroes — some in carriages, wagons
and ox carts, and some tin foot, and
a large amount of trading is done.
Naturally such a town .in the midst
of a farming district has>a great at
traction for young countrymen on ac
count of the larger life and the pros
pect of better wages" in ils manufac
turing and trading establishments. A
steady influx of immigrants thus adds
annually to tho population «f the town.
At the same time Farmville boys and
girls are attracted by the large city life
of Richmond, Norfolk, Baltimore and
New York. In this manner Farmville
acts as a sort of clearing house, tak
ing the raw country lad from the farm
to train in industrial life, and sending !
North and East more or less well- !
equipped recruits for metropolitan life, j
Of the 351 miles over fifteen years of
age in Farmville who returned answers
41.9 per cent were single; 50.7 per cent
were married, and 4 per cent were |
widowed. The remaining 3.4 per cent j
were in r.o case regularly divorced, but
were permanently separated from their
wives and have been so scheduled. Of
the 392 women, 32.1 per cent were sin
gle; 45.4 per cent were married; 19.4 per
cent were widowed, and 3.1 per cent
were permanently separated.
Comparing the conjugal conditions in
Farmville with the conditions in for
eign lands and in the United States, Mr.
Dv Bois finds some instructive indica
tions. "In slavery days," he says,
"marriage was entered upon very early,
and the first generation of freedom did
the same. The second generation, how
ever, is postponing marriage largely for
economic reasons, and is migrating to
better its condition. Consequently we
find, in a race young in civilization,
that the percentage of single men over
15 would seem to be larger than in
Great Britain, France, Germany, Hun
gary or Italy, if the conditions in
Farmville are generally true, and that
the number of single women is larger
than might be expected."
Some attempts were made to deter
mine what proportlori'-of thje whole pop
ulation was of mixejj, blood. A record
was kept of the personal appearance of
a majority of those negroes of the town
who were met by the investigator face
to face. Of 705 negroes thus met, 333
were apparently of unnHxed negro
blood; 219 were brown in color and
showed traces of white blood, and 153
were yellow or lighter and showed
considerable infusion of white
blood. According to'This.^ne-third to
one-half the negroes of the town are
of mixed blood, and.^verif^ing this by
observations on the fetreetjand in as
semblies, this seemed a flair conclu
The schools Dr. Dv ifeois finds pretty
poor, but adds that^so mdifferent a
school system has haa Its effect on the
illiteracy of the town. Of 'the 908 peo
ple reporting, 42.5 per cent could read
and write, 17.5 per cent could read, but
could not write, while 40 per cent were
wholly illiterate. If we divide the pop
ulation into four classes — those reared
In slavery, those reared in time of war
and reconstruction, those reared since
1867, and present youth — we can trace
the steps of advance by the decreasing
amount of illiteracy. Nevertheless, 23
per cent of the youths from 10 to 20
years of age are illiterate. One notice- I
able change in the later generations is
that the excess of illiteracy which was
that the excess of illiteracy, which was
formerly among the women, is now
The study of occupations is interest
ing 1 . There are no colored physicians or
lawyers in Farmville, preachers and
teachers being the only representatives
cf the learned professions. The posi
tion of preacher is the most influential '
of all positions among the negroes, and '■
brings the largest degree of personal i
respect and social prestige. The two I
hading preachers in the town receive,
the one $480 and house rent; the other,
$GOG a year. Both are graduates of i
theological seminaries and represent the J
jour.ger and more progressive element.
They use good English, and no scandal
attaches to their private life, so far as
the investigator could learn. Their in
fluence is, on the whole, good, although
they are not particularly spiritual
guides, being rather social leaders.
Such men are slowly but surely crowd
ing out the ignorant but picturesque
preacher of slavery days. The latter
type is now to be found only in small
churches and receive salaries ranging
from $75 to $300 a year.
Teachers stand next to preachers in
general esteem. An increasing number
of these are now young women, and
those in Farmville teach the schools of
the surrounding country districts. The
school terms are from four to six
months, and in addition there is con
siderable private teaching done. The
teachers earn from $100 to $250 a year
by teaching, and sometimes do other
work in vacation.
The individual undertaker of business
enterprise is a new figure among ne
grces, and his rise means much for the
future of the race. Farmville negroes
engage on their own account in brick
niaking. the grocery trade, barbering,
restaurant-keeping, furniture repairing,
silversmithing and clock repairing, shOi
making, wood selling, whip making,
steam laundering, contracting and
building. painting. blacksmithing,
wheelwrighting, hotel keeping and
farming, representing in all thirty-two
separate enterprises conducted by
thirty-six proprietors, and employing,
besides, about forty other persons.
The entire brickmaking business of
Farmville and vicinity is in the hands
of a freedman, who bought his own I
and his family's freedom, purchased
his master's estate and eventually hir
ed his master to work for him. He
owns a thousand acres or more of land
in Cumberland county and considera
ble Farmville property. In his brick
yard he hires about fifteen hands,
mostly boys from sixteen to twenty
years of age, and runs five or six
months a year, making from 200,000 to
300,000 bricks. His men receive about
$12 a month. Probably half the brick
houses in and near Farmville are built
of brick made in his establishment, and
he has repeatedly driven white com
petitors out of business. A new enter
prise in the town is a bakery and
hotel. It occupies a neat building on
the main street and is conducted by
a Hampton graduate and her husband.
There is considerable dissatisfaction
over domestic service, which negroes
are coming to regard as a relic of
slavery. Employers, on the other hand,
find an increasing number of careless
and impudent young people, who neg
lect their work, and in some cases
show vicious tendencies and demoral
ize the children of the family. They
pay low wages, partly because they
cannot afford to pay much, and part
ly because they do not believe the
service rendered is worth more. The
servants, receiving less than they think
they ought, are often careful to render
as little for it as possible. They grow
to despise the menial work they do,
partly because their employers them
selves despise it and teach their
daughters to do the same.
This may not represent the open,
conscious thought of the community,
but it is the unconscious tendency of
the present situation, which makes one
species of honorable and necessary la
bor difficult to buy or sell without loss j
of self-respect on one Bide or the
other. One result of this situation is
the wholesale emigration of the bet
ter class of servants to the North,
where they can earn three and often
four times the wages for less work.
One curious modification of the do
mestic service system is the fact that
negroes themselves are beginning to
hire servants. Ten families among
Farmville negroes regularly hire one
servant each, and several others have
a woman to help occasionally.
WATERS ROAR IX A CAVERN.
I'nderKPoand Cataract Believed to
Have Been DlNCOvcred.
SPRINGFIELD, 0., Jan. 30.— The
recently discovered big cave on the
Reams farm near Bellefontaine, twen
ty-five miles north of here, proves to
be a wonder. Explorers have already
gone 3,000 feet underground, and today
a new cavern was discovered, and the
roar of water can be heard. Since it is
impossible to enter the new chamber
because the rocks are too close togeth
er, it is not known how extensive the
falls may be. The opening will be en
RECREANT HUSBAND IX SCHOOL,.
Hlm WIIV Makes OltJectlonH and Han
ALTON, 111., Jan. 30.— Roy Nevlns, I
twenty years old, was taken from his !
class at the Upper Alton high school j
this morning and arrested upon a j
charge of wife desertion. Last October
young Nevins, whose father is a well
to-do farmer of Calhoun county, mar
ried Miss Rottie Crater, a daughter of ,
Abraham Crater, a wealthy resident of
the sarre county. A few weeks after
this wedding the boy-husband came to
Upper Alton and entered the high
school. He did not bring his wife with
him. Finally, despairing of hor efforts
to persuade him to return, she sent the
officers after him. Nevins was taken
home by the sheriff tonight.
Y\ ;,s a Counin of Polk.
BALTIMORE, Md., Jan. 30.— Mrs. Mary
Holton died this afternoon at the residence |
of her eon, ex-Congressman Holton. Mrs.
Holton -was In her 94th year, and was a cousin
of President James K. Polk.
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WIRES TO ALASKA
PROBABILITY THAT THE OLD CAR
IBOO LINE MILL BE COM
AND THEREIN IS A ROMANCE.
HOW KLONDIKE GOLD MIGHT
HAVE III. !.\ DISCOVERED
PART OF THE LINE YET EXISTS.
Poles* nnil Wiren for Nearly 000
Mile* Still In Working
SEATTLE, Wash., Jan. 30.— During
the Cariboo gold-mining excitement, in
June, 1895, press dispatches from Ot
tawa contained the Information that
the Canadian Pacific Railway company
contemplated reoccupying the old tele
graph line running up into the mining
camps of the Cariboo country in Rrlt
ish Columbia. The line was construct
ed thirty-five years ago, but long since
has been abandoned. Now that g"l<l
has been found on the Klondike, talk
of reoperating this old line and extend
ing it to the new gold fields has 1»< n
renewed. The proposition recalls a
mass of facts connected with the early
history of this Northwest country that
to the present generation reads like a
Thirty-five years ago the people of
the world were talking about this
abandoned telegraph line just as fer
vently as they have been talking about
the Klondike gold discoveries. Its con
struction was an essential part of a
scheme to encircle the earth by wire,
leading from New York to St. Peters
burg, by way of Seattle and Bering
sea, but the project was abandoned In
the spring of 1866, when the transat
lantic cable proved a success. The
cable connecting the old and new
worlds by wire was only 3,000 miles in
length, while the overland project, by
way of Seattle and Bering sea, con
templated the building of 21,000 mih-s
of telegraph lines.
EXTENSION COSTING $11,000,000.
It will be recalled by those acquaint
ed with the history of the enterprise
on this coast that the telegraph lint
was extended more than 900 miles
northeast of New "Westminster, into
the heart of a previously unexplored
country. The preliminary surveys, the
exploration parties and the actual con
struction of this line alone cost up
ward of $11,000,000, all of which was
lost when the operation of the Atlantic
cable was begun. During all these in
tervening years, however, the poles
and wires for these 900 miles have
stood, and examinations made three
years ago resulted In the discovery
that much of the wire Ls still stretched
and can be put into working order
without a very great outlay of capital.
The great cost of this work was in
creased by the ample provision for the
future which the company made in the
shape of supplies sent into the coun
While this is of great local Interest.
because of its proximity to the sound
and to Seattle, the company made just
as extensive preparation on Bering sea,
in Northern Alaska, and In Siberia. It
was the scheme to span Bering straits
by means of a cable, the distance be
ing short and the plan practicable. The
overland telegraph lines was to extend
to Cape Prince of Wales on this side
of the sea, and, crossing the straits.
connect the Siberian shore at Plover
bay. From Plover bay, inland, there
are now about 350 miles of poles erect
ed, with wires stretched, reaching
across the snowy land. From Port
Clarence, south of Cape Prince of
Wales and extending about 200 miles
southward, are 300 miles more of poles
and wire, utterly useless for commer
cial purposes. The line was so well
constructed, however, that it is believ
ed to be in good condition, even now.
RUSSIAN EXTENSION IS PROJECT
In 1855 the first attempt was made
to lay the first transatlantic cablf. but
it was a failure. Electrical engineeib
announced that it was impossible to
transmit a message for 3,000 milts un
der water. For ten years the matter
was unsettled, and the Western Union
Telegraph company's Russian extension
was organized, being a separate com
pany, but having the same stockholders
as had the parent eumpany. Millions
of dollars were spent in securing satis
factory routes and in sending out ex
ploration parties. Finally the great
work was und-ertaken on a gigantic
scale. Early in the spring of 1868 word
was flashed over the world that the sec
ond Atlantic cable was a complete suc
cess, and at the same time the Russian
extension was abandoned. As an illus
tration of the great loss suffered it i.s
sufficient to mention that on this exten
sion of this old-time telegraph line the
cost of transportation of materials and
supplies of all kinds was $1 a pound.
The materials were abandoned and the
supplies were sold to the Hudson Bay
trappers for 1 cent a pound.
MIGHT HAVE DISCOVERED THE
It is of interest to note that the
prices paid for ordinary articles of ne-
Cvesity at that time were about the
same as those now demanded from the
miners at Dawson City. It is also in
teresting to note that the proposed lint
would have passed very near the pres
ent town site of Dawson. If the line
had been extended as far as the Klon
dike, then an unknown stream and hav
ing no place on the map. it is very like
ly that in sinking holes for the tele
graph poles the rich deposits of placer
gold would then have been discovered.
Seattle and the Fuget sound region
were closely identified with the great
proposition during the period of con
struction on this division, and there
are men in this city who were then in
the employ of the companies interested.
J. M. Lyon, ex-postmaster of Seattle,
was then an operator in the employ of
the California State Telegraph com
pany, afterward absorbed by the West
ern Union, and he was sent by the
company to New Westminster, where
he was manager of the loca-l office. An
other well-known Seattle man who was
then in the work is 'ieorge W. Harris,
late auditor of the Seattle, Lake Shore
& Eastern railroad. In 1864 and J36>
he was quartermaster on the schooner
George W. Wright, which carried sup
plies from San Francisco and materials
to the workmen on the frontier of this
coas-t, Alaska and Siberia. Of course
there was no United States Alaska then
it was Russian territory. There were
several ships and schooners in the fleet
Of the company and all were engaged in
the- same business. The employes all
wore uniforms and deported th- m-.-lv s
in military style. The ship Nightingale
was the flagship of the squadron.
REMINISCENCES OF AN EX-POST
"I was with the California State
Telegraph company in those days "
said ex-Postmaster Lyon. -This com
pany was the rival of the Western
Union and operated and controlled all
the lines west of Omaha. Well, it heard
about the trans-Russian line, and to
capture some of the trade ran a line
up from Yreka, Cal.. to Portland, and
thence to New Westminster, touching
Seattle. Then the other company
abandoned its scheme to build from
Portland and built from New West
minster northward toward Bering sea.
In later year the bonds of the state
company were placed on the New York
market and were quietly bought up by
the Western Union.
"But those were exciting days. In
my office in New Westminster I hay»
talked with the operator at Fort. <£i£a~
ger, 600 miles northwest of Cariboo.
You see, the line was put in working
order as it was pushed along, bo that
communication was kept up continual
ly with the managers. A young fel
low, the operator, with one or two
others, wintered at Fort Steager, ami
on clear days we would talk over the
wire, and I would report what he had
to say to the offlctrs. 11.- had a try
ing time of it. Before he was li-ft there
a stockade was built about the station
to keep away the Indians, and th<
place was slocked with a few rifles
and ammunition, and there wen- port
holes to fire from. All winter long he
was besieged by Indians. wh<> demand
ed that he give up the provisions that
he had in stock, threatening to burn
the place. The men did not dare leave
tli'- place all winter, and the operator
would tell me about it over the wire.
< >:' course, they were 600 miles away,
and we could do nothing, but they
were mighty badly frightened occa
sionally, and the perilous position
they were placed in affected us all. I
would always be glad to hear from
him, because I would not know from
one day to the other whether he would
survive, and the unpleasant pictures of
Mood and scalps were continually be
VESSELS IN THE FLEET.
"I was something of a youngster in
those days," said George W. Harris,
"but I have a vivid recollection of the
days spent on board ship and of my
visits to Rering sea and to Plover bay
and Port Clarence. While nearly ev
ery thing came from San Francisco, we
got our poles from Pug( t sound. You
see. in Siberia, from Plover bay to
ward St. Petersburg, there is no stand
ing timber; not for some distance, at
least, and most all the poles for this
extension, so far as built, came from
Seabeck, from Adams, Blimm & Co.'fl
mill. Mr. Adams is now interested in
the Washington Milling company's
mill at Port Hadlock. There were thou
sands of men working for the com
pany, but I did not know much about
the work, except that among the ships.
There were, in the fleet, the schooner
George S. Wright, the bark H. L. Ku.l
gers, the ship Nightingale, the schoon
er Milton (I. Badger, the bark Clara
Bell and the hark Onward. The On
ward was afterward lost.
"The Onward made a trip to Siberia
with supplies, with several others of
the fleet, and she went up near where
the Amoor river empties into the sea
in Amoor bay. She did not come out in
time, and, in trying to get out of the
harbor, was caught In the lee and im
prisoned for the winter. When the ice
began breaking up in the spring she
was wrecked, but no lives were lost."
The completion of the Atlantic cable
and the success of the adventure was
a great shock alike to the Russian Ex
tension company and to the employes.
When Mr. Harris was asked how he
felt when the news was received to
stop work and abandon the venture, he
"How did I feel? I felt that I had
lest my Job! That was all that worried
me a'rout that time. I had a soft snap
— nothing to do but to draw my pay
when payday came around."
OPPORTUNITY WHICH MADE KEN
It was this great venture that af
forded George Kennan, the noted lec
turer and magazine writer, informa
tion and materials which have since
made him wealthy and famous, and
given him a place in the literature of
America. He was with the party that
worked from St. Petersburg across Si
\ i ria to Bering sea, locating a route
for a railroad, as well as a route for
the telegraph line.
In June, 1895, it was alleged to be the
avowed intention of the Canadian Pa
cific railway company to acquire the
old line. An Ottawa dispatch at that
"It is intended, so it i.s claimed, to
repair the line and extend it to Forty
Mile creek on the Yukon, with branch
lines to Sitka and Juneau. The pros.
pective great development of the cari
boo gold mines will render the first part
of the line a good business proposition,
and its ultimate extension into the
h^-art of Alaska is quite probable. In
deed, it is within the bounds of possi
bility that not so many years will
elapse before the original Idea of the
projectors of the line is carried out,
Bering sea is crossed and a connection
made with the trans- Siberian line,
which will follow the g tat Siberian
Girl*' College In U Illuce.
Spfcial to the Globe.
ALBERT LEA. Jan. 30.— Albert Lea col
lege, the female educational Institution of the
Prtsfiyteriana of this state, had a narrow
escape from destruction by fire this after
noon. The flames were In the chapel a_nd a
heavy loss was sustained to the organ, turni
ture, carpets, etc.
Crashed l'n<ler a Falling; Tree.
Special to the Globe.
THORPE, Wls.. Jan. 30.— Edward Rudlo
v,-a.s killed at Tom Horan'a camp yesterday
by a falling tree. The body was brought
here and shipped to his home at Gak-Hville,
Af?aln Declared Guilty.
Special to the Globe.
FARGO. N. D-. Jan. 30.— The jury in th*
case of the state against J. D. Haynes,
charged w!th the burglary of the Hunter de
pot in April, 1898, returned a verdict of
guilty this morning. This is Haynes 1 second
trial." a rehearing having been granted by the
supreme court. His accomplice. Thomas .\lo_
, • is now serving a three years' sentence
In the penicent'.ary at Bismarck.
*V /^CUHEB\ I foe liig « for unnatural
W /Inl » 5 Uti.\ I dudiarufp., inflftßUUaUoM,
/?.*7/ Go * r » QU:t:d U irritatiuus or ule«rationa
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l-^-j|"«'»ou coutM'oo. I'auilerh. ud BOt astiia-
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