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EE MAY MOVE ON SPAIN
MORE FIGHTING IN PROSPECT FOR DEWEY Wn.hliiK'on Diplomats Greatly In terested In the News From Man ila, and In Some Quarters It Is Relieved That the American Vic tory May lie tbe Deßlunlug of the End of tbe Struggle. WASHINGTON, May 2.— The general Opinion among members of the admin istration is that the naval victory at Manila is not only highly Important of itself, but that it will have a de cided influence among the nations of Kurope, which may ultimately result in their united action in forcing Spain to an early relinquishment of the Im possible task of compelling the United States to change its course with respect to Cuba. The attorney general, when question ed today, said that in his Judgment the Manila victory was the beginning of the end. A few such defeats much convince the Spanish government that their case was a hopeless one. and It was his opinion that it would be a matter of only a few weeks or months before Spain would be anxious to reopen negotiations with the United States with a view to a complete sur render of her sovereignty over Cuba. Thinking men, ho said, the world over, have been convinced from the first that there could be but one issue to the present struggle. Spanish sov ereignty in this hemisphere must end completely ancl forever. This view he believed had been shared by the lead ing members of the Spanish govern ment, but they were powerless to pre vent a conflict which they well knew must result fatally to their cause. Secretary Gage held similar views, and he was inclined to the opinion that Spain might not wait for more crush ing defeats before she set on foot nego tiations looking to the cessation of hos tilitie-s. There had not been from the first and could not be any question as to the final result of -war between the two countries. We were so far superior to them In everything that goes to make up a great nation that only a short time would be necessary, in his judgment, to demonstrate even to the satisfaction of the Spaniards them selves that they were completely out classed. However, the initiative prob ably would be a concert of the Euro pean powers, but how soon that in fluence would be effectively brought to bear nn the Spanish government could not be foretold. Although the victory at the Philip pines undoubtedly wili have the effect of releasing at least a part of Commo dore Dewey's fleet, members of the ad ministration are not inclined to discuss what action will be taken in that re gard. Whether or not they would be cent westward against the Spanish fleet at home or proceed east to Join our own fleet in the Atlantic is not known. It Is obvious, however, that as soon as the islands have been taken com plete possession of by Commodore Dewey, a sufficient force of United States troops will be sent thither to hold them, and to exercise proper po lice supervision. I)lploma<n Intcrexted. At the foreign embassies and lega tions intense interest is shown in the i news of the victory of the American fleet at Manila. It was stated by a ! diplomatic official today that another such victory would end the cause of j Spain and wou'd force her to seek an ' armistice and peace. The universal . belief in diplomatic quarters is that ' this stroke in the Philippines will be | followed Immediately by aggressive ac- 1 tion in Cuba. Aside from the immedi- i ate effects of the Manila engagement, i foreign representatives here say it is j likely to precipitate internal convul sions in Spain. This has been appre- s hended by the European powers, and i it has been what has been counted on to end the war. Advices from Manila have not been received by any of the establishments representing the great powers of Eu rope up to noon today. From the fact reported from Madrid that Commodore Dewey had opened communication with the British consul at Manila, it is ex pected that the first reports other than those of the Spanish character will come from British sources. It is understood that the British con sul at Manila, Mr. Rawson-Walker, has assumed charge of American Inter ests in the Philippines, find, under such circumstances, he is at present charged with the important duty of protecting the lives of the Americans on shore at Manila ard elsewhere. It Is believed that Commodore Dewey will give his first attention to looking j after these Americans ashore. EnKliMb (alil.-s. The cable from Manila, it is learned, hi a British and not a Spanish cable, and it is believed that British operators have charge of the cable station. While they would be subject to Spanish cen sorship, yet there is no doubt that the British ownership would ensure a more prompt and unprejudiced transmission of official and unofficial reports than if it were not a British cable. The cable goes to Hong Kong and thence by way e>f Aden and the Red sea to continental Europe and London. Leading diplomats say no step to ward European Intervention is likely to be hastened by this disaster of Spain. It Is looked upon simply as a war reverse, which cannot be turned into political channels by Spanish ap peals to the great powers. This Is the view, alike in British, French and German quarters. It was rather ex pected from the British, but It is none the less apparent among French and German officials, who regard the time for mediation or intervention as past. One of the members of the diplo matic corps said grave fears were en tertained of the effect of the reverse at Madrid. The government there is threatened on two sides, one the Car lists, the other the republicans. Hu miliation over the defeat naturally will find expression against the Sagasta regime and the throne itself. Whether the authorities will be able to resist popular indignation is much doubted by those conversant with affairs at Madrid. Today's cable advices, that martial law may be proclaimed, bore out the view of diplomats as to the gravity of affairs. SPAIN SURRENDERS MANILA Continued from Flrnt Pa are. cable offices, saying that unless these terms were complied with he would proceed to bombard the city. The Spanish governor general refused to surrender, and prevented the agent ot the telegraph company from confer ring with Commodore Dewey. The mes sage ended with the statement that the British governor of the Straits Set tlement expected that the bombard ment of Manila would begin on Monday morning, when the Spaniards would cut the cable. The first of these cable messages was received at 9 o'clock yesterday even ing, and the second was received at midnight. They have not yet been given to the newspapers here. No other messages on the subject have been received In London al though the foreign offlce expects news from the British consul at Manila. Another Account . The Madrid correspondent of the Times, describing the engagement at Manila, says: The Olympia, the Boston the Raleigh, the Concord, the Petrei and the Monterey entered the bay un der cover of darkness by the smaller **T _ and safer Bochachioa channel. The forts of Corregidor Island gave tbe alarm by firing on the intruders, but y*y* !££ m t0 have inflicted no serious damage. " The American squadron moved up the bay and at 3 o'clock in the morning appeared before Cavite. Here, lying under the shelter of the forts, was the Spanish squadron. Admiral Montejo, a few days before, went to Subic bay to look for the enemy, but learning that they were vastly superior ln force, had prudentiy returned and placed his only chance of meeting the enemy on something like equal terms; and it did not suffice. Soon the Americans opened Are. The Spaniards replied vigorously and the combat continued without Interruption for four hours, during which the Don Antonio de Ulloa was sunk, the Castila and the Mindanao were set on Are and the Reina Maria Christina and the Don Juan de Austria were seriously dam aged. One or two of the smaller crafts were scuttled by their crews to escape capture. Others took refuge in a small neighboring creek emptying into Baker bay where, presumably, the American ships were unable to follow them. But not one surrendered. All the information obtained concern ing the Spanish force of auxiliary cruis ers ln regard to which vague reports have emanated from Madrid, tends to show that it has been over-estimated. The best two ships, the Columbia and the Normannia, formerly of the Ham burg-American line, are yet unarmed and it is believed they will be unable to secure armament. The Spanish auxiliary fleet consists of the six boats belonging to the Barce lona Trans-Atlantic Steamship com pany. They are fairly well armed, but they have been scattered. Two of them are with the Cape Verde squadron, as transports, one is convoying the torpedo flotilla, another, it is said, is at San tiago De-Cuba and two are at Cadiz. Spain, until the engagement at Ma nila, had fought no naval engagements worth mentioning for more than nine ty years. And those she did fight prove the national spirit and temper so thoroughly that It is worth while looking into the last two drubbings Great Britain gave her, just to show how likely history is to repeat itself with this, the larger, branch of the E 1 j Harrison Praises Dewey. | INDIANAPOLIS, Ind., May 2. — Benjamin Harrison was seen ™ B at his home tonight and asked for an expression on the naval H || victory. He prepared the following expression: "If the accounts we ha/c received are correct, the perform- ■ B ance of our fleet under Commodore Dewey at Manila will take ■ a very high place in naval history. The passing at night into S ■ a harbor that was mined to encounter at dawn the Spanish fleet g m under the guns of heavy land fortifications, and that without H any reconnaJsance or dilatory preliminaries, was a magnificent ■ g exhibition of pluck. It recalls Farragut and Mobile bay. The fight must have been very hot, and we can hardly, I suppose, I ■ have escaped some losses In the gallant crews — if not of ships. I g I have an undaunted faith in the American navy— ship for ship, I and man for man. It Is unmatched." jg ■ ■■■■■■Bill-9eabBBBIIQBCI| B | English-speaking race. It Is true that Horatio Nelson won the battles and that the world has never seen such another sea fighter as Horatio Ne'.son; but there is no reason why another David Farraaut should not be develop ed in this struggle, ond he will be even more than is needed to repeat the drubblngs: It was Feb. 13, 17S8, that Nelson in the Captain joined Sir John Jervis' fleet off Cape St. Vincent's, bringing the In telligence that the Spanish were ap proaching wilh a greatly superior force. They had, indeed, one 136-gun ship, six 112s, two 84s, eighteen ?4s, ten frigates and a brig. Against these thirty-eight vessels, twenty-seven of which were ships of the line, with 2,308 guns, Jer vis had two 100-gun ships, two 98.?, two 90s, eight 745, one 64, four frigates, a sloop and a cutter — only fifteen ships of-the-line, with 1,232 guns — barely half the force of the enemy. When the two fleets came within sight of one another the first Spaniard made some false signals which showed the utter incapac ity of the officers of that navy. While these incompetents were smug gling and straggling Into a line of bat tle Jervis came up to them under heavy canvas, went straight through their fleet, tacked and had nine of the Spaniards cut off from the main body. Repulsed in their attempt to rejoin their companions, with one ex ception these vessels prudently and in characteristic Spanish fashion ran away, appeared again In time to learn that their side was whipped and then disappeared permanently. And the others wiuld have been delighted to do the same thing. They did in fact make the attempt to get off without fighting, but Nelson, with the Captain as the rear guard of the British line, pitched single-handed into seven of them, took two himself, and In an hour's fighting, one against seven, with some assistance from the Culloden, cut them all to pieces. The other Spaniards survived, but only until they met Nel son again. It was not until the last day of his life, Oct. 21, 1805, that Nelson there after came into conflict with any con siderable number of the Spanish, hav ing in the meantime inflicted upon the French an overwhelming defeat at the battle of the Nile. With twenty-seven ships-of-the-line and four frigates, the British came up with the combined French and Spanish array at Trafalgar, consisting of thirty-three shlps-of-the line and seven frigates, all much heav ier ln both tonnage and metal than their opponents. Besides, they had 4,000 expert riflemen on board, who inflicted quite the heaviest damage done upon the British. A little before battle was joined, Nel son asked Capt. Blackwood what he would consider a victory. Taking ev erything into account, he decided that the capture of fourteen of the enemy's ships would mean glorious success. But Nelson declined to be contented with fewer than twenty, and that, strangely enough, was exactly the number of French and Spanish vessels which struck their colors during the action. When the British sailors went into battle, such was their confidence that they had only one remark upon the splendid spectacle afforded by their adversaries: "Won't they look well at Spithead?" As it turned out, the French were so fearful of Nelson since their experience with him off the Egyp tian coast that they did not fight as well as the Spanish. Yet Nelson's own ship, the Victory, 74, came alongside the Santlssima Trinidad, 136, and in a |lllill!!ll!!Ki!!IBiB!iJS!H i ' "Hi 1 TO GLOBE READERS. i ** The demand for The Olobe has been steadily increasing, and Just at 5 P this time it is guch that soma of ita patrons complain that they are un- il H able, from time to time, to purchase it at various points ln the city and | S country, the reason attributed ln nearly .Tory case being that the supply -■ was already exhausted. SJ f Steps have been take* to remedy yies. complaints by increasing our **! orders to agencies and dealers, but this #111 not, we are satisfied, wholly I I suffice. |a We shall, therefore. feel obliged to our friends if they will fill out th* m accompanying blank and send It to The alo b e offlce whenever they | I are disappointed at not finding this newspaper on sale at any given point: 1 To The St. Paul Globe: ■ | I was unable to buy a copy of The Olobe 1 * ■ morning at o'clock f. " I 1 at —Street (or Avenue). § *« -P1J.1.1J,:111..1,J,1.je:.;i,1;l l:i;ii:i i:i;u^ ff i THE ST. PAUI, GLOBE— TUESDAY MAY 8, 1898. few broadsides had so terrified her crew that they actually Jumped over board and swam to tie British ship to save their Spanish live_7 Nelson gave up his life at this bat tle, shot by a rifleman from the top of a French ship. It was the almost com plete obliteration of the Spanish fleet at Trafalgar which made it possible for the American colonies of Spain to establish their Independence in the first instance. On the last line of the official ''OP" ballot used ln today's election Yes j__[ is the place set apart for the #_ vote on the new charter. Put a mark on it thus: *^o For tha charter | LONDON FREE IN PRAISE AMEKICAN VICTOEY POPTJLAB IN OFFICIAL CIRCLES Clubs and Hotels Crowded With American Tourists Anxious to Hear the Latest News An Elab orate Analysis of the Sentiment of the Various Classes of English Society Friendly ln General. LONDON, May 2.— ln the house of parliament; at the hotels, which are beginning to be full of American tour ists; at all the government offices and particularly at the admiralty, the de feat of the Spanish by the Asiatic fleet of the United States at Manila was the one subject talked of throughout the day. The United States embassy was the center of interest. There was a con tinuous line of callers requesting in formation, the majority being Ameri cans. The United States ambassador, Col. John Hay, is overjoyed at the suc cess of the American navy, remarking concerning Commodore Dewey, who is a personal friend of the ambassador: "It is hard to imagine so quiet and amiable a gentleman controlling a fierce naval battle. It is these quiet Americans, however, who may be de pended upon to surprise the world when the opportunity of making his tory comes in the line of duty." Lieut. Colwell, the United States na val attache, declared the result was merely what he expected. The hotel bulletins are surrounded I with enthusiastic Americans, many of them displaying miniature flags at their button holes. Many British naval officers have ex pressed the warmest admiration for the work of the American fleet. In fact, a preponderance of sentiment in the British navy seems to be with the Americans throughout, the officers giv ing many practical proofs of their par tiality. International courtesy, how ever, debarred the high officials from commenting on the result. The question as to whether British sympathy is really with America is still agitating those who are chiefly inter ested in establishing a good under standing between the two nations. Al fred Harmsworth, who personally and through his papers has done the most efficient work in this direction, is con vinced that a large majority of the people in the United Kingdom are un reservedly in sympathy with the Unit ed States. He bases his conviction on a careful canvass of the country, which he has Just completed. It is shown that Scotland is practically solid for America. Of the merchants, shippers and business men generally, 30 per cent are keenly American, 35 per cent are neutral, and 35 per cent are against war anywhere. The Britieh aristocracy, aside from the Catholics, Is evenly divided, while the Jews are opposed to America. PROMOTION FOE WADE. The President Will Make Him a Major General Today. TAMPA, Fla., May 2.— Brig. Gen. J. F. Wade and J. R. Shafter received telegrams from Washington tonight in forming them that the president would tomorrow send In their names as ma jor generals of volunteers. Both will. however, it Is said, accompany the United States troops to Cuba. Jt is the general belief in the army circles tonight that the command of the expedition will devolve on Gen. Shafter with Gen. Wade in command of the first division ard Gen. Copping er of the second. It is believed that Gen. Coppinger will be here by Wednesday. Art for Schools. Free exhibition Tuesday and Wednesday, May 3d and 4th, at the gallery cf Stevens & Robert'ou, 69 East Sixth street, illustrating "The Rise and Progress of Greek and Ro man Art" and portraits of "The Makers of Our Nation." A. W. Elson & Co., Boston. SPAIN'S SECOND FLEET. Five Vessels "Will Sail From Cadiz on Slay 15. LONDON, May 3.— According to a dispatch from Cadiz to the Daily Chron icle, it is believed there that ordeis hav e been given for a fleet of five vessels to start for Cuba on May 15. Three Spanish torpedo boats continue cruising between Ceuta, Tarlfa and Al gfrorlras. TO CURE A COLD IN ONE DAY Take Laxative Bromo Quinine Tablets. All druggists refund money If it fails to cure. 2_. The genuine has L. B. Q. on each tablet. ' GARDEN OF THE ORIENT PHILIPPINES ARE EXTREMELY RICH AND PRODUCTIVE But for Three Centuries the Natives Have Groaned Under the Effects of Spanish Brutality and Misrule — Weyler's Record Here Even "Worse Than ip Cuba— — Cru-f-ltles "Which Have ted to the Revolt. The brilliant victory won by Com modore Dewey with his. squadron over the Spanish fleet in ManUa bay, makes opportune any Information in regard to that locality. It is now over a year since a fresh insurrection broke out in Luzon against Spanish rule, which has been characterized there with even more brutality than In Cuba. The pres ent Insurrection has been so far suc cessful that it has confined the Span ish forcss within the limits of Manila, and a few other cities. Advices from Hong Kong prior to the sailing of Dewey's squadron, told of the consul tations with chiefs of the insurgents having for their purpose the arrange- ment for a Joint attack on Manila after Dewey had disposed of the Spanish fleet. If the arrangements were car ried out the next news will probably be the capture of the city by the in surgents, in which case it will need all of Dewey's force to prevent the cap tors from wreaking vengeance for the cruelties of Spanish misrule. For nearly three and a half centuries the Philippine islands' have been under the domination of Spain. The conquest was made in 1565, and it was from the shores of Mexico that the invading forces made the start The inhabitants of the islands possessed only the na tive Weapons of savages. Spain's pow ers-received a temporary Check; and Instead cf victorious invasion by over awing the people by flaunting the Spanish flag, the advance guard en countered a degree of resistanca which was not contemplated. Much strategy was called into activity and the inva ders were required to exert their great est forces in order to accomplish the acquisition of the territory. And once acquired, the possessions have been a source of mutiny against the ruling powers. The insurrections have been measured almost by decades. The group of islands number about 1,200; and some of these merely pro ject above the surface of the ocean like pin heads and are inhibited by only three or four families. The entire area is about 116,000 square miles. The isl ands themselves are of volcanic orig.n, and some of these formations are quite lefty, though the summits are rarely crowned with snow because of their nearness to the equator. The climate FORTIFICATIONS OF THE CITY OF MANILA. of the uplands is temperate; rivers of any considerable size are infrequent. The heat from the year's, beginning to its end, is intense. The rainfalls, however, are sometimes of great vol ume, and there are records of as much as eight inches precipitation within twenty-four hours. The mean annual temperature of. Manila Is about 90 degrees, and the summer tempera ture Is about 100 every day; so it may be inferred that Admiral Dewey had "a hot time in the old town" last night. During the so-called winter season, the temperature ranges from 65 to 85 de grees. It is presumed that our gunners in Sunday's battle, fought in sweaters, and doubtless some are lying dead in them this morning. Despite the enervating climate, which renders the people Indisposed to labor, the soil is capable of considerable ln the way of productiveness, the annual exports approach $32,000,000. These con sist largely of hemp, sugar, coffee, to bacco leaf, cigars and indigo. The population is of a mixed qual ity. "Magellan discovered the islands ln 1521, and the coasts were populated by Malays, but the Interior possessed many Chinese, Japanese, Hindoos, Si amese and other Asiatic coast races. There are today only about 6,000 Span lards in the group, and these represent the office-holding classes, while the pop plation in Its entirety is estimated at between 9,000,000 and 11,000,000. The policy of the Spanish govern ment _____ been toward exclusiveness. Manila, the capital, the principal of the four ports, ia alone open to foreign intercourse. English merchants, how ever, control the trade, and the re mainder Is divided between the United States, the Netherlands. France and Germany. The City of Manila. We find In the Cosmopolitan for Oc tober, 1897, an article on Spanish rule in the Philippines, from which we make the following excerpts, as being of present interest. Manila bay Is a mag nificent body of water, on which the navies of the world might find ample room to maneuver. Manila Is situated on the east side of the bay, thirty-eight miles from the entrance on each side of the Passig river. This river drains the largest fresh water lake in the island, and is navigable for very small steamers to Its source, and for a half a mile by ocean-going steamers with a draft of from twelve to fourteen feet. The city lies on both sides of the river and has a population of about 300,000. Old Manila lies on the left bank and is enclosed by ma.sive stone walls, built 200 years ago. Within the walls are the cathedrals, monastarles, government offices, schools and a few shops and residences, but most ' of the business is transacted, and the principal resi dences are outside the walls. That portion of the city across the river Is called Blnondo, and here are the offices of the foreign shipping houses, banks, stores, custom house, etc. The business of Manila Is transacted in a THE TOWN OF CAVITE, Where the Revolution in the Philippine Islands Started. leisurely manner. The average citizen goes to his oflice at 8 or 9 in the morn ing, works until 12, eats his lunch, sleeps until 4, and then takes a drive around the Luneta. The government deliberately discourages improvements. A Spanish sugar planter besought the government for years for permission to establish a little tramway on his plantation with which to bring sugar cane to his crushers. After giving a description of tlie different tribes of natives occupying the island, under Spanish dominaticn, the writer pro ceeds to give the following interesting account of Spanish rule and its meth ods: How Spain Rales the Philippine*. The proper government of a popula tion so miscellaneous would in any caso be a matter of much difficulty. In the present instance it Is given into the hands of a horde of poverty-stricken officials who make no secret of the fact that they are not in the colony for their health. Many, if not all, of them go to the Philippines because they are in debt, if we may believe their own very frankly reiterated statements. With a few exceptions their object is to get money as rapidly as possible, and they are not over scrupulous as to the ways and means. These men come out for terms which should vary from three to six years, though as a matter of fact a,n official never knows how soon he will lose his place through a change In the home ministry, or from some other cause. It is not unheard of for n, man to receive an appointment to of fice in the Philippines, take passage for the Islands, and find on his arrival there that his "successor" has been ap pointed. In view of this uncertainty then, time is precious. A few years ago it used to be said that a governor of a province who did not become wealthy in two years, was indeed stupid. Times are not so good for the provincial officials now. The success of Gen. Weyler, during the three years of his reign as governor general of the Philippines, shows what "good management" will accomplish under favorable circumstances. His salary was forty thousand dollars pev annum. His position, of course, de manded that he should entertain hand somely, give liberally to charities, and so on. His personal expenses, therefore could not have been small, but so rigid was his economy that he was able to deposit ln the banks of London and Paris a sum variously estimated by his countrymen at from one to four million dollars. The means employed to obtain this money were various. Some In ference as to their character may be drawn from the fact that hardly had Despujol. "Weyle-r's successor, arrived at the capital, when one of the leading Chinese merchants of Manila called on him with a little gift of ten thousand dollars ln silver, which he wished to bestow merely as a slight mark of at tention. Despujol was a man of differ ent stamp than Weyler, and is report ed to have given the Chinese a vigorous blow ln the face. The machinery of government is com plicated. The central government, lo cated at Manila, has at Its head, a gov ernor general, appointed for three years at a ■alary of forty thousand dollars per annum. He is assisted by an ex tensive staff, and by two governing bodies, called respectively the general direction of cjvll administration and the administrative council. The colony Is divided Into provinces, some of which are civil, Borne military and some military and civil combined. Each province is under a governor, who receives a salary of from fifteen hundred to four thousand five hundred dollars per annum. Each governor ia in turn assisted by an extensive staff. The end and aim of this system of "government" Is to wring as much hard cash as possible from the poor Island ers. This money comes in the form of taxes, and everything in sight is taxed, including the natives themselves. Taxing; the Natives. Every person ln the colony over eighteen must hold a "cedula personal," or personal certificate. This document serves as a means of Identification and as a passport within the limits of the archipelago. It is impossible to travel without it. The cedulas are divided Into numerous classes, the cost rang ing from $25 to $1.50, and they must be renewed annually. Every person hold ing a cedula which costs less than $3.50 must render fifteen days of work to the government or pay an additional $7.50 in cash. Those holding cedulas which cost more than $3.50 must pay an additional $1.50 in lieu of work. This, however, Is by no means the only expedient resorted to by the gov ernment to raise money. Does a poor native wish to kill his buffalo or hog for meat, he must get permission to do so and pay for the privilege. Has he a horse or a few cocoanut trees — he must pay taxes on them. Does he wish to press out a little cocoanut oil — he must have a "licencia," and llcenclas cost money. There are annual taxes on weights and measures, taxes on stores and shops, taxes on house prop erty and taxes on industrial and liquor licenses. The Chinese are subject to a special tax. The system employed by the govern ment to obtain this money is certainly Ingenious. Each town or village has a "gobernadorcillo," or petty governor, who is invariably a native or a Mestizo', and also invariably one of the wealthier men of the place. The position is one of some dignity, and Its occupant is vested with a certain amount of that authority which is so dear to the heart of the Philippine native. The place is often, therefore, much sought after. The gobernadorcillo has as his taff a num ber of "head men" caller cabezas de barangay. Each cabeza is allowed to carry a cane. He is incidentally made responsible for the taxes of forty to sixty families. If he can get the money from them well and good; if not te must put his hand into hts own pocket The cabeza is responsible to his gober nadorcliro, who in turn is responsible to the governor of the province. Should any of his cabezas be delinquent the gobernadorcillo must make good' the deficit. An especially interesting fea ture of the system is that the ex-gober nadorclllos are liable during the term of their natural lives for their full pro rata share in any deficit which may arise under the administration of a successor In office. No mercy is shown to delinquent na tive officials. Their property Is con fiscated and sold to pay the debt they do not owe. If the funds raised by this means do not prove sufficient, the unfortunates are imprisoned or deport ed. In Siquijor we once saw a melan choly procession of forty-four men who _^.. 1 , ost hous es cattle, lands and. In addition, were to be sent to Bohol be cause they still owed sums ranging from $2 to $40, which they could not pay Their families were left to shift for themselves. Thieving Official*-. Following the example of the Span- ' lards, the native officials are by no ' means always honest. The thieving , doubtless begins in many Instances with the goberadorcillos, and some- ' times even with the cabezzas; but the « sums involved are usually Insignificant, as opportunities for theft are not great ' or numerous. « In spite of some more or less exten sive "leakage" by the way, some nine millions of dollars reach the central* < government annually, of which about five millions are raised by direct tax- * ation; two millions come from customs receipts, and five hundred thousand * from the government lottery. i What do the people get in return for this heavy burden of taxation? Verily, < It Is hard to say. Certainly not justice; for It Is a well known fact that the " man who wins a law suit is the man < who can and will pay more liberally for a favorable decision. Certainly not < education. The law provides for the i s establishment and maintenance of schools, and especially states that the Spanish language shall be tauffht. In a few of the larger towns this provi sion is carried out. In the vast major ity of cases It is not. Nor does the poor native see th» hard earned dollars of which he has been mulcted eocnended in local im provements. Here again the law _m good enough. Such Improvement !<• provided for. but alas! the funds that should pay for them are only too apt to find their way into the pockets of provincial officials or to be sent t.. th * capital. One result of this state of affairs _v that, except ln the vicinity of a few of the largest towns, the province has n> roads worthy of the nam". Few of thf alleged "roads" are* passable for any vehicle save a buffalo sled, even in the dry season, and during the rainy sea son they become Impassible even for a. man on. horseback, the- water buffalo being the only beast that can make its way through the apparently l*ot tomless sea of mud into which they ar * converted Nor ran uninterrupted progress be made even on "bufralo hack, for sooner or later one Is sure to encounter an effectual barrier in th shape of a rushing stream, too deep for the buffalo to ford and too swift for him to swim. Bridges are almost unknown, for even if a province has been so fortunate at Pome time in its history, as to have an honest governor who has constructed a few, his successors have, in noat cases allowed them to fall Into ruins. A bridge once down, stays down un less some poor native living near It or the gobernadorcille of the nearest vil lage, chooses to repair it at his own expense. Not only are the natives frequently left without protection from tIMM ban dits, who are often In leagu:- with the very authorities whose business It should be to bring them to justi, -.- bat they are deprived of means of d Ing themselves. In thf knowledge thai- Spanish dominion in the islands wouid speedily terminate were the native armed, arms and ammunition have been made contraband. One may not have in his possession a weapon of any kind without a license duly signed by the governor general. These licenses are very difficult to obtain, and cost & good round sum. There Is no hesitation as to the ways and means of obtaining Information from natives who are unwilling to give It, and torture is more or less openly resorted to. One of our servants, hav ing stolen some powder from us at Romblon, we applied to the governor for Instructions as to the best method of ascertaining Its when-abouts. ■ He at once suggested that a thumb-strew properly used would probably elicit the desired information. We are informed that other apparatus formerly used hy the Inquisition, and since preserved In the monastaries of old Manila, against the time of need, are being brought into requisition during the present revolt, but It should not be supposed that the Spaniard has not improved upon these? somewhat antiquated Implements of torture. We learned during our stay ln the Island that the application of a good strong interrupted cut rent of elec tricity to certain sensitive port the body had been found quit* .-fTo,- tive. And yet they say that ""pain Is not a progressive nation. COMMERCIAL. STATIST!'"*.. What Is Reported by Ihe States man's Year Book A boat the I'lill- IpplneM. "The Statesman's Year-Book, the recognized authority of th on statistical Information, has 1 1 lowing data relating to the Philippine islands. Owing to the events ring there ln this war, thi-j w of special Interest: These Islands extend alti. st due north and South from Foctru— neo and the Moluccas, embracing an extent of 16 degrees of latiuidi and _ degrees of longitude. They are over 1,200 in number; the two largest nre Luzon (area 40,024 square miles) and Mindanao; and the total area is about 52,650 square miles. The population, in cluding army and navy, numbers about 7,670,000. The capital of the Philippines, Ma nila, has 154,062 Inhabitants (1887); other towns are Laoag, 30,642; L-ipa, 43,403; Banang, 35,598: Batangas, 35.587. There Is a small resident Spanish population, and about 100.000 Chinese, in whose hands are the principal industries. The native inhabitants are Mostly of the Malayan race, but there arc .n<>. tribes of Negritos. The government is administered by a governor general and a captain general, and the forty three provinces are ruled by governors, alcaldes, or commandants, according to their importance and position. The estimated revenue of the Philip pine islands In 18">4-i*5 was £-,716,900, and the expenditure £2,656,026. There Is an export duty on tobacco, and almost every article of foreign production is heavily taxed on being Imported. On muslins and petroleum the duty la about 100 per cent of the cost. The chief products are hemp, sugar, ceffee, copra, tobacco leaf, cigars, au.i indigo. Gold mining Is being carried on in Luzon with favorable prospects, and the coal mining In Cebo, where! when arrangements for carriage are completed, the output Is expected to be about 5,000 tons per month. In the absence of official statistics, only approximate results can be given. In 1896 the imports were estimated at f2,187,600, .and the exports at £4.1"r1._."(i. The chief Imports are rice, flour, wines! dress goods, petroleum, coal. The chief exports in 1896 were: Sugar. £1.600,000; hemp, £1.500,000; tobacco leaf. £500.000; cigars, £150,000; copra, £375.000. On an Continued on Sixth Pave. 1 Business ml 4 — ~x i Will probably halt a moment f and reflect, before signing a f long term contract for a tel- r i ephone service that < ...Has Not Been Installed... > * and cannot possibly be put in f 4 operation with 2,00. subscrib- ► 4 ers for many months. Even >> in the early experimental . days of the telephone the ; NORTHWESTERN [ < TELEPHONE I EXCHANGE [ ; COMPANY __m__ rever required a subscriber to sign a contract for a longer r term than one year. It is es- ► timated that the NORTHWEST- t ERN TELEPHONE EXCHANGE T COMPANY will have over 10,000 SUBSCRIBERS > and connections with 500 cities and towns in Minnesota, North Dakota and South Da- r kota before the summer season w closes. k BV""F""F""""""F<F""""""P""P"1""""I''""""'»"