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THE FARMERS MSCtrSSBD AT THE OPEXIXG SES- , SIOXS OF THE STATE ACHICIL TLRAL SOCIETY MXX.TING FRIEND OF THE HORSE SPEAKS HIS PRAISE i JOHN C. MILLS. THEASIREIt OF THE ' BTOCK KREEDERS' ASMM I.VTIOX, j DISCUSSES BEEF I'ROUUTIOS IOWA AGRICULTURIST ON SHEEP RAISING; Prof. I'riilK Read!) ait Exhaustive ■ Paper on She^p, Good and Bad. 'With Pointers How to Juilge Them A. V. Fox. of Ore^ou, | Wlv., Among Tlioae Who Head ' Pmpera Programnie for Today. The annual meeting of the Minnesota j Stale Agricultural society opened yes- j Urday morning In the rooms of the C. mineroial club, with an attendance from fully sixty counties of the state. The day was given up largely to the n-ading of papers by well known j Northwestern experts on stock raising, | and toda.Vs session will consider dgri- j culture. The feature of the morning session was an address of welcome by few Lind. who spoke in a practical suain of the possibilities of the farm for nearly a half-hour. At the "morning session hcrse raising was discussed, and the afternoon was given up to cattle and sheep breeding. ; During the evening the delegates from j the various county agricultural socie- I ties and their friends gathered in the ; hall of representatives at the capitol j and listened to a half-dozen papers on subjects of general Interest The following were am-, ng those prea- j ent: O L. Dorraberg, Redwood Falls: Thomas | Coleman. Anoka; E. A. Gibbs, janesvil-le; H. I L. Sackett St. Peter; John A. Johnson, St. j Peter: J. A. Peterson, Bt Peter; W. L. I Chappell. Fergus Falls. W. B. Crow ley, St. ! James; Frank O'Meara. St. James; F. B. | Lynch, St. Jame;-: IT. V. Barter. Cambridge-. I Thomas Wheian Arlington: William Liggett, j St Anthony Park; .J. E. Cooley, Duluth: J. | F. Jacofcson. Lac (jui Parle; H. C. Prescott, j Elbow Lake; Ray Wells, Herman; R. F. Raser Elbow Lake; S. B. Scott, Zumbrote; , Thcmas McHugh, Zumbrota; William Doxey, ■ Zumbivta: P. H. Rahilly, Lake City: C. G. : RichaTdscn Anoka; A. Fidding, Anoka: E. J T. Charaplain, Garden City: H. W. Stone, i Morris: A. P. Hendrickson. St. Paul; E. W. Randal! Hamline: Alexander Fiddes, Jack son; D. W. Watson, Red Wing; A. F. Busn, I>oveT; A. G. Wiicex, Hugo; J. T. B'.air, I t'tlea- H R. Deuny. St. Paul; C. D. An- I drews St. Paul; William F. Cross, Red ! "Wing: Chester R. Smith. St. Paul: H. W. Fagfty St. Paul; A. S. Tallmadge, St. Paul; J. C. Seeley. Minneapolis; E. D. ChiMs. Crooks-ton: Prof. Thomas Shaw. St. Anthony J'ark- Luke S;unaard. Taylor's Falls; Prof. Enyder, St. Anthony Park; T. A. Hoverstad, Crookston: M. T. Grattan, Preston, Minn., end many others. Aside from the discussion of subjects of interest about the only business transacted was the appointment of a set of committees by President Cooper at the opening of the afterncon session, as follow s: Credentials— J. C. Mills. Dr. J. C. Curryw, M, N Greene A. P. Hendrickson, Wymaji Elliott. C. L. GcodtH and E. D. Chllds. Retolutionc— H. F. Brown. M. N. Skinner. A. H. Bullis. W. J. Boynton, H. W. Stone and A. H. Bullis. G-OV. LIND SPEAKS. The morning session opened with an address of welcome by Gt>v. Lind, who said: While it aff.rd-s me a great dtal of pleas ure to meet you this morning and to welcome you to this hospitable capital city or curs. I must express to you my regret th-at my time has not permitted me adequately to prepare myself to do justice to this gathering and your reasonable expectations under the c.r cum&tances. You represent in a greater degree than I auy like number of men gathered in this state one of the greatest of the great inter ets cf the state. I had occasion to say to another body a few days ago that, while T.-e can look with pride upon our mining, lumbering and manufacturing interests, nev ertheless cur greatest interest elusers abaut the farmer. It 1= the conditi.cn cf the farm r. Lhe Minnesota farmer, that mirks our prog ress. I also sa:d '"It is the barameter which indicates the state of our prosperity." Tnls m my judgment is absolutely true. If the fanners are prosperous, business alomg all lines in our state is prosperous; if otherwise, other business suffers accordingly. Farming, as you realize, has perhaps un dergone as great changes in this wonderful centruy of the world's history as any other vocatkn— l might giy greater. The students of sociology tell us" that it is only recent' y, comparatively within only the last few gen erations; that humanity has learned to utilize its intellect in directing its own develop ment. That in the past ages of our prrgress along all l'nes. political as well as indus r a", has been almost wholly instinctive, which i? to say that su.-h progress as the race has made has been simply steps guided by the Instinct which providence implanted in us to adjust ourselves from time to time to our environment and the conditions that fac3 us. This has been true cf our political devp'op ment until the beginning of this century. This century illustrates practically all that society h's ever been able t:> do knowingly tcwarJ framing and directing government af fa'rs. It witnessed the first successful gov ernment under a written constitution. The same is true in a great degree in science. There had been before the beginning of this century what I might call sporadic efforts at kn-rwlng. bur It Is only within the last few generations that humanity has been able to put the kn : w'edge acquired by sciect flc re eearch to practical results to make it useful. DEVELOPMENT IN INDUSTRY. In industry the development had "been, un til recently, practically instinctive, uncon scious. The old Egyptian, when he found he wanted more food, simply scratched the Nile mud with a stick and scattered a few s;e3s of wild rl'-e, wild oats, or pern^pa a few of the fruit seeds common to tnat country, and when name became scarce they captured some of the wild animals and domesticated them, but that was practically a u t i,at was done for centuries and centur.es cf time. If there was improvement In the cereals the grains, it was simply the result of accident. The busy bee. crossed with different varie ties, fertilized and produced better grades. Eo with the stock; if there was any improve ment, it waa simply because flocks fr:m dir erent and distinct regions came tutUtu and resultfd in accidental crosses that gave bet ter varieties. Today you utilize science The truths of the science of life, of biotcgy and kindred sciences, have been invoked in b" hilf of the farmer. Now over here at our station they deliberately go to work and pro duce different kinds of wheat, not only new grades, but different kinds. When yon want a domestic animal for a particular" u»e you deliberately go to work and produce It That Is what s.-ience has done. It is nothing new In one sense H IB not even a discovery, but Drying preparations simply de velop dry catarrh; they dry up fhe secretions which adhere to the mem brane and decompose, causing a far mere serious trouble than the ordinary firm of catarrh. Avoid all drying in halants and use that which cleanses, soothes and heals. Elys Cream Balm is such a remedy and will cure catarrh or cold in the head easily and pleasant ly. A trial size will be mailed for 10 cents, large for 50 cents. All druggists keep it. Ely Brothers, 66 Warren street, New York. The Balm cures without pain, does not irritate or cause sneezing. It sr reads itseif over an irritated and angry surface, relieving Immediately the painful inflammation. Provided with Ely's Cream Balm you are armed against Nasal Catarrh. tt is applying the truths of s-lenc* in a new way : applying th.-vi to the use of man in a greater degree thin has been done in the I>.:s:. In that lies the great advance of ag riculture. This Is a new science, eomepara tivel- : at least it c«n be counted by cen turies. In this I can give you no partl-'u'ar aid. i.r suggestion. The work of your EOv-ietv all tends to further app'.y the truths that I have referred to. SCIENCE OV POLITICAL ECONOMY. Now there is also another science, a sci ence sr related that I thlak I can apply It us, fully to agriculture; it is the science of j political eccr.cmy. It has not been called a. j scler.ee until very recently. Now when I ustd the friu sv-iene?. I simply mean what j we ordinarily understand by eoms definite ! knowledge, the result of observation o.f human ! ex^riein-e formulated inio rules for the gmdar.ce of hunxanlty. One of the rules of i political economy, ar.d one which I think will | guide you In your labors, is to this effect; i that the greater the distance In the process \ cf production between the raw material and the finished product, the greater the profit to the producer. A very simple prop.isilion in itself, a truih that we all realize, but it is well for us that these things have been formulated so tJhat we can put out finger en j it. Let me repeat it, the greater the dis- ! tance in th< j process of production between I the raw material and the finished product, j the greater the profit t.i the producer. Now L all countries are busy, all nations are busy; this on the whole is a very busy world of necessity, no country mare so than ours, but if you think of those nations we call rich in j this world, those where prosperity and pro- < grrss are at the highest tide, you will find i tha-t they are those nations which carry thf> j process cf manufacture to its farthermost , limits, that carry the manufacture cf iron a-« tax away from the simple pig as human in- ! genuity can; that carry the munu f acture of ! wood as far away from ths piue tree in thp ! woods as possible. Here iz a pine or spruce (sheet of paper! in nay has?d; the valu»» of the pine in that piece of p-av^r is sounerhins so infinitely small that it cannot be expressed In figures. In Its present form. Etill pine or spruce. I do not kn-ow which, possibly straw, it is of great value. It has this gri-a' value because many piooessfs and a long p. rijd of time have elapsed berween the raw material in the wo-^d ar.d the flnisihed prcduct I hold in my hand. There is an old adagf. my friends, that "Time is money." It is wonderful what chunks of political economy ar.d philosophy there are in these old proverts. Time is money in more sense than one. If rcm waste time, that >s its ordinary i:ss in Cant sense, if you waste time you lose work, and by that means you suffer a loss; you lose money; we usually use the adage in that L'ense. It has ancthtr and a deeper significance: time itself is money, especially c& a.jpMfd ro production on the -farm or iv the factory. Time is only another Way cf saying interest. I haven't time to go into that this moriing, but on reflection you will find it tru~: t.me is interest; interest on capital !s the difference between the present value of the capital and ks valu In future time. That is interest. It is the equivalent of time. ILLL'STRATFS HIS POINT. Now. to illustrate my poicit. Su'pposcg a ftrmer has a 2-y-ear-old sUer— they rarely sell them before they are 2 years old: s«me times they sell yearlings; I think it la a very peer prac:ce. The farmer hae a 2-year-old at:«r; he sells that 2-year-old stacr tor, say, $3i). Now. by that saie he not only los?s the power cf increasing the va:ue of that steer, the po tentiality of growth you might call it. but he loses the interest on that $20 or $30 during the period that that steer might be ievejo^ ing, maturing to its grcittut commercial value. It is true he may use the money soaiewhere else to ray a debt and save in teresr: oftentimes he doesn't; oftentimes he could get alcr.g without it. but there is a dis tin-ct loss. The farther yen can carry the production en the farm, as well as In the shep. away from the raw material, the m-o.re time it consumes. Che more of trr? increment of time, the more interest you aid to the product and the greater your gain, to say nothing about compensation for labor and em ployment to maintain it in the meantime. New, Jurit to illustrate by this fact: It is a peculiar thiLg, but it is true that ihe d:-. veaoptnent of industry on the farm, in agri culture as well as elsewhere, ia continually awa-v from the ray.' material to highe.' grades of production. Why, ws did first like the old Egyptians, but insaead of stirring the Nile mud, as they did -with a stick, we had the steel plow to turn over cur prairies and raise wheat. It was very protab-le for a time, and it is still profitable. B EUIBVES IN" WHEAT. I ani one ot thoe.? who believe in wheat raising. We win always, in my Judgment, raise a great d-eal of wheat in this stata, and profitably, but. nevertheless, as an employ ment for our entire popujation and for all of our farmers, i*t was found to be lese profitable than a method of production that required more time for the maturing of the product, thax created a greater d'iitance be tween tils raw material and the finished product. We went into dairying, for one thing, There you have the crop. It takes time to feed it to the cows. It takes addi tional time to milk and to gather the cream and to produce the butter a^d gtt the butter to the market. There you have additional labor, which in the long run begets pro-sperity. more cr less, depending upoc comjKtltion and market conditions. You invest more labor in your product, more time, hence, there is necossarrly greater profit. I only us= this as an illustration. The same is true of hosre raising; that is. raising hors-es, not racing them. (Laughter.) The same is true of raising stock. Xow, I think your own read in-g and observation will agree with me. that it has been the history of ail countries that there has been a gradual stepping from on* stage of agricultural production to another. Fot Instance, in Holland they started in orig ically making butter, the sanie as ws are doing in Minnesota today. So Switzerland, at one time was famous for makim.? butter. To day the great butter producing countries in Europe are Denmark and Sweden; but the knowing Dutchmen soon found that if they carried; their process of— turning milk into money one grad« further, kept it along, added more !at>or, more time, there would be m^re money in it, so they went to making cheese. The cheese manufacture has succeeded the manufacture of butter in every country in Europe, and. for the reason® suggested, tt i 3 inevitable that the same process will take place in this state. Now. this is venturing a goad deal for a new governor to make that prediction, but I make it. and I make it to you today, that chrese-maklng is just as certain in the course of time to succead the present buttsr-making in Southern Minneso ta as it is that we will continue to raise grain and raise stock. Why? Because there is necessarily, in the nature of thlnga. more profit In it. Gov. Lind was warmly applauded at the conclusion of his address. PRAISE FOR AMERICAN TROTTER. "Why I Staid in the Horse Business," was the subject of an address delivered by I. C. Seeley, of Minneapolis. In opening Mr. Seeley read a letter from F. J. Berry, of Chicago, praising highly thr ' - AmeVican trotter." as compared with the hackney and coach breeds of imported stock. Mr. Berry was one of the largest dealers in the United States, Mr. Seeley said. The letter was as fol lows : Dear Sir: The horse question Is a great and leading one. The horse industry today Is one of the leading industries of our great America. There is no buirfness that can be carried on in the stock line with more profit than the horse business when proper ly managed, and with the right knowledge of the business and the proper system to produce the horse that this market demands All horses must have size, phape and qual ity; small horses axe a thing of the post Tou speak of the Hackney andi Coach breeds. I want to say to you that there ts no Hackney or Coach breed that compares with the American trotter— l do not mean the small, unsound and low grades of trot ter? that have been produced for nuuiy years past, I mean the proper selections of large bandeome trotting families that have size shape, quality and action; a horse that has no action 1* of but little valu«. The Ameri can trotter has been crossed with the French coacher -with good results. The Hackneys are good horsee. I>ut they have not been success ful In this country; therefore, I say, that for road, coach and carriage horses, breed from the blood of the American trotter with the right selections, size, shape and quality and they will prove a great success if man aged with the proper Judgment and with the right selections there can be produced a fixed type of this class of horse, ao ihat the breeder will have- no trouble to match up pairs, but the size, shaipe. quality and ac tion must not be lost sight of. Bays and browns are the leading colors, and tfark chestnut Is good, but I can tail you thero is no color better than a nice bay. You speak of Clydes, Shire? and Perche rona for draft horses. TTie best quality of Shire or Clydes for draft horses are good, and with the right selections of Clydes and Shires you can prodTice a good quality o-f draft horses, but they do not cross "with the common mares and produce their like with quality as well as the Percheron horse. There is no better draft or work horse than the Perchercn horse. The Percheron horss has been bred in their own STRICT BLOOD LINE for many centuries, and they are the strict est and the most Intensely bred horses that there are, amd I think they will reproduce their kind nearer than any other horse. You can cross the pony with the Perchero* horse and get a nice little chunk, and you can cross any mare with the Percheron horse and the Percheron blood will pre dominate, an 4 will give shape and quality and when creased with the heavy draft! Clyde or Shire mare I have seen, the best results, and the best draft horses that have come to our market have been bred la this way; therefore, tor ft draft stallion to wnm THE ST. PAUL GLOUE ~- WEDNESDAY -JANUARY 11, 1899. with &I 1 kind* of mares I would : 'er the Percheron, while at the same time. If you have to gtt htgh quality of heavy draft mares crowed with the Clyde or Shire, there ia no trouble but what they will produce goo 4 draft horses. TIME FOR TRADING HORSES. It has been said that steam, electricity *n<l motor power ha.s taken the place of the hor«e. Tills ie a most absurd idea, whale stswni and' electricity h&g taken tha place ol the horse to some extent, the export trade has come in since that time. Busln«ss is Increasing throughout out country, and the demand for good horsee is Increasing, and la larger now than ever before, since our country was settled, and It will Increase for many years to earns. Never was there a better time to comimence breeding good horses than today. Good horses arc scarce, and there is not nt.irly enough to supply th« demand. The export trade would take djuble the amount ot horses they do If we had the quality that their markets dMnajids. The export trade this -year la a great deal larger than ever before, it will run between 55,000 and 60. 0U) for the year I^9S, which far exceeds any previous year. Mare horses were marketed in 1398 and a stronger demand 1n all Amer ican markets than ever waa known before the trade Is heavier all around, and in my opinion will be much heavier in 1899. While the market horses have become scarce, there iis still a supply of thfe small, ordinary and U'.:*alable horsja, and as the good horses pet short, they will have to take the lower grade, and the lower grades will be in a better de mard the coming year than last year. There is going to be a gTeat sh-crtago of horses for the next five years, and good horsc-s will get shorter and scarcer and higher all the time, as It takes five ytas to breed and raise them for the market. We believe people a-"c commencing now to ra.ise them, and they must necessarily get higher every year until MR. E. W. RANDALL, Secretary State Agricultural Society. such a time ac the new ci-ops begin to come in. Tell your people to make a vigorous effort and breed all the g-ood horses they possbly can, but be sure and bre?d them with all t'ae size, shape and quality possible, and should never undertake to breed a horse that would develop less than 1.100 pcunds; this is the smallest horse that should ever be raised, un less you should get speed, but I dx> »3t be lieve It will pay any farmer to handle spesd. But when breeding co-ach and carriage horses, tie mora trotting blood the better, and if a farmer gets speed and is not a practical horseman, he had batter leave it to the horse-man or the professional to handle. The man that goes systematically to work with the proper knowledge of the business, and raises good market horses, will bs right in line, as coon as he -gets them ready for 1 the market, as thay -will get higher and high- ' er for many years to come. Yours truly. — F. J. Berry. Mr. Seeley then discussed his sub- I ject In the following: terse manner: Love, experience. pro St. First, my love tor the horse, the ncblest of ail mute cre ation, has ever been a pleasant. If not lead- Ing, tncentive In the grand and fascinating i pursuit of hcrse breeding. Second, my experience in breedtng. raising ' and marketing betwr-en 400 and 500 he-ad of I draft, coach a.ri>d trouing-bred horses. In this j state during the past fourteen years was, I ' believe, of sufficient value and such an es- j semial requisite as to warrant me In the ' continuance of the business even In a mod- j crate way. Third, I have had and still have unshaken ! confidence that the conditions of the supply • of, and demand for gocd horses in this coun- j try is today and for years will continue to be - a. source of great profit to every careful and I painstaking fanner in the state of Minne- i sota. Mr. Seeley then discussed the various j breeds and conducted as follows: Let the farmers of Minnesota make proper ! selections of sires and breed for a specific I purpose and ttere win bs no question but ' that their efforts will be rewarded with the I highest prices wien they send their finished : prcduct to market, whether they br-=«d horsss, ! caule. sheep or swine. We have already en- I tered upon an era of higher price? and those j who are best abie to judge, declare that there was never a more propitious time for breeding good horse? than the present. I need not present arguments in favor of diversified farming to this aud-ienee for every man here knows 'that such farming presents the only road to ultimate success. He knows that in order to nMintain the highest fertility o£ his farm, he should raise as much improved live stock as he can profitably carry. He must also know that in order to secure the best re sults in the breeding of improved live stock he must breed only to registered sires. This plan strictly followed out by every farmer will n-ot only add to bis pride, Belli respect and pocketboo-k, but will add millions of dollar* annually to the wealth* of Minnesota. IMPROVEMENT OF HORSE 3. J. C. Curryer, president of the Min nesota Stock Breeders' association, read an excellent paper on "The Im provement of the Horses of Minne sota." So long as we disregard the law at like producing like the further we get away from desirable charac teristics in horse breeding. The sire for general breeding should be a typi cal animal of its class in size, sound ness, conformation, style, action, en durance and breeding. The general failure with breeders was in not be ing able to weed out undesirable quali ties. There were whole families of horses with yew necks, heavy heads, clumsy ears, defective feet, curby hocks and flat ribs. Nine-tenths of the domestic horses were bred by farmers without regard to rules of breeding. The first move In the right direction would be to relieve from tax ation acceptable full-t>lood sires; sec ond, that no service fee should be col lected from sires not proven worthy, and third, the service fee should be commensurate with character and quality of sire. BEEF PRODUCTION. When President Cooper called the meeting to order in the afternoon there were many present aside from the regularly delegated representatives of the various agricultural societies of the state. The subject of "Beef Production in Minnesota" was dealt with in a paper by John C 'Mills, treasurer of the Min nesota Stock Breeders' association, in an interesting fifteen-minute paper. He said in part: We are sometimes wont to b« discourage* when we look around us and see what might be done, but when -we carefully go over the partially broken ground in cur state's prep ress in this direction there is much to be satisfied 1 with, and we can safely say we are well founded in the rudiments of successful beef production. Here and there all over tha state are to be found either tie pore-bred or thos.e well graded, and in many cajes both. This Is suggestive of not only a desire to. gain In wealth, but U means that the pso ple are being educated In this line as well* It is said that beef -eat Ing people are tbe ones that have been our strongest notion or ganizers. I am. somewhat to believe fchis when we peep into history. The ancient: flock man showed this tendency. England has ruled the wwld, while our own united State* has a proud record. Never before faaa th»re t>«en buob ft dealr* tor ouie-bred oat- tie all over the state. The good work done along thaae lines by our agricultural EChcol and the energetic stock adventurer is belaf felt from every »lde. With us the question is no longer an ex periment, but a well-founded industry. W« have learned that our abundant crops ot oats, barley and o-tfier grains can ba made to serve a much bftter use than to be car ried to a market hundreds of miUs away. The large iuvestmeni* of our railroads, stock men and beef concerns of the stata ia eyl denoe this industry: Is- weli founded. When it come* to comparative costs com pared with other states, I am unablo to slvo exact figures. But what doeg it matter? Experience has plainly proved that cattle can be raised at a., arqftt of from $5 t» $25 a head. What can our farmers do to pay bet ter? Ncr is the apparent profit on the animal all. We must not forget the return praduct In the way of fertllliers. the Improvement by pasturing, the saving of extra machinery. etc. The mortgage oii : the old ho-mestead fades away when faced, by the well-bred beef creature. Day by day be makes weal.h for his owner, and even when h'.s master s'.e-ipa he is adding to his wealth <;f flesh. Having hastily Kon« <jver the D3at and noted something of' tHiaj.presenf, the ques Inn arises, what are the jwospects for the future in this direction-. The possible wealth to be obtained from this wflree can scarcely be estimated at this t4me. A state »> rich in the aibundance of grass, so capable in the production of grains, _wlth everywhere an abundance of good wafer, our natural fa cilities are immeasurable. Add to this our moat excellent transporta tion facilities and what more do we need? Simply the energies of our peop'e directed by education, and better stick. The gradu ates of our grand state agricultural school must play an Jmporttnt part In this direc tion. Our agricultural papers are engaged In a most excellent service, and the careful practical breeder and feeder who is bJth gaining in knowledge and wealth wi!l have his effect. When our people torn to love the animal, when they learn how to feed acd care for him, and when they learn the difference between good animals and scrubs, then shall we have reached a stage cf civili zation second to none. 9HBEP GOOD AND BAD. Prof. John A. Craig, of the lowa Agricultural college, spoke for nearly an hour on "Sheep— Good and Bad." He said in part: To form a basis for estimating the good and bad qualities of shee-p, it Is best to first consider the carcass and that, from tne butcher's point of vie*. The different parts of the lamb from the butcher's stand point shows a wide variation. The neck has a value of only 1 cent per pound, the shoulder 2 cents and the shanks the same. The rib running from the point of the should er to the loin has a value of 9 cents per pcund, and the same is true of the loin while the leg of mutton or the "gigsots " as> they are sometimes called, have the "high est value per pound of any othsr part 33 they are quoted at 10 cents. The brrast however, has the low value of 2 cents p^r pound In Chicago markets. From these facts It will be seen that The back and the de velopment of the leg are tlie most important points to criticise In the form of the fat Lamb. In what has preceded, attention has be^n given particularly to the perfections, but there are many defects worthy of being men tioned that are characteristic of fat lambs very often the top of the should-er is riot covered smfficiently wi;h flesh, letting the top of the blade come out too sharp find bare. This par.t, for at feast the length of the hand, should be flat and well covered ■with flesh in a fatted sheep. The ribs should spring out from the body and all well cov ered with firm flesh. The backbone should not stand prominent at any point, as it i" sometimes at various points along the back" Frequently it is grooved on account of the development of flesh along It. but it is bet ter to be perfectly flat and smooth. The loin In some lambs rises and this' is sseciglly a bad defect when It i.? al=o bare of flesh. The hind quariers frequently shrink away towards the tail-head and down the thigh. This should not be. as the hind quarter should continue straight and full. From the hip to hock the fat sheep should be especially strong. Not noly should the leg be full and plump with muscle on the outside but be tween the le?s in the twist the flesh should i run well towards the hock and compel the ! nind leps to stand wfde apart. Badly tet I hocks often interfere with the development ! of the hind quarter, and they also are as I bad an eye-sore as , broken down pasterns. | After the form of the sheep has been care ! fully gone over the quality should be not i cd. The cleanliness- of the bone, th<» ap i parent strength of it. and the nature of the I hair which covers the face and legs should be noted. These are important features in ! either breedins sheep or fat sheen. It is perhaps, most valuable from the butcher's standpoint, because the waste is le?3 from a sheep of good quality than it is from one that is inferior, but sheep of the bfst qual ity will not dress much over 50 per cent of their live wetight. In examining the fleece .the chief points to consider are the quality, quantity and condition. The best way of arriving at tn estimation of the nature of a fleece is to I open it first ju-i-t over the shoulder. It is In I this region that the finest and best wool lof the fleece is found. By using, the hands in a flat position. Instead of sticking the fingers into the wool, the fleece may be part ed ta a nice way. After looking at the wool and Ekin in this region the thigh should te chosc-n for tne next examination. This part u-sually grows the poorest and coarsest wool of the whole fleece. Th«i the covering <;? fleece on the belly Is also noticed. By ex amining the fleece in the.s? three parts a fair estimate of its qualities may be made. In judging of the good and bad qualities in pure bred sheep in the breeding classes, the subject of breed typa should receive careful consideration. "While it has a bearing on the judging at all classes of pure bred stock, yet it is of double Importance in the pure bred classes of sheep. Thf> type of the breeders having been de cided upon by all the breeders, it should be the aim o>f the breeder and the judge to recognize it. for aside from an acknowledg ment of the wishes of the breeders, it is a point o-f dirwrt value to do so. When a breed has been uniformly bred to a type for a period of twenty years or so the type has be come so fixed that It is -uniformly trans mitted. T-wo of he most powerful factors aiding the fixing of the type of a breed are the breeders seeking tW produce Che animal of ideal type as represented by the scale of points and the judges conforming to it in the show ring. The result is of value to the breeding interests, ■«« it^sesists in making th-* breed prepotent or able /to transmit its char acteristics with a greater degree of certainty As a result of our consideration of the good and bad qualities of sheep, there arises the more Important pcobleig of breeding to re produce the former ami to remove the latter In studying th» life^thlstories of the eminent % IODIDE OF IRON lg W forAN/CMIA.POORNESS of the BLOOD, I !j CONSTITUTIONAL WEAKNESS 1 I SCROFULA, Etc X I Nonegeauineunlesasigned"BLAJiCAßD" 1 | AU, DRUGGISTS, /I fkß. FOIiQERA & CO. . N. Y. Agta. for U. S. lk breeders I fall to find mention of * ilogle breeder of note who wao not considered In hl3 day a good judfe of «ook. They m*y each have followed a peculiar system ot breeding, but tlhe universal tact is thut they all were well veraed Iti th« good and bad qualities of the animal tbey bred. While Blake-well. Codings, Bates, Booth, Crulck shank, Watson, Price and many others tol lowal some method of breeding, yet I believa their success to be due im the largest meas ure to their Judgment, of tie good and bad q-ualities of domestic animals. I have failed to find up to this day that where success has been obtained by in-asd'-out breeding, cross breeding or any other form but that there was a man behind the system who knew well the merits and demerits of the animals he was breeding. Anxl, further, knowing these, he made his selection to get the best bl«nd. This is th« basis of a method of breeding that arises from what has go-ne before. For want of a better term I have named it bal | ane^d breeding, and I believe that in this i method haa the means of developing and to t the good qiiiiikUs and at the same time leas j en-ln* and removing the demerits of our do ! iutatii; animals. | The strongest basis of support for It llea i In the degree it has been, fruitful in produc ing results. The present as well as the past records of breeding show that balanced breed tag aud production of nicks have followed each other Just as cause and effect. Modern Instances of the results of balanced breeding applied to blood lines is in the success 'of the blend of Bates and Crulckshank cattle, Ratn- I bletonian and Mambrino Chief in trotters, j Darnley and Prince of Wales Iti Cyidesdales, I Danraark and Flreaway in hackneys, and so cm through the various kinds of stock. The reason for the success in this seems to be in the fact that the good qualities of the one strengthen the weak ones of he other. Cross breeding h<as produced such wonderful re sults in ecme lines for the same reason, aad I find that when in -am -in breeding has been carried on with the greatest success within th-e Merton and 'Murray flocks, balanced breeding has always had first place. To fol low balanced breeding in sheep would mean the selection of rams with the leading thought of removing the weaknesses of the flock. When one realizes the force of balanced breed ing and acts en it in tie selection of sires It is wonderful 1 what strides- may be made to ward perfection in a few years. With this sire we correct a deficiency of the fleece, acd yet retain th? good qualities of form, with another we add a little more bone, another deepens the flesh on the valuable parts, and so on, each marking a new advance, while closer discrimination and riper judgment keeps disclosing new features to be attained In each additional effort. THE MUTTON SHEEP. A. O. Fox, of Oregon, Wis., spoke on "The Mutton Sheep." To obtain the best results in fattening sheep for the market a thorough understanding of the first principals of breeding were necessary. The flocks should be sorted before breeding, and those which were of the best form for breeding should be placed by themselves and those of the mutton type should also have a place by themselves. As to methods, Mr. Fox spoke at considerable length from a. practical experience of many years. He indorsed much that had been said by Prof. Craig on hds paper, and added a number or valuable sug gestions. "Live Stock as a Factor in Successful agriculture" was the last subject of the afternoon, discussed by Chas. F. Curtiss, director and professor of agri culture in the lowa Agricultural col lege. It paid to- breed fine sheep, cattle and horses, as much better returns could be had from well bred stock than from the scrub class. The food consumed by a well bred steer every ounce of it went into tne frame of the animal, but with scAib stock, it was almost impossible to secure satisfac tory results in feeding. Instead of put ting fat on the bones, It went to tallow around the interior organs. In a fine ly bred steer weighing 800 pounds dressed there will be 100 less pounds of this interior fat," said the speaker, "than in a scrub steer weighing dress ed a eoupte hundred pounds more." EVENING SESSION. The students of the Agricultural school, with the members of the Agri cultural society, completely filled the hall of representatives at the state bouse last evening. The programme vas interspread by music by the school quartette. Dean Liggett presided. Without exception all who had parts on the programme were either grad uates or students at the agricultural school. T. A. Hoverstad, of Crookston, spoke of the -Future of Red River Valley Farming;" R. S. Mackintosh, of Lang don, discussed "The Value of Horti cultural Training." Every year more attention was being given this depart i merit of agriculture as a distinct branch. C. P. Taylor, of Hamline, spoke on "Live Stock Improvement." Miss Grace B. Andrews read an in teresting paper, which was warmly re ceived, telling of the benefits of an agricultural course for girls. J. C. Hummel, of Cottage Grove, spoke on "The Relation of Chemistry to Agri culture." C. A. Scofieid read a paper on "Field Agriculture." Farming in the farm regions _ was told of by H. H. Chapman, of Grand Rapids. The pro gramme was concluded v.ith an address by Mrs. Virgina C. Meredith, on "The Xew Education for Girls." Today's programme is as follows: "What Horticulture Will Do for the Min nesota Farmer," W. W. Pendergast, presi dent Minnesota Horticultural society. "The Farmer's Garden." Hon. A. M. Bush. "Dairying in the Northwest," Hon. E. D. Childs. Crookston, Minn. "Feeding Dairy Cattle." T. L. Haecker, professor dairy husbandry in Minnesota school cf agriculture. Afternoon Session, 2 P. M. — "Swine Breeding," L. N. Bonham, Oxford, Ohio. "The Sunshine and Dry Atmosphere of a Minnesota Winter in Relation to Her Stock Interests. ' O. C. Gregg, superintendent Min nesota Farmers' Institutes. "Dual Purpose Cattle," Luke Stannard Taylor's Falls. Minn. "Prejudice as a Bar to Progress in Live Stock Breeding." A. G. Wiloox, secretary Minnesota Breeders' association. "The Sugar Beet Industry in Minnesota." Prof. Suyder, Minnesota school of agricul ture. Evening Session. S P. M.— At Hall of House of Representatives. CapUol — Address, Hon. John Hyde, department of agriculture at WaFhirigton. Address. J. J. H ill. president Great North ern Railway company. PLEA FORUBERTY Continued from First Pa are. read "A government of all the people by a part of ihe people, for a few of the peop'e?" Gentlemen may say I b?lfltle our own In stitutions. Oh. no. I simply call attention to the beam In cur own eye to prevent, if possible, our breaking our neck trying to find the mote in the eye of the Philippine, 10.000 miles away. Have we the right to-purchase sovereignty? And. if we hay© such a right, have we the right to purchase it Itoto Spain, who had no right and whose title we had already dis credited among the nations of the world? If we purchase the Spanish tit'e cf sovereign ty would we then have the trust title? who wants jo govern the Phillppina islands? Who among us wishes to vote for laws here to govern them 10.000 miles aww? I never saw their homes: I never spoke with one of them, and I don't know their language; I could not live in their climate: I don't know their institutions. Who is there on this hill in Washington, I say. to write laws to gov ern these people, whose very language we do not understand? LAND-GRABBING FEVER. Ah, Mr. President, the fever has been upon us. Thank God, I believe the crisis Is past. The people- have been lashed into a fury by their progress. The glorious achievement of our army and navy have set the national pulse beating high, but the land-grabbing fever is gradually receding, and the unnatu rally un-American desire to govern another without his consent, thank God, is not so strnog today as It was but a few days since. Mr. President. I am through. I do not ex pect to es«ipe bitter criticism. I have seen so much or sacrifice on the part of others in all ot the past for the cause cf liberty. I would for it sacrifice my seat among you. in whfc_h I take great honcr. as cheerfully as I would part with a crust of bread. I have wished for that magnetic strength that would help me to burn within theirjiearts the sacred word of liberty — not Spanish'iTberty for Cuba, not liberty for you prescribed by me, not liberty for me prescribed by you, not English liberty for America, not American liberty for the Philippines, but universal liberty, for wfoicji our fathers died. Mr. -Mason occupied the attention of CASTOR IA for Infants and Children. The Kind You Have Always Bought BEARS THE SIGNATURE OF In Use For Over 30 Years. the senate for an hour and twenty j minutes. Hia keen sallies and uncon- ' ventional but forceful style of oratory ; held the attention of Ms hearers j throughout. Once he was interrupted by Mr. Tlllman, of South Carolina. Mr. ' Mason had said that war with the ' Filipinos was likely within ten days. Mr. Tlllman Inquired: "I want to know by what authority the president will begin that war? Un- | til the treaty of peace has been j-ati- i fied, and the cession of the Philippines fa completed, does not the protocol stand?" Mr. Mason— l so understand it. Mr. Tlllman — Can the president fh-e a single gun in such a war until this congress shall have taken action — legally, I mean ? Mr. Mason — I do not think so. SITUATION AT ILOILO. While Mr. Mason was discussing the statement of the possible bombard- ! ment of Iloilo, which, he said, was ! currently reported was In oontempla- j tion, Mr. Gallinger, of New Hampshire, ; said as Mr. Mason's statement was | very serious he would like to know upon what information It was based. ; "I have some information," replied ; the Illinois senator, "which I cannot I here and now communicate to the sen- : ate. What I have said, however, is j reported and has been day after day in ! the preßs dispatches. I may say that i I believe my statement upon the re- I ports of the press." Mr. Gallinger expressed regret that [ Mr. 'Mason could not give the source I of his most Important news, but so j far as he was concerned he could not i accept his unsupported statement, or j that of a press association. "This statement," interjected Mr. ! White (<Cal.), "has "been published \ throughout this country. We all know | that when untrue statements axe so ! published they are denied by the ad- i ministration. Instead of denial it is j met with a silence that Is alike I ominous and convincing." Mr. Gallinger— Convincing to the senator from California, but not to me. At the conclusion of Mr. Mason's ] speech he was accorded the usual com- i pliment in the senate of cordial con- ! gratulations from many of his col- j leagues and members of the house of j representatives- who had heard the j speech. ■Mr. Kyle (S. D.) secured the passage : of a bill for the construction of a j bridge across the Missouri river at j Oacoma, S. D. Mr. Bacon (Ga) secured the passage j of a bill for the construction of a bridge over the Savannah river from I the mainland in Chatham county, Ga , | to Hutehinson's island. At the request of Mr. Morgan the j senate unanimously agreed to the j limitation of the debate on the Nicar- j aqua canal bill to fifteen-minute i speeches after 3 o'clock next Tuesday > ■Mr. Turley was then recognized to j speak on the Nicaragua canal bill. He ! announced himself as an advocate of I a canal, but said he was opposed to the ! pending bill. He based his objection ' largely upon the fact that the Clayton- I Bulwer treaty is in full force at the present time. At the conclusion of Mr. Turley's. speech a bill was passed directing the president to appoint Postmaster Gen- i eral T. H. Stanton a major general and retire him at that grade. The senate then went into executive ! session and soon adjourned. ALASKA CRIMINAL LAWS. House Session Wax Devoted to Their ! Consideration. WASHINGTON. Jan. 10.— The house ! devoted its undivided attention again today to the bill for the codification of the criminal laws of Alaska. "A num ber of minor amendments were adopt- I ed and about sixty additional pages of \ the bill were disposed of. Only ten > pages remain. i dingleyjkTworse. Mo Change Has Occurred Dnrtnsr Twent y-Fonr Hoars. WASHINGTON. Jan. 10.— No mate rial change has been reached in the condition of Chairman Dingley today. He was a trifle .more comfortable, p.nl there was a slight abatement of the [ nervousness which was so severe yes terday. About the best that can be said is that he ia not appreciably worse. At 10 o'clock tonight one of I his sons made the following statement: | "Mr. Dingley is holding his own, and resting quietly. Pulse good. Doctor^, express themselves more hopeful." In, "Winslow's Sootfclna; syrup Km boon used for orer fifty yean by million* of m. 'there for their c'ail.iren wHIK> teething, wtu: pei-fait niccess. It sooiae* the child, goitaas the gam*, lUayi all pain ; cures wind colic, and U the best remedy for Diarrhea. Sold by DrugrrUt; In every part of the world. Be mre and oik for •• Mrs. WlDalnw'i (Soothing Syrup." and '*ke nc other kind. Twenty -fl* » cents a bortls. S When you hear of hundreds of people being 1 cured by I Dr. Sanden's Electric Belt you should know that it is a won g derful remedy. "It is worth its weight in jjold," wrote a ■ man to Dr. Sanden a few dars ago. Trr it for lame back. I for weakness. It is an invig-orator and makes new blood and nerve streng-ch. Book free. SANOEN ELECTRIC CO., S.£% MjtpPOUS, Minn. Office Hours — 9 a. m. to 6p. m. SuiTn^r 10 to 12 a. m. 3 GEN. WOOD MYSTIFIED DORS NOT KNOW WHY HE WJJ) CALLED FROM SWTIAGO TO W.VSHIXGTOS GEN. BROOKE IS MISTAKEN There Wu Wo Popular Denion H tra tlon in Santiago A K nin»t For warding Cnstomi Receipt* to Ha vana Residents Gave Gen. Wood a. Bra*K Band Farewell Promi nent Cobau Pleased. NEW YORK. Jan. 10.-The United States transport Mississippi, from San tiago de Cuba, arrived at Quarantine at 8:20 a. m. On board of her are Gen. Wood, military governor of Santiago accompanied by his aid-de-camp, Lieut. Hanna, and l>r. Castillo, a dele gate of the merchants and business men of Santiago. Gen. Wood said his visit here was la response to a telegram from the secre tary of war. received on the day he left Santiago. What was required of him by the government was only con jectural. At the time he left "Santiago everything was quiet, and the affairs of the province and city in the best condition. When shown the dispatch stating that Gen. Brooke had expressed aston ishment that Gen. Wood had permitted a demonstration at Santiago against the order concentrating customs at Havana, he declared that if such a dispatch had bee^ sent by Gen Biooka to Washington Gen. Brooke was labor- Ing under a mistake. No such demon stration had occurred. Gen. Wood said he intended to take the first train available for Washington and hoped to return to Santiago by the transport sailing next Wednesday. Dr. Joaquin Castillo, who was a pas senger on the Mississippi, and accom panying Gen. Wood, is bound to Washington as a representative of the Santiago board of trade and the busi ness community generally in the cus toms matter. Dr. Castillo declined to talk about his mission, but gave some interesting facts abcnrt the Sanaa? > matter. He said that as against the monthly customs receipts at present in Santiago formerly they were, about $30,000 or less than half, th-.u-h the present tariff Is mostly under the thirl class, while the Spanish tariff, rigidly stuck to the high charges under the first class. No more imports were re ceived now, may be not so much, but all imports now paid their share of the duty, instead of a great part be ing stolen, as formerly. In addition to the customs revenue, about J yearly is realized from the municipal taxts at Santiago. He said that the paving of the streets of Santiago had already begun in macadam and gran ite, and later a great deal of asphalt pavement is to be laid. He said there were about a thousand Spanish soldiers left in the province of Santiago, who were employed in the mines bet«>>-n Santiago and Guantanamo. Ask^d as to the local government. Dr. Castillo said it was working very smoothly, and he thouglu in four or five months' time the poopTe > take it in their own hands. Gen. Wu^d had appointed to o'flce generally the most popular men, who would, no doubt, have been given the places had the people the right of election. CUBAN FINANCES. Dr. Jose Friar in Waj«hi lit t<>" to DNrimn Them. WASHINGTON, Jan. JO.— Dr. Jo.<« Antonio Friar, chairman of the finance committee of the Cuban assembly, and ore of the leading lawyers of the isl and, ha 3 arrived in Washington, and will present to the department of state a plan for the settlement of the finan cial system of Cuba. This plan in cludes a method of appropriating cer- " tain revenues toward the payment of the Cuban soldiers when they are dis banded and other financial measures for the relief of the Cuban people. Dr. Friar is a leading candidate for the appointment of chief justice, al though it is asserted that his mission in Washington at this time fs n*'t Co further his candidacy for that office, but is solely for the purpose of present ing hia financial plans.