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THE MASTER /BUILDER
mm NY sketch of the growth of St. lf\ Paul during the last half cen g/-^ tury, and any reference to the development of the Northwest "with which it is so indissolubly bound up, would not be merely incomplete but unintelligible without reference to the work done by James J. Hill, the foremost citizen of the one and the master builder of empire in the other. This city is the home of the man Tvhose achievements command homage in every capital of the world. Upon its streets a familiar figure is that of the man whose power of divination and of execution, whose knowledge of condi tions and mastery of men, whose fore eight and indomitable courage and in telligent grasp of great principles have made the growth of the city possible by centering here a system of trans portation agencies whose story is a chapter In the history not of St. Paul but of the world. He who would un derstand the rise of St. Paul, pushed into prominence and power by the emergence from the wilderness of the great commonwealths of the further West, and by the growing prosperity of all its tributary territory, must find the key in the story of James J. Hill and his lifework. Mr. Hill was born of Scotch-Irish ancestry, in Wellington county, On tario, in 1838. At the age of fifteen he was thrown upon his own resources. He had not only acquired already a good education, but had developed with avidity facts and idease that were to lead to phenomenal success. Three years later he came to what was a mere village on the frontiers of civiliza tion, and threw in his fortunes with those of St. Paul. From the first he was attracted to problems of trans portation, and during those first years when he was connected with river and railroad business he was amassing facts and ideas that were soon to find a field for practical appli cation. With the patience of true greatness he bided his time, and when the opportunity came he was ready for it, and those who became associated with him had already gauged his won derful executive capacity. This first opportunity would seem, even to a financier of today, sufficiently discouraging. It was the reorganiza tion of the old St. THE FIRST Paul & Pacific rail- •OF MANY road, which consisted BIG PROBLEMS of some patches of track and an in debtedness of $33,000,000. Only a man ■with a vision able to pierce the future, and with a confidence in himself su preme and justified could have per ceived here the fulcrum for a lever that was to move continents and shift the course of a world's commerce around the globe. But by 1879 the en terprise was complete, the property ■was reorganized under the name of the St. Paul, Minneapolis & Manitoba, Mr. Mr. Hill's First Office In St. Paul Hill was made general manager, and four years later became president. In twenty years after this first rise to a commanding position in the railroad •world, albeit only to the head of a com paratively insignificant company oper ating on the edge of a wilderness, Mr. Hill has made himself, by his practical contributions to the world of transpor tation and the original ideas that he has worked out to success, its highest living authority. And at the same time he has wrought material changes upon the face of the West and introduced into railroad financing and manage ment new principles whose scope and menning will be stated there. From the original 400 miles of track of this little system it is a far cry to the 6,000 miles of the Great Northern railway, directly presided over by Mr. Hill, and a still farther to the 20,000 miles of the allied lines of the Great Northern, the Northern Pacific and the Burlington systems, in which Mr. Hill Is so largely interested, and which have been operated in harmony of plan. Yet the gap between was not closed by a flying leap, but by the steady march of progress; and every step of it was marked by the settlement of the coun try, the growth of cities and towns, the rise of new industries, the mulitplica tion of activity and the spread of pros perity in such measure as the world has never seen within a similar period before. The secret of it all is that this has been no spectacular performance, the fruit of no legerdemain and of no weird modern finance, but a process as well considered, as orderly and as gen uinely the fruit of labor as the raising, Etone by stone, of some great edifice. In summarizing or in estimating the lifework of Mr. Hill, the first problem is to know whether to begin at the end or at the beginning; for the two ends meet in harmony. He has never •wrought without a plan; and that plan has often pierced so far into the fu ture, has required the co-operation of Bo many agencies yet unborn, has relied upon contingencies apparently so fan tastic that no ordinary mind could have found the connection, and few can follow it. Yet this is one of the funda mental facts accounting for Mr. Hill's success, and must always be reckoned with. He has built to a plan as definite and as carefully prepared as that of an architect; but it was a plan invisi ble and incapable of construction or of understanding to a mind that could not with equal clearness foresee the move ment of events and the course of local, national and world development, down to its minutest detail. By way of example, take the next gTeat step, the one that placed Mr. Hill at once foremost among the railroad men of his time, the one that laid TRANSCONTINENTAL the corner stone LINE Of Northwest- CONSTRUCTED crn empire. This was the construction of his trans continental line. At the time of its projection, and even down to the day of its completion, there were few who did not speak of it as they have spo ken of many another of his enterprises until justified by the event, as "Hill's folly." Success seemed impossible. Already there was a transcontinental line to the south, pushed through to the coast after ruining the original stockholders and receiving liberal aid from the nation's bounty. Already there was another to the north, created and guaranteed against mishap by the bounty of a government. It was be lieved to be impossible to build a line to the Pacific by private means. James J. Hill did it without the gift of a dol lar or an acre of land. It was believed that such a line, if built, not only couM not pay its way, but would carry down to ruin the profitable portions of the system by absorbing their gains to re coup its losses. James J. Hill has made it a venture so paying that inter est on bonds and dividends on stock of the Great Northern are as unfailing as the seasons. And he did this because he had mastered his problem in ad vance. His theory has always been that a railroad is a business enterprise, to be handled according to business princi ples. It is to be made to pay. And it can pay only as it creates, fosters and encourages the patronage by which it lives. Therefore the keynote is the de velopment of traffic. Fill the country with sturdy and intelligent people. In duce them to settle in territory tribu tary to the line and make it possible for them to live there in comfort and prosperity. Share with them the bene fit of prosperity by decreasing freight rates as rapidly as conditions will per-t mit. Thus new territories, and then new states, have been the milestones to mark the progress of the Great North ern system westward. Thus the vol ume of its business has grown in mar velous ratio, and its own earnings have multiplied, while the cost of transpor tation to the shipper was constantly on the decline. Under the management of Mr. Hill the business handled by his system has grown to thirty times its original volume, while the average rate charge per ton per mile has been cut down about 70 per cent. This is the idea, utterly revolutionary as far as the practices of the men who were in control of the railroad business of the country when Mr. Hill made his entry are concerned, that has made It possi ble to erect a mighty railroad system as a purely commercial enterprise, and to make it pay out on its own merits. .This is the first conception behind the creation of Mr. Hill, and in tangible form it appears as the Great North- west; a tier of states RAILROAD AND stretching from the PUBLIC Great Lakes to the ARE PARTNERS Pacific, smiling in prosperity, humming with industry, dowered with wealth. The second and greater conception will ap pear later on, in dealing with the ulti mate purpose and scope of his trans portation system as a whole. But th« immediate idea was the vital principle energizing the vast country affected, and the industries now so important a portion of the national heritage. Just as there was no mendicancy in asking aid from the government, but a proud reliance on individual resources as a matter of sound business, so has there been no pretense of philanthropy in dealing with the Northwest, but a sys tem of intelligent direction of effort and the sound business system that teaches self help. From first to last the Great Northern, as representing the ideas of Mr. Hill, has stood for a part nership with the people. His simple proposition is that a railroad can pros per only as the people are prosperous who live in the country that it serves and must contribute the business from which its revenues are to be drawn. Therefore the people of the Northwest have had some experiences unique in this or any country. The policy of the railroad to encour age immigration has been consistently and vigorously carried out. The Great Northern was a pioneer in this line of work, and its system today furnishes the model which enlightened manage ments elsewhere are following. But the settler, once obtained, must be a producer and consumer, must contri bute to traffic, if he is to render to the railroad any other return than the bare cost of his ticket. Therefore his ma terial interests have been made a study. At an early day Mr. Hill perceived the evil of devotion to a single crop, and the immense advantages possessed by the Northwest for stock raising. Na tive varieties were of low grade, and he scattered among the counties along his lines blooded cattle and hogs, im ported by himself, in order to improve the native strains of stock. The result THE ST. PAUL GLOBE GOLDEN JUBILEE EDITION, has been a notable improvement in stock products and an addition to the wealth of the country that cannot be estimated in dollars. Later on the steady appropriation of the public domain called at tention to the vast tracts of arid land lying unproductive and for bidding, an actual menace to ag riculture by their unfavorable ef fect upon climate. Mr. Hill was one of the first to take up with intelligence and enthusiasm the subject of irriga tion. His railroad contributed large sums of money to have an expert study made of the irrigation problem, to con duct a campaign of education on its importance among the people, and to arouse and enlist public sentiment in favor of irrigation projects on a larger scale. It is today one of the move ments nearest to his heart, and it-is destined to add hundreds of mil lions of . acres to the tillable area, millions to the » population and thousands of millions to the wealth producing capacity of the country between the Mississippi and the Pacific coast. This, too, is a part of his theory and practice of railroad ing; because every such contribution to the aggregate product of the com munity writes itself into railroad earn ings and enhances the value of the transportation system. But at once the greatest and the simplest of the laws that he has laid down and followed, that which came as the most striking novelty to those who THE LAW OF had for a generation THE LOW conceived of rail- FREIGHT RATE roading as the proc ess of screwing out of the business all that the traffic will bear, is the rule of the low freight rate. This will rise to a place of commanding importance when the larger field of transcontinen tal and international commerce is touched upon. But it has had its be ginnings arid its systematic applica tion in the more limited field of local transit. It is but the translation into practical terms of the proposition that the successful conduct of a transporta tion system means an intelligent part nership with the people. Rates must be made such as will maintain a prop erty as a business institution and pay its charges. But as fast as the volume of business increases and profits grow, these are to be divided with the public in order that it may prosper and pro duce more abundantly. It brings into operation what may be called the law of the increasing return. For each re mission of charges leaves more wealth in the community, which is applied to productive purposes. Thus there is an other access to business, another swell in the volume of traffic carried, and an other reduction made possible at a later date. • • • Spread over a series of years, the fruits of this policy may be seen in the immense material development of the territory served by the lines under, the control of Mr. Hill. The average freight rate per ton per mile to the producing shipper has been reduced from 3 cents per mile to 8 mills. In the meantime the aggregate valuation of the farms in the six states traversed by the Great Northern lines has in creased to a billion and a half of dol lars, their grain product has risen to 500,000,000 bushels, and their live stock, worth nearly a half billion more, is scattered upon a thousand hills. . Other sections of the county are prosperous; but it would be impossible to find any where the ratio of increase has been as rapid and as steady, and where the growth still continues. Very cently a large reduction of rates was made voluntarily to producers served by the Great Northern, and this .policy of sharing the benefits of growth'with the people is kept steadily in~vie\y. Not all .the immense resources of the Northvrest, and not all' the industry and enterprise of its people have been more conducive to prosperity than this system by which they have been made partakers in the benefits of expansion, and country and railroad have grown rich and great by the stimulus of mu tual advantage. Since 1893, when the Great Northern reached tidewater at the Pacific, the JAMES J. HILL process of empire building in the terri tory through which :t THE BUILDING passes has gone for- OF AN ward i continuously on EMPIRE th-.'. varied lines dic tated by broad intelli gence. At the same time the accom plished work itself has become but a link in the chain, the prelude to a more remarkable achievement. Again pre vision blazed the way for constructive energy; and the completion of a trans continental line able to maintain itself out of its own independent resources sounded the first note of advance to a larger conquest; .to the.making of new markets, the commercial ~, invasion of the Orient . and the making of .^a/; new route for the great stream of commerce between East and West. .: -■ '.'."-7-.':., - Again the first intimation of what might and could and ".would . be" done came . through the appearance of the low-freight % rate, . i The Great North ern's advantage Jasf a transcontinental line over those terminating, at San Francisco < was first' established and demonstrated. With its less than 2,000 miles* of track between the * head of navigation on the Great Lakes and the ocean docks at Seattle and Everett, it had.'.the short line. With its splendid construction and easy grades it could reduce the cost of hauling across the continent 1- to a ; minimum." • With -' its water haul from Duluth and Superior to Buffalo it could make a low rate for the eastern connection. ' With its phe nomenally low fixed charges, for « the Great Northern, having been built for business and *not; for stock - job bing, represents ; a capitalization in stock' and bonds of approximately but $30,000 a mile, it was prepared to make a low charge; not as a cut rate, but as a i plain . business .proposition. Imme-. diately it exhibited a further point of superiority over its competitors by or ganizing business on the principle of the double haul. • jr. -• •■ ; ' When a California line hauls west bound . business to \ San Francisco, its cars must jbe taken ■ back empty, over mountain and plain, at heavy, cost, ex cept in as far as they are used for fruit shipments and other traffic originating in that territory. The volume of this is comparatively light. It was the study of Mr. Hill, a study long antedating the celebration which. marked the comple- • tion of the Pacific line, to develop a paying . business :in both directions. This had been done as to local traffic, for more ' than - twenty ' years -by the method of internal empire building al- ; ready, described. : The same energy and; acumen were now to be .applied, to through transportation, and the method was ready. On the North Pacific coast there exists, in the magnificent forests of -Washington, . a supply of . raw. ma terial for which there is a constant de mand in the interior :of the country; a commodity which would tax: all the re sources of the "railroads to carry it to these markets for the next twenty-five years.- Here was traffic •in one direc tion waiting to be .developed;- but be tween. the supply and the demand there stood the barrier of a freight rate: so high that lumber could not bear it and be sold to the consumer at a price that he could pay. The rate from Puget sound to the Mississippi was 80 cents. Mr. 'Hill - asked the lumbermen of the coast what rate would enable them to do business in the central markets, and they told him 60 cents.' He" said, "We will make «it ; 40 cents." CAt once ; the lumber industry of the Pacific began to expand by great • leaps, and a return freight "was assured to every, car that was r sent westward to the "• sea. This :is the fortification in" the rear that ever | protects." the ■- Great % North ern_. against successful attack and leaves i\ no.:GOjn p'etitor on .even terms, j -_ . .•_ . _ . : 1 ' For business *> in v. the i&Zi&fr direction, 'in addition to that Ji^JjClf -"naturally "oi the country's development, ther^planß^^WfeVKv/'.','^-^^--- 'i"^. ; ; ' a laid^ \v?th S irimL_ THE '■ ©!?' E.N.T; itely greater TRADE'S : y forethought LAST BATTLEFIELD prepafatipn';-;and '.:" ';'-'*' '.'T-^'Z'^J,'-■ -r *• -"> out :of ,1 their- realization ■, has 5 come the rise : and ' increase of :a 1 trade ' with the : Orient that \ has j attracted the • attention and aroused the : admiration or ; the un ; easiness of the whole: world. No stu- Sent of the history of commerce, and that is what Mr. Hill has been during lis whole life, could be oblivious to the :ommanding part played in it by strug gles for control of the trade of the far East. He saw where and how that struggle might be renewed in this cen :ury. The broad expanse of the Pacific was the battlefield for the new com mercial forces. The low freight rate night leap from shore to shore and re make the ideas and remold the busi ness of the world. Existing demands might be satisfied, new demands might 3e created, among these teeming and trading peoples. And out of this could be brought new fortunes to the agen cies already existing and ready for their part in a drama now extended to the field of world commerce as the only theater large enough for its complete presentation. For many years before this idea be came public property Mr/Hill was at work resolving his hypothesis into a scientific working theory. -He had trusted and intelligent agents traveling through China and Japan, reporting to nim facts and possibilities. He began it once to build up a transpacific com merce by the northern route. A traffic arrangement was concluded with the great steamship company of the Jap anese empire, and everywhere the con-* sumption of American products and the shipment of imports and exports from the Orient through Puget sound ports was encouraged. What has been already accomplished, though it is scarcely the beginning of momentous changes to be witnessed in their full ness only by the next generation, is almost like a fairy story. One of the early demonstrations of tvhat could be done came in the ship ment of American steel rails to Japan, rhe empire was pushing forward its new railway system and sought to buy in the cheapest market. American bidders would not have dreamed of se curing an order but for the determina tion of Mr. Hill, who told them to take it and he would, make a freight rate that should enable them to beat the world. It was then that the public first learned that a transportation line already doing business would make a rate of $8 per ton from Pittsburg or Chicago to Yokohama. That rate has since been made to Hongkong and the Philippines, and it is decisive. No competitor by the Pacific route can meet it. And with the competi tion of the monster carriers now building to cut down still further th<? cost of the ocean carriage, the rate will be such that the Suez route cannot meet it. A world's commerce will gravitate to the northern line, across the American continent and the Pacific. Both sides of the equation are filled out. ... The westbound traffic will con sist of commodities of American origin, billed through to the distributing cen ters of the Orient; and the carriers of this gigantic system, by land and sea, will have to tax their vast resources to accommodate a business which appeals indeed- to the imagination, but which is none the less measured by prosaic fact. With the plan outlined but partially ready for fulfillment, observe what has happened. It is only a few years since ■ . :;- -" the United States TRANSPACIFIC and the Orient TRADE awoke to a con- GROWS SWIFTLY sciousness of their . ;\ new relation. Such increase as there has been in the vol ume of trade between them is due prac tically to the work of Mr. Hill. .Today the iron, the cotton, the manufactures of this country are firmly fixed in the Eastern market and daily, extending their hold. Today there is a. sale for American wheat-and American flour across the Pacific that is the most beneficent portent of our time. For these people are learning to consume the food products of our continent. With each step of their emergence from a dead past to the living present their adoption of our ideas, habits, products, becomes easier and more complete. The war now . raging will introduce American goods and create a depend ence on American markets that years of peace could not effect. And already what has been done? The farmers and millers o£ the state of Washington are Of THEvNQRTHWEST looking today for their best customers to the Orient instead of to Europe. The new demand has sent up the price of their grain. It has decreased the Liverpool supply by an equivalent amount. It is not only creating new traffic, but it is blessing old industries; so that the farmer of our own North west is today undoubtedly receiving from 5 to 10 cents per bushel more for his wheat than he would if there were no market opened in the Orient. And the work has only just begun. In 1894 the official commercial re ports of the government show that not a pound of raw cotton was sent from the United States to any quarter through the port of Puget sound. It would have been thought as ridiculous to dream of it as to watch for the ex port of bananas from Bangor, Me. But in 1895 we sent from that port as our first contribution 2,500,000 pounds, valued at $225,000; and in the incredi bly short space of seven years this total had swelled to 64,000,000 pounds, with a value of $6,600,000. By 1903 we were also sending to the Chinese empire manufactured cotton goods through the port of Puget sound to the value of $13,700,000. A response so sudden and so liberal to the opening of the new trade route and its inducements prom ises to transfer to America the great market for cotton goods that: Great Britain has long enjoyed in the East. In 1894 the port of Puget sound ex ported 4,200,000 bushels of wheat, worth $2,200,000; by 1902 it sent out 13,850,000 bushels, worth $8,625,000. In 1894 its exports of wheat flour were 277,000 bar rels, valued at $750,000; in 1903 they had become 2,000,000 barrels, valued at $6,000,000. Of leaf tobacco there was exported through this port in 1894 only 7,000 pounds, worth $1,000; but by nine years later this trifling item appears as an export of 3,400,000 pounds, with a valuation of $300,000. The total ex ports of this collection district, through which passes all the oriental traffic carried by the northern route, rose from a total valuation of $4,000,000 in 1889 to nearly $33,000,000 in 1903. For the first ten months of the fiscal year 1904 our exports to Japan were $20,900,000, as against $18,000,000 for the same period of the year preceding. This increase is at the rate of about 1 per cent a month. Our exports to Asia and Oceania combined, which is a fair measure of the transpacific busi ness, rose from $27,400,000 in 1893 to $95,000,000 in 1903. Sometimes there 's talk of the American commercial "in vasion of Europe"; but neither there nor in any other quarter of the world does the foreign trade of the United States show a rate of increase to be for a moment compared to that of its com merce with the Orient. Yet the latter is only in its infancy, and is to be stim ulated powerfully by three influences, whose first effects may already be traced: first, the awakening to modern ideas of the Oriental peoples and their imitative desire to adopt the habits and modes of life of civilization; second, the peculiar relations of friendliness and confidence which; exist between these peoples and ourselves; and third and most decisive of all, the low freight rate which is now in the making and which promises to give to this country an unassailable control of a market so vast that if each person should con- — ~fjj— — —* mr~iiiiniiiumi Great Northern General Offices sume but a single bushel of wheat per annum it would bankrupt our supply, and if each person contributed but $10 a year in all to the purchase of com modities of American origin it would give us an export business of nearly rive billions of dollars. And these fig ures are quite within the possibilities of advancing civilization. The last fight of this great interna tional struggle for the control of trade is to be fought upon the sea. The issue of it is in no wise doubtful. It is deter- BIG STEAMERS mined by the same REDUCE kind of facts and OCEAN RATES forces that would de clare the fortunes of two nations at war, one possessed of a modern navy and the other relying upon ships in ferior in number and of antique pat tern. For this event, too, the genius of Mr. Hill provided long ago. As his railroad line is able to meet and dis tance competition on land, so the ships that he is now bringing to completion in the great yards at New London will master it on sea. Upon their banners might well be inscribed the same all conquering motto to which reference has been made so often, the "low freight rate." For it is by that sign that they will conquer, and it is to re duce- the cost of ocean transportation so that the through freight rate may absolutely command the situation that they have been called into being. A railroad capitalized at $30,000 a mile can earn and pay dividends while carrying freight at rates which one capitalized at $60,000 a mile cannot meet without bankruptcy, even sup posing . cost ■of operation to be equal. A steamship that can carry six times as much as any rival, and be operated at only double the cost, can dominate the business of its route. This is the practical embodiment of the low freight rate, by which Mr. Hill means to as semble and transport a commerce mightier than the world has yet looked upon. He will be able, with all his in strumentalities in working order, with no interference with his plans, with the expansion that the Oriental market is capable of, to turn the trade of the world to follow the sun, bringing with it prosperity and power to this country and to the Northwest. The big steamers that are to play so important a part in this development are now nearing completion. The Min nesota and the Dakota will outclass any carriers afloat. The length of the«e monsters of the deep is 630 feet over all, and their draft 33 feet. Their dead weight capacity is 28,000 tons. There are nine holds for the storage of their great volume of freight, while each is capable of carrying 1,400 passengers— first, second, third class and steerage. The propellers are 20 feet in diameter On a draft of 37 feet the displace ment is 37,000 tons. Each vessel is twice as large as a modern battleship, and will take on for the voyage 5,000 tons of coal. The cost of these twin ships is $5,000,000, and within the bow els of each there can be stored the contents of 2,500 ordinary freight cars or 100 trains of 25 cars to the train. Fitted with every appliance for speed and economical handling, the entry of tnese ships, created specially for the work they have to do and the problem that was to be solved, upon their mis sion on the Pacific will give to this country an incomparable advantage in its commercial conquests, and assign definitely to us and to the agencies controlled by Mr. Hill the mastery of Oriental trade; not only as against competing systems, but as against the carriers of the entire world. The manager of a railroad has devel oped int« the creator of great systems. The builder of a new industrial empire in the Northwest MASTER BUILDER'S has presaged the TASK expansion of NEARS COMPLETION commerce in the years to come, and fashioned instruments ready to its hand. It is a well rounded story of a marvelous lifework; and looked at from the end is one consistent whole. There are no contradictions and no cross pur poses. The transcontinental line be comes the benefactor of the man who lives upon his isolated farm in Minne sota or the Dakotas. The great sweep of harmoniously allied systems by which the iron of the East and Middle West, the cotton of the South and the grain of the Central Basin are gathered and poured, as it were, through a fun nel into the Pacific port for the Orient, scatters as from a horn of plenty pros perity on all who find new, enlarged and more remunerative markets. And the inspiring conception of transporta tion agencies so mighty and so deli-, cately adjusted that, by reducing cost to its lowest point, they can reverse the current of international trade that sets around the world, reflects and realizes itself in an enhanced value for agricul tural products in every little outlying country tract. With the rise of Northwestern empire, through it and for it, there has progressed an imperial reduction of the transportation problem to its simplest terms by the thought of a master mind. - • The idea can now be seen in the completeness of its simplicity. It is the lifework of a man whose-■■weefcg will endure longer than formal monuments. The country is coming to understand something of the motives and methods of James J. Hill. His inventive, execu tive and administrative qualities might be inferred'from the magnitude of his l&bors;* as .the scientist conceives a period from the traces it leaves behind in the enduring rocks. But he is, first of all, a laborer in the workshop of the world. His is a character simple, stur dy, straightforward. His discipline is inflexible; his will, as must be that of those who conquer greatly, brooks no obstacles. But in the prac tical output of his genius selfishness has little place. He is doing the work of the world in his place and in his way, and that is to him occupation and delight. His beautiful home in St. Paul is such as a man like this would make for himself; worthy in its solidity and its adornments of his wealth and position in the world of men, but with out ostentation and in the truest senst a home. He is a man of manifold ac quirements, possessed of one of the finest collections of paintings in the country, and personally and artistically cognizant of their merits; a connoisseur in precious stones, an authority on the values and pedigrees of blooded cattle, satisfied with nothing less than thor ough excellence in anything that h;irul or mind touches in swift flight. Gifted with a memory little short of marvel ous, he seizes with quickness and cer tainty and retains with iron grasp alike the far-reaching conceptions that mold the industries of continents and the smallest details of complicated affairs. His citizenship is active and interests itself in furthering the cause of good government, and his unceasing philan thropies, public and private, are as nu merous as they are retiring and con cealed. Such is St. Paui's foremost citizen, whose life's work and history are so great a part of her own. There is scarcely one of the great industries centered here that does not owe much, in many cases it very existence, to'his active aid. The pulses of commerce that beat in her veins were set in mo tion by his keen genius and his restless hand. The business that crowds her marts drew its motive power from sources on the distant prairie which his craft redeemed from the wilderness and gave to civilization. And as she faces the larger area and looks across continents and seas to the commercial future, it is his homely and propheti:: vford that is flashed back from signal stations halfway around the globe. The consenting labor of millions, .their love of liberty, their frugality, their in dustry have raised one upon another the granite blocks of the Northwest's imperial structure. But upon the cor ner stone must be inscribed, where coming generations will read and un derstand, the name of the master builder; James J. Hill.