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BACKWOODS OF BOLIVIA
AN UNEXPLORED COUNTRY OF
-Tlie Cannibal* of Eastern Peru anil
(be Willi Indiana of (In- Mnrnnou
Bolivian InilimiH and Their
Poisoned Arrows Pieiures of
tlt«* Native- "Willi Camera and
Pen Railroad Project*.
r pj right, IS9B, by F:ar:k G. Carpenter.
LA PAZ. Bolivia, June 28— Bolivia
ls one '■'" the least known countries of
tho world. Even now the geographies
are disputing about Its area, and the
different estimates vary by more than
0 square miles. The information
I !; ive on the subject comes from Se
nor Manuel V. Ballivian, the president
of t; I.a Paz Geographical society,
ar.d one of the best-posted men upon
all sucb matters connected with this
country. Senor Ballivian toils me that
Bolivia contains more than 597,000
square miles. The same figures are
given in the Statesman's Year Book
In th- volume on Bolivia published
by the bureau of American republics
at Washington. This is almost one
sixth the size of the whole United
States, Including Ala.-ka.
It is equal to more than ten states as
big as N« w York, bigger than any
country in Europe, with the exception
of Russia, and more than Germany,
France, Great Britain, Greece. Switz
erland and Belgium combined. This
vasl territory has not as many people
i.s th;- state of Massachusetts. I doubt
if it could figure out as many as Chi
cago has at ibs writing, and the
Greater New York would give at lea s t
one- ar.d a half souls to every human
being now in I". livia. The population
is estimated at about 2.000.000, all told,
ar.d of these I believe that not more
than 500,000 have white blocd in them.
Think of giving a territory one-sixth
the size of ours and proportionately
quite as rich in its natural resources
to less than half the people of Phila
delphia, and you have about the con
dition* which prevail here. The whites
practie-ally own Bolivia, and the other
three-fourths of the people, who are
Indians, are their :erva-.ts. Of course
there are a few exceptions to this clas
sification, but as a rule it will hold
pood, it is especially so as regards the
domesticated Indisrs, who number
much more than half of the papulation,
and who are in many .- ises practically
the slaves of the whites. Here at La
Paz there at least five Indians to ore
White, and the city is more Indian than
The richest parts of Bolivia have not
keen surveyed, and there are great
provinces here which are practically
unexplored. There are some sections
which are as unknown as Central Af
rica, and their inhabitants have as
curious customs as the savages along
the edges of the Sahara. There is a
strip of Bolivia several hundred miles
wide and about 500 miles long, lying
bi tween this plateau and the boundary
of Brazil, which has resources of great
wealth. I have met men here who
have traveled overland to Paraguay
and the Argentine. They teli me of
vast plains upon which cattle feed in
herds of thousands. They can be
bought tor from two to three dollars
a head, tor there is no means of get
ting them to the markets. At present
In spite of the severe heat that has
prevailed during the past week and
also in spite of the numerous counter
attractions, the inaugural week of the
McKee Rankin stock company en
gagement at the Grand was most suc
c. =sful and succeeded in demonstrating
that the Rankin organization is one of
merit. For the star, Nance O'Neil,
nothing but praise has been heard, and
thi atergoere as a rule unite in prophe
sying for this talented young artist a
most brillihnt iutu:e. The rale of Lady
Isabel in "East Lynne" is one that is
heavy in its acting demands, and but
few actresses are able to carry the part
to a successful issue. It is to Miss
O'Neil's credit, however, that she gave
trie character a most able and strongly
emotional impersonation. In "A Wife's
Pi rii" Miss O'Neil made a favorable
Impression also. Mr. Can- and Mr. Holt
demonstrated that they are artists of
merit and did the work assigned to
thi-m in a clever manner. Mr. Ran
kin, although lacking the buoyancy of
youth, is still in evidence with his mag
nificent voice, and the reading which
he gives to every part he plays.
Tonight the company will present a
dramatization of Charles Dickens'
popular story "Oliver Twist." Of tho
many novels that the famous Dickens
gave to the English ie--.d'ng public none
ever attained the popularity of "Oliver
Twist" In dramatizing the play the
salient features of the story have been
retained and some thrilling scenes and
The dramatis personae will include
the characters so familiar in the story.
As mififht be expected, the role of
Nancy Sykes has been assigned to Miss
Nance O'Neil, and those who have seen
her impersonation of the role have
commented upon it as being one of the
strongest presentations of the chaiacter
ever given by an American actress. In
physique and voice. Miss O'Neil is well
suited to the performance of the part
and the conception of the character
she has developed is said to be original
and powerful in acton. McKee Rankin
Will be given his first real opportunity
of the engagement in the role of the
brutal Bill Sykes, a part which he has
assumed a number of times during his
career and which he a always been cred
ited with being one of his best per?
Cormances. In the hands of Mr. Ran
kin, the cruel, bloated thug is made a
thing of realism. Miss Affie McVicker
has been assigned the role of Oliver.
and Mr. Weaver will be Mr. Brown
1. iw. Herbert Carr appears as Ed
-** ,r." Fuford, Charles Crosby as Fagln,
Lionel Barrymore as the boukseihr.
Miss Rosa Swain, the -.-.'ell known Min
neapolis girl, is cast in the role of
Charlie Bates. Mrs. Horace McVicker
will be cast as Mrs. Bndwin and Edna
Brothers as Rose Maylie. The stage
settings will be all that could be de
For the last half of the week, com
mencing Thursday night, Alexander
Dumas' great play "Camille" will af
ford the attraction. All actresses who
have played for honors in the emotional
field have essayed to reach the heighth
in the title role of this great emotional I
play. It is to the credit of Miss Nance
O'Neil that her performance of this
part has been favorably compared with
that of some of the greatest actresses
that have«ever been seen in the role.
'Camille" is a powerful play and has
enjoyed a lasting popularity, especial
ly with the ladies, who find much to
enjoy in the loves of Camille and Ar
mand. The piece will be admirably
cast by the Rankin company, Ml=s
O'Neil appearing in the title role; AJ
gerrnan Tassin as Count de Varville-
McKee Rankin a? Mons. Duval, Edwirl
Holt as Armand, his son; Mr. Herbert
Carr as Gaston, Lionel Barrymore as
Gustave. Charles Crosby as Pere An
tcine, Mrs. Horace McVicker as Mme.
Prudence, Miss Rose Sivain as Olump:-,
Miss Edna Brothers as Nichette and
Miss Ricca Allen as Nanine.
NeWS Comes from. Now VYirlj- nf a now
Senor Ballivian tells me there ls a
syndicate formed in London to connect
these rich grazing lands with the head
of navigation of some of the Amazon
branches by means of a railway which
will run along the boundary between
Brazil and Bolivia, but on Brazilian
The road will be on the line of a
concession granted to Col. Church
some years ago, and its purpose will
be to carry these cheap cattle to the
rubber camps of the Amazon. There
are several other important projects
to build railroads in Bolivia. One is
to construct a line from La Paz to
the Desuuguadero river. This line
would be sixty-six miles long, and
Senor Ballivian says it will probably
be begun this summer. Another
scheme is to extend the Central North
Argentine railway to Sucre. This road
is now near the Bolivian border, and
it would pass through a rich cattle
grazing agricultural and mining ter
ritory and would furnish an outlet to
the Atlantic for Bolivian products.
There are several other plans for rail
roads from the Argentine Into Bolivia,
and the day will probably come when
all of i astern Bolivia will be opened
up to settlement.
HOW THEY TRAVEL IN BOLIVIA.
At present it is extremely difficult to
get to any part of. this" country. It
took me five days to come to La Paz
from tho coast, a distance of not more'
than 500 miles, and it will require at \
least six days of hard travel for me I
to reach the Pacific by the way I have.
planned. In coining here I had to j
spend two days on the railroad before ;
I was landed on the shores of Lake
Titic&ca. It took another day to cr-.ss
that lake, 1 had to wait at Chi'ilaya a
day, ar.d the fifth cay was taken up ln i
the stage ride, which landed me in La !
Paz. In going back I shali have to tak;
three day? of hard staging from here
to Oruro, and then have three days |
upon the smallest lone-, narrow gaucic
of the world in traveling for 600 miles
over the Andes :o tlie sea. For the |
same money and the same time I co_lU
comfortably cress the United States
from New York to San Francisco, a.
dis-tar.ce almost five tim-es as great.;
And still this is what they call easy;
and iapid travel here. The most of i
Bolivia is accessible only en mules or;
The American minister is arranging
t" paj a visit to the eapi'a', which i?,
a: Sucre and about 400 mi es frem here.
Ho will have to take mu'es cr stage for
160 miles to the railroad, and after a
short ride on the cars, wll! take* m;iies
again for a (iv*) days' ride through th?
mountains to Suc:e. I enters a-d that
a guard will be furnished him by the
Bolivian gov?roment, tlnugh I should
ji:d;-e that the trip would be perfecrly
safe without it. From Sucre to the fa
mous mining town of Potosi Is about
10-0 miles by mu'c aid bridle path, and
frem Oruro to Coehobamba. which is a
tewn of 25,000. it is a three and one
half dnys' ride on horseback. Nearly
of all the la'-ge towns, if the half-dozen
tcwrs of from 10,000 :o 40.C00 which em-;
brace the largest settlements of this!
country can be called large, are on the:
highlar.-ds ar.d in the mountains, and in
most cases travel must be on horse or
mukback. The country h- te.ls are mor j
like stables than any.hing else, and;
when on an out-of-the-way road it is:
almost impossible to buy food of the!
Indians or to secure quarters in their j
huts to spend the night. You sleep in j
the inns on platforms made of stone!
or sur.-dried bricks and eat what you!
can get. I carry a camp bed with me. ;
for the native beds are lousy and dirty.
Other necessities are a rubber coat,
heavy boots, a vicuna rug and canned
This part of Bolivia through which
operatic enterprise, which bids fair to
furnish one of the sensations of the
coming theatrical season. The Impe
rial Amusement company, of which EL
E. Blair, of Cincinnati, is proprietor,
and Milton Aborn, general manager,
which controls the Royal Italian Op
era company, has taken the master
piece of Puccini, 'La Boheme." had it
translated into English, and will give
a grand scenic production of the. opera,
opening the season early in Septem
"La Boheme," which was seen for
the first time in this country last sea
son, when it was sung in Italian by
the Royal Italian company, is said to
have the most wonderful story of any
opera which has been written during
the century, and should afford an ex
cellent opportunity for English artists
and scenic effects.
Julius Cahn's official theatrical guide
for the current season has been issued.
Mr. Cahn's publication is a part of the
Amusement World— the business end of
it— and the last issue is so complete
that it is invaluable.
The Henderson stock company fin
ished a highly successful week at the
Metropolitan. Minneapolis, last night.
In the presentations of Mr. William
Gillette's great war play, "Held by the
Enemy," the company showed that it
possessed excellent material, and that
its stage management was equal to
tbat of the best organizations. Never
has "Held by the Enemy" been better
staged or played. Beginning tonight
"All the Comforts of Home" will be
played, and on Thursday night "Young
Mrs. Winthrop" will be presented. The
Henderson Stock company will follow
the Rankin company at the Grand.
The country should feel relieved the
suspense is over. Al G. Field is going
to take the only really and truly min
strel show on the road early in the
Oscar Hammerstein was at his home
in Harlem when the great benefits giv
en for him were in progress at the
Madison Square garden. Half the peo
ple in the place expected to see his
familiar figure either on the stage or
about Ihe building, but he refused all
requests to make a speech or to take
any part In the affair. The profits
probably were not very great. It was
even said that there had been a deficit
But that proved to be untrue, and sev
eral thousand dollars will go to the
Ih neflciary. He said several days after
the entertainment that its pecuniary
results were really not important in
view of the feeling which it expressed
on the part of h!s fellow managers and
the performers who had formerly been
associated with him. Last week he
was again at work on an invention
from which he is confident that future
millions will come. He is mysterious
about it, but the purpose is known to
be something more or less remotely
connected with keeping a necktie down.
It is rather significant that none of the
European artists who have been here
at his theaters took the least notice
of the affair or of Mr. Hammerstein's
misfortunes. Yvette Guilbert could not
find anybody who would bring her here
until he did it, and Leno, Fregoli and
others drew larger sums of money from
him than they ever did from anybody
else. But there were no expressions of
sympathy from them. Probably they
argue that an American impresario
who is broke does not really exist for
them, ard as soon as he loses his money
must be forgotten as quickly as pos
The traveling theatrical company be
lieved to have had a career longer than
any other is about to disband in Man
chester, England. It has been ln ex
istence seventeen years. It gave its
first performance on Feb. 17, 1881. Ed
ward Compton ls its head. Under his
direction forty plays were produced,
and these Included some novelties, be-
Bi^fts three of Shakespeare's, three b**t
THE ST. PAUE. GI^OBE SUNDAY— -*JUI,Y 17, 189 S.
I am traveling may be said to have a
temperate climate. La Paz, ln fact, is
Just now a little too cold for spring or
fall clothing, and I have on two heavy
suits of underwear and the same wool
en clothes that I wear at home in De
cember. It snowed this afternoon.
Stiil, a week or so on horseback would
take me into tropical Bolivia. The
eastern part of this country is one of
the richest lands of the world, and I
am told that it will be the great Bolivia
of the future. I have met several men
who have gone from La Paz down the
rivers which flow into the Amazon
and by the Amazon to the Atlantic.
They tell me wonderful stories of rub
ber forests, of trees of wild cotton, of
plants. with fiber like silk and of vege
tation which Is so dense as to be al
most impenetrable. They speak alto of
savages who are cannibals, and of oth
er tribes who go about stark naked
and regard not the laws of God r.or
man. At Lima I met a young German
explorer named Kroehle, who had spent
three years in ti"»veling about through
the eastern provinces of Peru ar.d
among the Indians of the faraway
branches of the Amazon.
He had an excellent camera v Ith
him, and I have had the good fortune
to get some prints from his negatives.
The most of them I dare not publish,
for the figures of both men .md wom
en are entirely nude, and the curious
features of life which they show, vhlle
interesting from an ethnological stand
point, are hardly fit for a family news
paper. Mr. Kroehle was many times in
danger of his life. He was twice
wounded with poisoned arrows, and he
describes the travel through these re
gions as dangerous in the ~xtivme. He
was for a time among the head hunters
of the River Napo in Ecuador and
Peru, and the first pictures ever taken
of these people were made hy him.
One of these pictures I publish in con
nection with my letter on Ecuador.
The Napo rc-gion is full of queer peo
ple. The Indians of one tribe there
wear plates of wood or metal in the
lobes of their ears as big around as
the bottom of the average tumble**"*'
They have their ears pierced when
they are children and at flrst put bits
of grass and twigs in the holes to keep
them open. A little later additional
twigs are inserted and the holes are
gradually enlarged, until they are as
big arourd as a bracelet. I have
seen in Burmah and in Southern In
dia natives who follow the same cus
tom. It is not an uncommon thing in
Burmah for a woman to carry a cigar
made of tobacco wrapped in corn
husks and big around as a broom
stick in her ear hole. These Indians
go the Burmese one better, but the
extra expenditure they put on their
ea.r hob. s they save on their dress, for
both women and men go about naked.
There are other queer tribes on the
Napo. The liver, you know, rises in
the Ar.dcs of Ecuador and flows a
distance of SOO miles before* it empties
into the Amazon. It is navigable for
r>oo miles from its mouth by small
steamboats. The Javary river, which
flows between Brazil and Peru, is said
to be 1,300 miles long, and the Ucayli,
another branch of the Amazon, is of
about the same ltngth. The Upper
Maranon flows through Peru, and It is
na\ igable to Borja, a distance of 2,000
miles from the Atlantic. Think of a
stream < tinning across the United
States from New York to far beyond
Salt Lake City, and let this be navi
gable for small steamers, and you have
an idea of the possibilities of trade
on these Amazon branches. The Beni
is another Amazon branch which flows
through Bolivia, and the Mamora and
Guapon are other long navigable wa
AMONG THE CANNIBALS.
All of these tropical districts of Peru
and Bolivia contain curious tribes.
THE PRESIDENT'S FIELD FLAG.
Authorized to Be Used by the Commander-in-Chief on His Visits to Camps, Forts and
From the Washington Star.
The navy for some years has had what
is known as the president's flag. Until now
there has been no president's standard or
colors for the army, of which he is also con
stitutional commander-in-chief, or to be flown
over the executive mansion, his official resi
dence when at the capital, in addition to the
General Orders No. 113, Marsh 28, 1898, of
Maj. Gen. Miles, made the addition of a para
graph, 212 A, to the army regulations.
This describes in official detail the presi
dent's flag, to be used when the president
is present on official visits to fortresses, mili
tary forts or posts, or at reviews or in the
The flag is of scarlet bunting, thirteen feet
fly and eight feet hoist. In each corner Is
a flve-pointed star of five-inch radius to the
i tips. In the center of the scarlet Held is a
large fifth star, also of five points, two
feet nine inches radius to the tips. Inside
of this star ls a parallel star, separated from
it by a band of white, three inches wide.
The inner star forms a blue field, upon
I which is the official coat of arms, of the
United States, of the department of state de
On the scarlet field around the large star
are other white stars, one for each state,
equally scattered in the re-entering angles,
and all Included within the circumference
of a circle of three feet three inches radius.
I In the upper point, over the eagle, is a
j constellation of thirteen stars, representing
the original states of the American confeder
The evolution of the president's standard
Sheridan, two by Bulwer Lytton. and
works by Goldsmith, Knowles, Colman,
Tobin, Boucicault, Robertson and
others. The company acted ln 134
towns in the provinces and paid a year
ly visit to London. Mr. Compton gives
up the company to confine his atten
tion to London.
The latest tip as to who will direct
the future of Olympia. in New York,
associates the name of Andrew Freed
man with that position. Preedman
was Hammerstein's receiver, and as
the head and front of the New York
base ball club has gained the reputa
tion of being the meanest man and the
most thoroughly despised magnate In
the big league. He may make a good
The story ls again revived that Mr.
E. H. Sothern and his beautiful wife,
Virginia Haraed, will not be seen to
gether next season. On the contrary
it Is most probable that both will ven
ture forth as stars, the lady sticking to
her great success as Lady Ursula, In
Mr. Hope's charming play, while Mr.
Sothern, as has been Intimated in this
column, will try a new play of the
Mrs. Paoheo, the talented author of
"Incog," which was produced by-
Charles Dickson with success, has an
other farce which she yvlll send out
next season at her own expense M
; B. liea-viti i* announced as the nros-
There are some cannibals among them
who eat the flesh of their enemies and
do not scruple to serve up baby roasts
and woman stews upon occasion. Some
of the pictures that Mr. Froehle took
were of the cannibal tribes. He calls
them the Cachlro Indians and says they
live along the River Pachitea, a branch
of the Amazon. Others of the Indians
of these regions use blow guns and
poisoned arrows. The arrows are made
of iron wood, tipped with flints, which
are poisoned at the points. The guns
are reeds from ten to twelve feet long.
The Indians use these weapons for kill
ing their game as well as for their
wars. The slightest scratch of the ar
row will cause death, and strange to
say, the poison does not injure the meat
of the animals killed by It. The making
of this poison ia kept a secret by the
Indians. I am told it is made by stick
ing the arrows In putrlfied human flesh
which has already been poisoned in
some other way.
The poison acts very quickly and
causes death within a few moments.
On the Pachitea there are Indians who
cut their hair close and who look much
like negroes, though their hair is
brown. The women wear waist clothes,
but their legs and the upper parts of
their bodies are bare. Ia trading with
these people it is necessary to carry
a stock of goods with you. They do
not use money, and all of their dealings
are by trade. Not a few of them have
gold to exchange for hatchets, knives
end guns. They especially like Amer
ican hardware. They' wash the gold
out of the streams and bring it to the
traders in nuggets and coarse dust.
They will not take coin at all without
each piece has a hole ln it. They use
such pieces to make necklaces. It is
seldom that any of these people culti
vate the land. There are plenty of
fruits, and things grow so easily that
all that is necessary to get a crop is
to stick in the seeds or plants. They
burn over the ground and plant with
out plowing. Corn ripens at four
months and onions, beans and turnips
at three. In the valley of the Maranon
there are plantations of sugar cane.
The cane is cut when nine months old
and the same stalks will produce for
twelve successive years.
RUBBER FORESTS OF BOLIVIA.
It is estimated that Bolivia now pro
duces 4,000,000 pounds of rubber a year,
and that the total annual product of
the Amazon forests is over 45,000,000
pounds. There are rubber camps scat
tered all along the branches of the
Amazon, and the most of the product
Is shipped down that river to Para anel
thence to the United States or to
Europe. W-ithin the psst year or so
rubber has been coming into La Paz
fiom the forests near here, and I
learn that this is one of the few good
businesses of Bolivia. I had a chat
last night with Mr. Alberto Vlerland,
an Austrian, who is largely interest
ed in Bolivian rubber and quinine
plantations. In speaking of the rub
ber forests near here he said:
"All of the best lands have been
taken up, but they are In the hands
of people who have not capital to de
velop them and are anxious to sell.
The gathering of rubber is very cost
ly. The Indians who do the work will
insist on being paid in advance. The
regions are always unhealthy, as rub
ber grows only in low, marshy soil,
and the best trees are those which
have their roots under water for a
part of the year. The Indians are
afraid of getting sick, and they de
mand high wages, and will stay with
you only for a limited time."
"Is there much good rubber land in
Bolivia?" I asked.
"Yes, there is plenty of soil here
that will grow the rubber tree," said
Herr Vierland, "but so far the rubber
all comes from the forests. I know of
has been a work of months of study and
design. The designing has been under ths
Immediate direction and supervision of Adjt.
Gen. Corbin and Col. Bingham. The draw
ings for their inspection and the design final
ly adopted, together with the manufacturer's
full-size draft, were made by Fred D. Owen,
of Washington^ The heraldic significance cf
the design is thus explained. The thirteen
foot fly corresponds with the number of the
original states. The thirteen stars in con
stellation grouped ■ as breaking through the
clouds represent -.national emergence from
war into the progress of peace. There are
thirteen growths "(olive branch) of green
leaves; thirteen fruits in the eagle's left and
thirteen arrows in the eagle's right talon.
Tho forty-five white stars (one for each
state) surrounding- and protecting the cen
tral (executive) star. Indicate might, right,
justice, union and; together form a new con
stellation in the firmament of nations. The
color scarlet indicates valor and strength;
white, purity and '-principle; blue, heaven or
the inspired principles of government In
which the constitution was framed and under
which administration has been conducted.
It is a singular coincidence that the of
ficial legend of the seal of the United States,
"E plurlbus unum," contains thirteen let
ters, and that the- general order of the arm>
giving the standard its official status is num
bered 13. It might be added that tho super
stition with reference to the evil omen of
13, in the light of past national events, can
find no cause for foreboding over this dis
tinctively historical lucky number of the
United States of America.
pective manager. Miss Henrietta Cross
man also has a play from Mrs. Pacheo's
pen which she may use for stellar pur
De Wolf Hopper's summer opening at
Manhattan beach was not a decided
success, as It is reported that the crowd
was the smallest seen at an opening
performance there in years. The sul
try weather Is held responsible for the
apparent slump ln theatrical business
throughout New York city, for last week
upon this account solely there were
but two continuous houses and two roof
gardens being operated.
Sibyl Johnstone, the original Iza in
"The Clemenceau Case." Is reported to
be critically ill at her home in Boston.
Miss Bernlce Wheeler, the actress
who went down with the 111-fated La
Bourgogne, had been engaged to create
the role of Mrs. Smith, ln Broadhurst's
next farce "Why Smith Left Home."
and had contemplated a short Euro
pean trip before taking up her work
In the new role. She was a talented
actress and a great favorite with her
fellow players, i In private life she was
known as Mrs. John Coleman, having
married "Johnfiie"* Coleman, the book
maker, less than a year ago.
Itcad about Hotel iiEmpire, New York, on
nuoiher page: beautiful house, centrally lo
only one cultivated rubber plantation
ln the country, and this has about
100 trees. In the forests you often find
as many as 6,000 trees to the square
mile. I have seen groves of 10,000. The
trees usually grow in the valleys be
low the eastern slopes of the And-'-'S.
They are of all sizes, from as big as
your leg to the giant of the forest, 150
feet high, and so large that three men
could not, by joining hands, reach
around it. The tree which produces
the best rubber of commerce is known
as the Symphonia Elastica. We have
plenty of gutta percha trees, but
these have not yet been worked.*"
CHANCE FOR CAPITALISTS.
"Is there much profit ln the rubber
business here?" I asked.
"Yes, there is a great deal of money
to be made out of it, but only by the
use of large capital. No man can do
much without $25,000 or $50,000, and he
will make proportionately a great deal
more if he has $100,000. With this
amount he ought to net from 60 to 70
per cent a year. There is no trouble
for capitalists to get rubber forests.
The best of the lands upon which such
trees grow are now in the hands of
Cholos, or Bolivians with Indian blood
te them. They have taken up the lands
of the government and have no money
to work them."
"How do you get the rubber from
"It comes out in the form of a milky
white sap," was the reply. "At tha
be-ginning of the dry season the trees
are gashed with a chisel about an inch
broad. A little tin cup is fitted to the
tree under each gash and the s.ip 00.-es
out and drops down into the cup. Sev
eral gashes are made in each tree.
When the Indian has gashed a num
ber of trees he stops and collects the
milky sap and carries it to the head
quarters of the camp. He places iL
somewhere in the shade and then builds
n fire to smoke it. This fire is made of
wet wood or palm nuts, and it is so
arranged as to give a dense smoke.
Now the Indian takes a wooden shovel
or spoon and covers it with milk. He
then thrusts it into the smoke and
rapidly turns it about. As the smoke
•touches the rubber-milk it coagulates
and turns from the color of rich cream
to a light gray. He coats his shovel
again and again and at last has a ball
of rubber upon it. This is cut off and
laid away to be shipped to the markets.
A number of the balls are put into nets.
These are slung on the backs of mules
or donkeys, and are thus taken to
Chililaya on Lake Titicaca or La Paz.
We have to watch the Indians that
they do not put stones or dirt. Into their
balls of rubber to make them weigh
heavier. This is the case when they
are paid by the work done rather than
by the day."
This is the land of quinine. The
bark of the cinchona tree, from which
quinine is made, is called Peruvian
bark, but It would be more in accord
with the facta to call it Bolivian bark.
The best quinine of the world is made
from the bark of trees grown in the
state of La Paz, and Bolivia far ex
ceeds Peru in the number of her qui
nine trees. There are millions of trees
here growing on plantations set out to
make money out of the quinine market.
These plantations were established
when quinine was high and before some
of the Bolivian trees had been taken to
India and Ceylon to start plantations
there. As a rei?ult of the Indian plan
tations the market became overstocked
and quinine fell. The bark which in
1882 brought here in La Paz $220 in Bo
livian money a hundredweight now
sells for from $16 to $18 a hundred
weight, considering the difference in
the value of the Bolivian dollar by the
fall of silver for about one-thirtieth of
what it sold for sixteen years ago. Tho
fall of prices ruined a great many of
the Bolivian capitalists. More than
SAVED BY fl CpEDpmJ
There has been a da.ring case of bur
glary at a farm house in Cheshire.
Three men had tied down and gagged
the farmer and his two maid servants,
and -had rifled the house at their leis
There were two clews. In the strug
gle one of the men had left a button
from his coat behind, and he had also
had his face so severely scratched by
one of the maids that the girl said
"she was sure she had left her mark
Weeks passed without an arrest be
ing made, and people began to forget
the burglary, until one day a man was
arrested at Liverpool. He had with
him a bundle containing some of the
plunder of the farm house. His face
bore traces of scratching, and, to clinch
the matter, his coat wanted a button,
and the buttons on it corresponded
exactly with that picked up at the
scene of the burglary.
His defense was very flimsy. "He
knew nothing about the burglary, but
had bought the coat and things very
cheap off a man in the street." He
accounted for the scratches by* saying
that he was a sailor, and had in that
capacity much rough work to do.
There was no defense; the jury found
a verdict of "guilty" without leaving
the box, and the prisoner was asked
if he had anything to say.
"Well, cap'n," he said, "it's hard to
be convicted for noth'n. I know no
more of this burglary than a baby;
when it happened I was fightin' the
slavers on the Gold Coast."
There was something in the man's
manner that impressed the judge, so
he said, not unkindly:
"But surely, prisoner, if your story
is true, you must have friends and
comrades with whom you could have
communicated? It is too late now."
"You's right, cap'n; it's too late. I
couldn't communicate with them any
how, for I don't know where they are.
They may be in America, or they may
be at the Cape."
"But," urged the judge, "the court
has no wish to convict a man who may
be Innocent. Is there no one who could
speak for you?"
The prisoner looked in a hopeless sort
of way round the court.
"No," he began; but just then his
eye lighted on a man in the court.
"Yes," he added, pointing to him,
"there is a gentleman who might speak
for me if he would." The judge looked
in the direction of the individual point
"Do you know the prisoner?" he
"No, my lord," was the reply. "I
never saw him before in my life."
"Well, Capt. Sharpe," said the pris
oner, "I know you well enough."
"Is your name Capt. Sharpe?" asked
"Yes, my lord," came the reply.
"Well, the prisoner seems to recog
nize you, so I will ask you to step into
the witness box and be sworn, that he
may ask you questions."
The captain went into the box, and
the following dialogue ensued:
"Are you Capt. Sharpe, of the war
ship Vulture?" asked the prisoner.
"Were you in command of her on
the slave coast this spring?"
"And wasn't I one of the crew?"
"Most certainly not."
"But cap'n, don't you remember the
slave ship that you boarded?"
"And you yourself led the boarders?"
"Oh, yes; but all that ls nothing—
you may easily have heard of or read
all about that."
"Well, but cap'n, once more — don't
you remember the big black slaver who
was almost cutting you down? Dont'
you remember the man who stood be
tween you and death, and what he got
for it? Don't you remember that?"
And, brushing back his hair, the
prisoner showeda great scar down one
side of his head.
■The whole court looked on breathless
as the captain stared at the scar and
bx tu^ juAi), till his eyes warned start- ,
MES. LYNESS ESCAPES /~v
The Hospital and a Fearful Operation.
Hospitalsingreatei ties are sad places to visit. Three- jjSttf -^^stsgp''Ka
fourtlis of the patients lying- on those snow-white beds Jj&t%}ffi^Fp\_ :«§
are women and girls. ffir^iT c^pf '' ' *'*''' , 'IF
Why should this be the case ? J^S^m £&•'''' '^M
Because they have neglected themselves! Women flßgcgi (fiwty''PvM
as a rule attach too little importance to first s.ymp-. JSb^ /ffi3jfe
toms of a certain kind. If they have toothache, yßgm^9^ := J^^^^jLa
they will try to stive the tooth, though many leave
even this too late. They comfort themselves with |3g*;fJßpsi^fn7 \3flif
the thought that they can replace their teeth ; but JBtJW/ \^B^
they cannot replace their internal organs! P^^Ml wf
Every cue of those patients in the hospital beds NgS" * j Vv\
had plenty of warnings in the form of bearing-down (gJ£S j \A
feelings, pain at the; right or the left of the v/omb, W&tS >*A
nervous dyspepsia, pain in the small of the back, the lm | \\
" blues," or some other unnatural symptom, but they did'T [ 1
not heed them. I
Don't drag along at home or in the shop until you are finally obliged to
go to the hospital and submit to horrible examinations and operations !
Build up the female organs. Lydia E. Pinkham's Vegetable Compound Will
save you from the hospital. It will put new life into you.
The following- letter shows how Mrs. Lyness escaped the hospital and a
>-**ffjW"»-j»> fearful operation. Her experience should encourage
other women to follow her example. She
Jl^^P^^S.'^f^^^^^L, "* tliaul<; y° u ver .v much for what you have
J&--'wMis>s done for me, for I had given up in despair.
i»^ilßN^T) ''^^^I^Jsiy'' '-■§» Last February, I had a miscarriage caused
&W?&^& l" 1 *" illP" *-?^^^. overwork. It affected my heart, caused
JlSJiiiiiiiiEa a=>* f^^^^^^^^L me *' avc Kinlting- spells three to four a
p'4o^^f|sr|^ ** sjsy£m I^' as^ n S' sometimes half a day I
WSB^^^'^^3^^^^ '^^^^'A^B could not be left alone. I flowed con-
stantly. The doctor called twice a day
* *^^F^^^^n^^sJ^ t m i^v"" for a week, anel once a day for four weeks,
jSi MilenvST* l\ then three or four times a week for four
*v f WWU*^ j\ months. Finally he said I would have to un
'-^JC - •. ' dergo an operation. Then I commenced taking
Lydia E. Pinkham's Vegetable Compound, and
after one week I began to recover and steadily improved until I was cured
completely. By taking the Pinkham medicine, I avoided an operation which
the doctor said I would certainly have to undergo. lam gaining every day
and will cheerfully tell anyone what you have done for me." — Mbs. Tiiui.
Lyness, 10 Frederick St., Rochester, N. Y.
$3,000,000 were invented in such estates
hy people of L*a Paz, and the foreign
houses who had advanced money on
them were severely hurt. The bark at
one time was so low that it did not pay
to cut it and carry It to the markets,
and today, while there is somewhat of
a revival, the margin of profit in the
business is small.
I see loads of cinchona bark here
every day. They aie bi ought in to the
exporters on little donkeys or mules,
each of which carries a bundle on each
side of his back of about 100 pounds
each. The most of this bark comes
from wild trees which grow in the head
waters of the Reni and Madera rivers.
It is carried for many miles through
the forests on men's backs, and then
loaded on the donkeys which bring it
to La Paz. As far as I can learn, there
Is no money to be made in the quinine
business by foreigners. Any number
of good plantations can be bought. A
rich planter of interior Bolivia told me
today that he could buy me 800,000
trees if I wished them for less than 8
cents of our money a tree. These trees
would be from six to ten years of age
and in prime condition for cutting
down for quinine. This man said that
the trees would each produce at least
four pounds of bark. Quinine trees are
planted nine feet apart, and at five
years of age an orchard is ready for
The trees are then chopped down and
i stripped of their bark. Sprouts spring
ing from his head. At length, as if in
a dream, he muttered to himself: "Good
heavens, is it possible?"
Then slowly and deliberately he got
out of the witness box and clambered
into the dock, where he seized the pris
oner's hand, and, turning to the judge,
said: "My lord, this was the best man
in my crew and he saved my life.
Providence has sent me here to save
him. He is so changed by illness that
I could not recognize him. But there
is no mistake now. If you imprison
the old bosun of the Vulture, you
must take the captain with him."
Amid cheers and sobs that no one
cared to suppress, the judge briefly
directed the jury to reconsider their
verdict, which they at once did, finding
a unanimous "Not guilty."
As they left the town, Capt. Sharpe
might have been heard addressing his
companion something as follows:*
"Well, old man, we pulled through
that business pretty well, I think. It
was a near shave, though." ■
"Capt. Sharpe" was nothing less than
a confederate, and he had assumed the
part of captain to save his companion
in crime. — London Evening News.
Five liuilcl'uu'H llui-iif-i*.
NEW YORK. July IS.— Five frame build
ings, a part of the car shops of the Central
Railroad of New Jersey, at Elizabeth, were
burned today, causing a loss of $100,000.
James Robblns, a workman employed in the
establishment, jumped from the second story
of the pattern shop and sustained serious
The Latest From ihe Board of Strategy,
on Reduced Railroad Fares.
Chicago and return (on sale Juiy 9th to
13th, certificate plan) J15.35
Buffalo, N. V., and return (on sale July
11th and 18th) 28.50
Columbus, 0., and return (on sale Juiy
25th to 31st, certificate plan) 2G.50
Detroit, Mich., and return (on sale July
30th to Aug. 2nd, certificate plan) 25.00
Indianapolis and return (on sale Aug.
7th and Bth) 18.50
Indianapolis and return (on sals Aujr.
19th to 21st) 7.17.15!
Cincinnati, 0., and return (on sale Sept.
3rd, 4th and sth) 17.50
For further "war news" call at City Ticket
Office Wisconsin Central Lines, 373 Robert
j a?bsL DsltcfoUs I
7 f-^^^^^rw kjL ADE of P ur< *'. rich cream and sweet
s «««*i«s^^^l"^ii i J /▼▼ ripe frilit ' fresh ever - v day - A m '-'
; S^jg^b^ij^^ffe'" l^ |l « toothsome dessert. Let us send , r
'' isL^'i IfilMt ,$&. Wm J '°- U aome * or dinner, or when you enter- !
'' -W :^w^ 3 =«3t^-^ hTOvJKBT tain. Creams and ices in novel shapes for *
!' Rffi^Wi^ 7 v^l entertainment* of every character.
I "^u^^^^^B^ 12 w s,xtl ' 8t - Telephone 58. j
THE HDBTHBBN INSTITUTE OF OSTEOPRTHY
OFFlCE*****;. Globe Building, Minneapolis.
New York Life Building, St. Paul.
Edwin C. Pickler, D. 0., President. Frank D. Parker, D. 0., Vice Presi
dent. Lewis M. Rheem, D. 0., Secretary. C. C. Bennett, Ass't Secretary.
THE NEW SCIENCE OF DRUGLESS HEATING.
ALL DISEASES SUCCESSFULLY TREATED.
.^„ The . onl y Osteopathic College in the Northwest with a complete equipment for giving a f ul
course ln Osteopathy.
COURSE TWENTY MONTHS IN LENGTH.
T,.«!J*" c n ? :H c,ftss wlll •"•n*'? °" ThurFdny, Sept. Ist, lSOf*. A new uight class will asscmblf
luesaay, Oct. 4th, 1808. For full Information apply to L. M. Kheem. Secretary, Globe Building
Minneapolis, Minnesota. *
Bead for -"ample copy of the Norttieni Osteopath. Mention this paper.
up the following season from tha
stumps, and at the end of five year*
there is another crop. The cinchona
trees grow wild almost everywhere
that the rubber tree grows. They ara
often very tall and have a magnicent
crown of foliage, which is of such a
color that the quinine hunter ca.n pick
It out a long distance in looking ove*
the trees of a forest.
— Frank G. Carpenter.
Wisconsin Central Lines Reduced Rati
Buffalo $14.00 $13. 'ii
Syracuse 14.00 13 OCI
New York 14.00 13.00
Boston 16.00 15. 01
Philadelphia 14.00 13.00
Baltimore.: 14.00 13.00
Washington 14.03 13.0(1
And many othT Eastern points at very low
rates. For further information, call at th«
City Ticket Office. 373 Robert street.
&>£k area fl m m r
* fea ■ H ana tak &H *3 6 2 r
A m*& «» w-^a II am
J Ifts-Jl JA<"OB LITT, Propr & Mgr k.
<-j Tf^rm TUEO. L. "JAYS, Bca. >fgr. F
j continued success oi ihe summer season ►
4 Rffiff ■"■"■- flf-fi^ COMMENCING f
< ■ ■ ■ THE ... f
1 COSWPAHY J
*i mmmmmtm m **■■■****■■****■ r
* For ihe first half of the week ending T
A Wednesday night. V
f 'Oliver twist; \
A With Nance O'Neil as Nancy Sykes. k
■^ For tbe last half of the week, f
a With Nance O'Neil as Caini'.le Z
J Same Popular Prices— 2sc and . r >oc.
t,"VT"yr*v^ww t t t ▼ ▼ yr*
Seventh s«L. BeL Robert and Jackson Sts.
Unrivaled Accommodations for
LECTURES AND CONCERTS.
FOR TERMS APPLY TO
J. Ji WATSO'i German's Ufa Bdgt