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\, All roads at one time led to T<^ <•■ . . R*ne, ■■■■■ '■■■■■-:- " '^- '■''■ *\ From Asia, Carthage, . Egypt, j; '■ <•'•-.. Gaul. :'~r. "'-•' ■ '. -'/-■>':: ' | Look from our marble state house 4^ i, dome, •■•-.•..?;^.: • "'. '■ ■.■'.':<[ MethinUs all roads lead to St. <■' t PauL - : . ;y\,; p ;^;^ <£'»♦♦>♦♦>♦»>♦»»»♦♦» »»»♦'♦ ♦ »» FRENCH traders, vrj&o accompanied or followed black-robed priests, sent hither to bear the banner of the cross among the Indians and win them to its mild religion, inaugu rated commerce in the Northwest. It •was by the great lakes, in birefabartc canoes, that these zealous, men and their associates first came to what is now Minnesota. This amphibious nav igation and commerce extended over 150 years. The canoes used In the early travel and trade were from twen ty to thirty-five feet long, four to five feet wide in the center, sharp-pointed at the ends and capable of carrying from four to five tons of, freight or from fifteen to eighteen men. For tunes in furs were carried each year for' a long period in these frail crafts, playthings when considered In com parison with the splendid steel built steamships and monster sailing vessels plowing the waters of Lake Superior an-d its sisters beyond. It was rare that wrecks of these canoes occurred In nic long years in which they were the only means of communication with the out er world, bringing in trinkets and car rying away furs and pelts. They held the business, however, until 1823, when on the morning at May 20, the little steamboat Virginia surprised the gar rison at Fort Snelling and alarmed the Indians in their tepees on the hills, with a shrill whistle which sounded the death knell of the career of canoe, barge; bateau and keelboat The Vir ginia was eighteen days In coming from St. Louis, ana cut down the time of barge and keel boat travel from forty to fifty days in making the same trip. Previous to the coming of the Virginia the supplies for Fort Snelling were brought up by this slow and tire some method, the boats being able to make one round trip in a season. It v.as a quarter of a century after the Virginia arrived before a regular line of boats began running, the Galena Packing company, H. H. Sibley, of Mendota, being the Minnesota partner In the company, putting on a small steamboat, which made a weekly trip between Galena and Mendota and Fort Snelling. Other boats were gradually added to the line and other compa nies were organized: one of them, es tablished in 1566, still existing. The palmy days of steamboating on the Mississippi were during the decade be tween 1850 and 1860. In 1857 and 1858 the number of boats arriving at St. Paul exceeded 1.-000 in each year. The Red River Valley Carts While growth was In progress at Mendota and St. Paul there were flour ishing settlements along the Red river. It was in the feciile valley of that Northern stream that the first actual settlement was made in the North west and the growing of wheat began, many years before Minnesota had a' place on the map or St Paul was known. This Red river region had a route to the world by way of Hudson bay; a long, circuitous and difficult journey, open barely two months in the year. In 1844 Norman W. Kittson in augurated a cart trade with St. Paul by sending down from Pembina six Red river or "Pembina" carts loaded with furs. These carts were of rude construction, of wood and leather, no fron being used, and able to carry from 800 to 1.000 pounds. To the cart was fastened an ox or pony, geared with broad bands of buffalo hide. One roan would manage several carts by guiding the head animal, the rest being tied to the tail end of the preceding cart. Grease was seldom used on the axles, and the creaking of the wheels could Le heard a long distance, especially when the train was made up ef a hun dred or more carts, as was often the case. The drivers were as picturesque Cis their vehicles were cr«3e. For twenty years the cart trade was an; important feature in ; the business X life of St.. Paul. vßut the cart was not \ swift enough for the • energetic people." ; who were beginning to do business in : - the capital \ city. Then was ; inaugu -Irated the stage and freight'.wagbn..: traffic, which :; ended 5 cart,: travel, ■ but '■'■ ' also the dog sled, as a method' "at trans- " § pqrtatioit, which latter for a time daJr- , tng the winter was about the only way to get in or out of the Red river ; coun- ; : try. : v The ; members of the ; Minnesota S territorial assembly, . Messrs. Kittsoti, - Rodctte "and; 'Gfiigras, came to the sey-'. sion of -i 1552 from Pembina ;by dog- ' sleds in sixteen .days. . \ The dogs were :; driven tandem, to ten dogs in line, . attache* -to sleds; capable of carrying,. : from 600' to 1,000 pounds. ; V " :-; r • :~C ■ "^ :% The -dog:- sleds and the "ox i carts: only V; started out when ■ there was business, 1 and therefore jrere.: very : irregular in * : their \ movements. ,- In 1848 1 the : first : regnlar - inland transportation service - began,, when WiUoughby •. and Powers ? put on a two-seated open wagon be . tween St. '- Paul r? : and ' St. Anthony, ;a;. t service . which , increased fn -7a • few- 1; ; montha to a rtg . large- enough ■to carry f; fourteen persona,'-r Next ' yeair •- a read '$ i»'«'t*«V»''»'»»'»'»'»'" - Red River Carts of Fifty Years Ago was opened to Prairie dv Chlen, which gave the first winter outlet eastward to the young city, and Willoughby & Powers put on vehicles to carry mall and passengers between the rival Mis sissippi villages. Other lines were soon organized,, and stages began ; - running to Stillwater and points in Wisconsin, Illinois and lowa. Competition sprang up In the business between St. Paul and St. Anthony, and for a year or two the passenger rate -. was cut from 75 cents to 10 cents for the trip ; of ten miles. Stages and Steamers Arrive In due time the various companies engaged in the stage and \ wagon trade were merged into the Minnesota Stage : company, of which J. C. Burbank was general ■ manager, Col. v Allen superin tendent of stock and traffic, and Capt. Blakeley superintendent of mail serv ice. John L. Merriam afterwards be came a member" of the company. In 1854 Mr. -'•■.. Burbank organized the '- Northwestern Express . company, in which he. was associated with Messrs. W. L. Pawcett, Ed Holcombe and C. W. Carpenter, and it. became an im portant factor in the business Interests of the Northwestern country.: The business of the stage company also : grew, and in 1861 the owners, Messrs. Burbanlc, Blakeley and Merriam, had all of the mail contracts in the state of Minnesota '■'■ and gave employment to hundreds of , men and horses. The stage company then served the people of the Northwest as the" railroads serve them today. Its stages ran into Wisr consin, Illinois, ' lowa, . and into ■ what is now the Dakotas and up into Mani toba. It is said of Mr.: Burbank that he laid out more new roads than any other hundred men ever in the ■ state, and his interest" In transportation mat .l ters did not end with stages, but ex tended Oto steam lines and street car lines, he being one of the pro moters ;of the . St. Paul street railway . and the first president of the company. The . operations of the Minnesota Stage company, and its work In ; the 1 development of the country is ancient . history and well nigh ; forgotten, but it: filled - a large place. After being driven from orig inal routes by railroads, the stagecom ; pany went back into the country Into new fields. , The wrtter* of \ this ■ article made his firs?t trip into the Black Hills ■ on a stage belonging to this St. Paul company. '/-■:■ :'':"_ ■■-' '.'l•"'.. -O^rr .; ~ ;■'■ .■:.-■ --''-'■ In 1850 St. Paul was beginning to spread along both - sides of the river,": and regular ferry service was demand ■ cd. This was supplied in the spring of that year by' James \M. . and :. Isaac -N. Goodhue, and two years later D. F. : Brawley .established another, and the two ferry lines were operated as suc cessful business "enterprises; until growth demanded a bridge, which was completed in 1858. i": V.:'.";:..;:. :. £i Regular navigation of the Minnesota .; was begun in 1856, - by ; Capt. I«ouis Robert, for i whom a ; principal street .in ■ this city is named. An attempt' was : made late In the *50s to reach the Red river by boat, but the venture "elided. in failure, ■ the steamer wrecked be . tween Lakes Traverse \ and Big Stone' ; Tl»e ; machinery, however, was taken out and used in the International, the - first steamer to navigate v the [ famous • '* boundary T»tceajia- between < Minnesota' •: and North Dakota. For a t*:ae steain- THE ST. PAUL GLOBE GOLDEN JUBILEE EDITION ers were operated on the Mississippi above the falls. Steamers and stages were slow prop ositions and. the people yearned and pe titioned and prayed for a railroad. Minnesota, while a territory and during its first years as a state, covered a pe riod when congress waa making lib eral grants to aid In the construction of these arteries of travel' and trade. It was in a grant that the people saw their first hope of a railroad. This hope was gratified as far as a grant wa* concerned, in 18S7, when 4*500,000 acres were set apart by the government at Washington to be divided between six different companies which had been chartered by previous territorial as semblies. The six companies created to enjoy this gift of land were the Minnesota Western, the Minnesota & Northwest ern, the Transit railroad, the Central Minnesota, the La Crosae 8c Minnesota, and the St. Pstil & lowa State Line railroad. The act granting the first named company was approved by Gov» Ramsey oa March 3, 1*53- A year and a day later, March 4, 1854, the year St. Paut was incorporated* Gov. Gorman THREE STAGES OF THE EVOLUTION OF TRAFFIC approved the - act creating the second .'. g named company, , and later approved. acts creating the remaining four com- § panics. Nothing of actual railroad ■building came of al] thfs legislation, a owing to the financial distress existing: at that time. The charters of these companies : and the lands attached v thereto were kept alive by subsequent legislation and incorporated Into later and existing companies. ... . Big Bond; Loan Voted The legislature of 1858 submitted a constitutional . amendment ,; to popular ' vote loan the different :companies J5.000.000 in bonds, . the amendment carrying a vote of 25,023 to 16,733. ': In 1859 Gov. Slbley refused to issue bonds withouf having mortgages; with first lien, but one of the companies ap- ' plied to the supreme court for a man damus to compel : the governor to Issue ' bonds . without this restriction. • The _ court, Judge Flandrau opposing, or dered the governor to; issue bonds as sqpn as any company delivered its mortgage bond 3 to hhn. In ; obedience to this mandate $2,300,000 of bonds were issued and not a rail laid, and only here and there fragmentary grad ing to show for this vast bonded .credit* of the state. The bonds, were disposed of at all kinds of prices to outside par ties. Then followed -a long S struggle .. • with. the holders and much dissension at home. ; A plan to settle was rejected by popular | vote, : bat later, by legis lative action, the bonds were redeemed, --■ the last one • being presented for ' pay- . ■ ment in 1897, -on which the interest amounted to :.more than the original . face value of the bond—sl,ooo. V Then . the. stigma of repudiation which had long attached to the state was wiped ■ out. :"'-'.:y -~<\. .'-.-' ■'■■'..; . !. '::''.: ■'-'. -!!' - The preliminaries for railroads had : been arranged in the way of charters and organized companies, bonds were outstanding to a ! large amount,* and the coveted land grant had been made, - but a crisis—civil war—was Impending : and no more money cottld be had ' fn the East to Invest 'in the building; of : railroads out in this little known coun-, try west of the Mississippi. This, how ever, did not prevent the hopeful peo ple, - through the legislature, from cje-^ ; ating companies. As r already \ noted, ; the assemblies of , 1853 and . 1854 j had I. chartered : six [companies. The assem bly of 1356 added two more to the list, Minnesota & Pacific, empowered to : ; build from Stillwater via ; St. Paul ; to ; V. St. CloucL ;; This company filed its cer- VOflcate of ; organization with the sec . retary of the . territory on May 27, nam ing the following as officers: - Edmund \ Rice, president; R. R. Nelson, vice president J. W. Taylor^!' secretary; L J, ■ M. \' Stine, treasurer, - and J. ;B. - Bris ', bin, attorney. The : first surveys \ were ■'■: made between f St. Paul and : ; St.*? An-" i. thony, and V charts showing '■ the loca- • ) ■ tion of the line were filed with the gov ernox- in; November, and with ; the land office in Washington jin December, the ■ ; trip ?! to the national V seat ; of govern ment at that ' time \ being a question of ■= weeks.' Meanwhile the company : was >. trying ito ; get I money ■■ to 1 begin actual - work. In October, 1857, it: made a con tract with Chamberlain >to;begfn-; :/ the ; work of grading between. ISt Paul ! ■ and St. Anthony, but he only had. fair •i started when he had o*deriitotatop?» -" and • the; company "sobni ? after failed, "■ the •'•■--«■•'• v: r '- ■'■/• %:■■ ';';:;.-. '■:-'-yZyi---::<-: : ',r.:------. •.- *---i'->i stringency pending the war was too much for it. By Sh act of the legis lature In the spring of 1861 the enter prise was given new life and a con tract was made with Winters, Harsh man & Drake, who resumed the grad* inf, laid 1,400 feet of track, imported an engine, the William Crooks, which weighed 55,000 pounds, a toy in> com parison with the monster locomotives of today. The William Crooto is still in service, having been changed from a wood burner to a coal burner by the Great Northern, its present owner, and successor to the first line built* in tfte state. The little engine and the first cars and rails came by barge up the river from La Crosae, reaching there by rail from the East. Affairs remained at a standstill after this start until May 22, 1862. when the legislature created a new company, the St. Paul &. Pacific* to which was given all the rights of the Minnesota. & Paeifle. Edmund Rice was continued as president of the new company. The CIvH war had begun aud money was scarce, but the new company persevere* and succeeded in getting enough to resume work. A contract was madia with, the same parties Rlver Traffic of the Sixties who had laid the quarter of a mile- of track the year before, ajid by July 2 the road was finished to St. Anthony, and the first excursion train was run on that date wtth W. C. Gardner as engineer of the William. Crooks, and J. B. Rice as train conductor. The excursionists re ported a good time on the trtp through the farms between the two places, a section now largely laid out in city lots. Although there were two daily papers In St. Paul at this time, no mention was made of the excursion until July 5, three days after the event which inaugurated railroad business In Minnesota. No men tion appeared in print of the arrival of the Willfam Crooks In the previous Oc tober. James J. Hill to the Front The panic of 1873 wrecked the St Paul & Pacific company and It passed into the hands of a receiver. J. J. Hill was sta tion agent at St. Paul and was also in terested iri a steamboat Una on the Red river. Mr. Hill endeavored to organize a company to take over the bankrupt property, and it was not until June, 1879, that the final foreclosure decrees were en tered and the St. Paul, Minneapolis & Manitoba railway took possession of the 632 miles of track belonging to the St. Paul & Pacific. The new company was officered by George Stephens, president; R. B. Angus, vice president; Edward Saw yer, secretary and treasurer, and James J. Hill, general manager. In 1882 Mr. Angus retired and was succeeded by Mr. Hill, whose place as general manager was taken by Allan Manvef. On. Feb. 1, 1890. the Great Northern Railway com pany, which now directly includes more than a dozen different railway corpora tions, assumed control of the St. Paul, Minneapolis & Manitoba. The first of the .three transcontmental lines running from -St. Paul was the Northern Pacific, the act of congress creating it having been signed by Presi dent Lincoln July 2, 2854, exactly two years after St. Paul sent out her first railroad train on a run of ten miles to which is now East Minneapolis. Con struction on the Northern Pacific began in 18S9, but it was- not completed as a through line to the coast until 1883, the celebration of which took place in St. Paul Sept 9. Landmarks of Progress When the first railway train left St. Paul July 2, 1862, for St. Anthony, ten miles away, the Capital City had. less than a.OOt) population, and the people of Minnesota numbered about 200,000. Now St. Paul Is pushing along to the 200,000 mark in population and is a mob which radiates railway lines in all direc tions, like spokes in a wheel, and the number of passenger trains alone daily leaving the city haa swelled, from one, with Its toy engine and "dinky" little cars, with oil lamps and wood stoves, to more than 100 splendidly equipped trains, not to speak of hundreds of freight ■ t rains, which, go and come every day from the yards of the different companies, and from the Minnesota Transfer. The num ber of passenger trains from the union station is not as large as formerly, when there was a- suburban service supplanted now by electric lines, but the trains are more than double In number of cars and the cars arte one-half larger In capacity and superb in furnishings. A million square miles of territory, a greater region than the original United States, and richer far i n material re- sources and climatic advantages, ;/is*.tra-*y versed by railroads that center -atf\O*^ reach. St. Fjuifcf'ftad'.-.. millions V- of people :i r living Jbi?ja:^3iayr f supplies from tßla city : - and r;fes turn dispose 2of r '■ thefr 5 products ■- through St. Paul houses. One only needsv. 2to f stiidy>fa: map; to see that : St. Fanl 'Is the heart ctty of the continent. It was ■ a deduction such aa this that lead W, H. \ Seward, th« ; statesman who added Alaska! : to the American domain, in face of fierce opposition, to make ttie.: prediction, often quoted ! and always good, jin ; a speech fa ':. z 1866, from the steps of ' the old wooden; capital of Minnesota. ■ .•* ■:••-' ;-.:;> "I feel ; myself Jor i the ; firat; time upon: the high in the center of the conti r . nent of I North America, equldtetant from - ith& J waters of Hudson bay and the gulf of Mexico. Here is the place—the cen tral place wbete agricultural ■ products of ; : this region s must pottt" out * their tributes to the world. >I- have • caat about ; for the * future j aadi ultimate seat of : power of . North America. I : looked Jto Queb^ to£ New Orleans, to Washington. San Fran-; cisco and St. Louis, for i th* future seat k of power. Bat I have corrected :: ti»at view. ;• I now believe t6a t tft* ultimate last f seat |of government :on this great contl- nent wfll tw found somewhere not far from the spot on which I stand, at the head of navigation on the Mississippi river." Unthought of developments of steam and electric transportation and communi cation may prevent the fulfillment of this prophecy as to our city's relations with the whole country, but ft has already been established as regards the Northwest, an American region vast in extent, and still In the early stages of development. While above the 49th parallel, across which" is stretched an artificial barrier, some day to disappear, is more territory reaching 1 to Alaska, the trade of all which naturally belongs here. Railroads* from St. Paul touch and cross this boundary at many points in 1,500 miles straight away .from Northern Minnesota, to the Western sea, which separates us from the Orient, the trade of which is being sought and en couraged through ships controlled from St. PauL Railroad Mileage in Minnesota Of the hundreds of railroad companies chartered by the legislature of Minnesota and neighboring states to build roads In our state, many only reached the paper stage, while others constructed lines which became links in existfng companies. Of these twenty-one—exclusive of six terminal and transfer companies—remain and operate the nearly S.OOO miles of track in the state. The companies now reporting mileage m Minnesota are as follows: Canadian Northern '■"..'. .'...;!;,...» 43.70 Chicago,-Burlington & Qiiincy..... 23.61 Chicago Great "Western -."...-...'.:. 145.62 Chicago, Milwaukee & St. PatrF.\ ,1,147.05 Chicago. ' St. Paul, ■ Minneapolis & - - '; Omaha '.;v..v.......:...-..-.;.;,. 434.57 Chicago^ & NoTth-Western -.;,.'.- 650.3* Chicago. Rock Island & Pacffic.... 235.87 Dubuque - & Sioux . City - (Illinois : :Central> " .'. :■.: :...; ;iz. .'.:.:.v.,. -" 29.99 Dultrtli,-. Mlssabe & Northern .:;;': 161.33 Daluth & Iron Range............ '209.54 Duluth & Northern Minnesota.'.;. 70.00 Great' Northern -..;;v.i',r»,..;:. 1,832.25 Minneapolis & St. Louis ".....'...'. 378.61 Minneapolis. St.- Paul & S. M.. 230.34 Minnesota & Northern Wisconsin. 66.40 Minnesota & International ........ 146.67 Northern - Pacific -:...........:..; .1,022.98 Red Lake :. V..:.;■:...::... ..:;...;>- 14.05 WilLmar & Sioux Falls "..;...;..., '■■■ 133.31 Wisconsin, i Central .... :?... .v.V..'-'. 25.32 Wisconsin, Minnesota & Pacific... r 247.50 ",-The:-; six -; terminal transfer L com panies operate-, over 10ft .miles at track, ' : three of them in ; the Twin Cities, two at* i Duluth 1 and - one at Wlnona. There are various logging- roads In' the northern part -of the state n not; now considered common : carriers .which;; in '^tlmeito,■ come wffl be. s added ;to ; the: permanent railroad i mileage I at " the : state, Inasmuch '% as if settlement "» is ' following the tracks into the fecests, and every / sawmill \ becomes \ the : nude iof / a '; town ' surrounded by fields : from which \ the • stumps ;: have not disappeared.'' but -in which the plow is btisjr.7 ." -* ', V, :~ ; ; '--. Forty-two years : ago .witnessed the tey> . tog :at the flret ran ' to. Minnesota at St. ; Paul, and many of our older citiiEensiWer» present at tllis Important event. Today \ I the.: number: of; miles of track % operated 1 \by / lines entering it is not ;■ less: than 69,- ! - 000, or one-quarteT of the mileage of I the United States, while with allied Hnes, or lines represented! in the city througrn general agencies, ther: total is- not less than 100.000 miles. And the local sys j tern is extending all the time. It has not t been long since one of ; great lines of i ■fhe 1 Soutlr and West entered the city 'on its own tracks, and " another great ? line i I wiH be here In due tfme, seeking a sharo of the business originating in the fair and vast empire' that c lies ' tributary . to-" St. '- PauL .-.;-••! L-.'.'. .". " ■•'- ■• . -!'-. i-' .. .- St. :: Paul had be^\oa'the- ; map '."a '■[ good many yearai a frontier ■ town, enjoying .'* limited trade with f the Northwest through Red river carts, and occasional steam- ere coming fronii.fheSouth to the head of navigation on the Mississippi, ontii in 1862, when tt;| telt the Srst v strong impulse which jthif locomotive, thft great , civiMzer, ■ gives to ; every community. The -^ Civil :war retarded tli»- march 'i to cotiQUest;^ but .when armed conflict ceased the construc tion ;of steel arms began in earnest and L trad* J was d*aw* from fa^ distance • Httle: dreamed :of ."lfijpioneer: days. Now the ? trains of | ten companies ester the :; union sta on/L representing the ; following ; Mnes. each rof which Includes from *a- dosen to fifty different companies: :^^ ..;. : : ■..;: Same R*ih*oad Chronology > . Tfaa Chicago. Burltegton <^ufncy— 'Burlinston Hoafe"—covering neatly't,9oo miles of track In the eievon • states of Minnesota, Wisconsin, -IBlnols, lowa,' ; Mfcssotirt, Nebraska, v Kansas, ■.';: Colorado. Wyoming, South Dakota and Montana. It i •In a consolidation, ; merging, of bo less than forty companies. V; ■ : •-:- Chicago Great Western—"Maple Leaf Route"— ovst I.SOO miles of track iln Minnesota, lowa, IllinotSv : Missouri and Kansas. It iis upon the 'charter Issued to'"; the Minnesota & Northwestern, the second fona crested ra the state by the territorial .assembly of 1854, and approved by ; Got.-' Palace Car Vestfbuled Train of Today Gorman, with whom Mayor Robert A. Smfth. of this city, served as private aee retary. and who announced tfce governor's approval to the legislature. Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul rail way, with 7.000 miles of track, extending in the eight states of Minnesota., North Dakota, South Dakota. lowa, Missouri, OTmois, Wisconsin and Michigan. The date of its organization under its present title was May i, Ig6l, formed on the fore closure of a portion of the La Crosse & Milwaukee road, which reached the Mis sissippi in 1859, and for a" time was St. Paul's nearest point of accessibility to the tron horse. The Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul now operates bo less than fifty purchased and leased lines. Chfcago & North-Western railway— "North-Western Line"—with over 9,000 miles of track in the nine states of Min nesota, Wisconsin. Michigan, Illinois, lowa,* Nebraska, Wyoming, South Da kota and North Dakota. The Chi cago & North-Western was char tered by the legislatures of Illi nois and Wisconsin in 1859, and now rep resents by purchase and Tease over fifty different lines, including the Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha railway, the general offices of which are at St. Paul. Chicago, Rock Ifiand & Pacific railway— Rock Island System—with 8.000 miles of track (exclusive of the "Frisco" system, with oVer 5,000 miles). In twelve states and territories: Minnesota, Illinois, lowa, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Col orado* Oklahoma, Indian territory, Texas, Arkansas and Tennessee. The Rock Island was the first railroad to reach the Mis sissippi at Rock Island, m., an event cel ebrated !n June. 1g54, by an excursion to St. Paul. President Franklin Pierce being one of the company of distinguished visitor* and the first president of the United States to visit our city: The Chicago, Rocfe Island & Pacific is made op of many allied companies. Great Northern railway, with its nearly S.eeo mites of track In the states of Minne sota, Wisconsin, South Dakota, lowa, Nebraska, North Dakota, Montana, Ida ho, Washington and the province of British Columbia, whfch it enters at sever al points. It was completed to the Pa cific coast in 189 a. Minneapolis & St. Louis—"Albert Lea Route," with nearly 700 miles in Min nesota, lowa and South Dakota. This is operated under a, cfiarter Issued In 1853, the first In the state, authorized to build a road from the St. Croix river to St. Paul, and approved by Gov. Ramsey, with a capital of $2,000,000 and sbc years to complete the line. The charter was kept alive by subsequent legislation until it took Its present title. Minneapolis, SL Paul & Sault Ste. Ma rie Railway—" Sco Ltne"—wfth over 1,600 miles of track in the states of Minnesota, "Wisconsin, Michigan, South Dakota and North Dakota. It connects -with the Canadian Pacific both east and west and Is the important link on the Canadian Pacific system. It was organized in 1888 by the- consolidation of fivp different com panies. -J Northern Pacific Railway—"Yellowstone Park.-" Line"— over \ 5,005,; miles of track ;fn tho , seven/states!. of Minnesota, Wisconsin. North Dakota, Montana, Ida- ■ ho, Washington and V Oregon. Tha bill ; creatlae -'^'tha-^ Northern '$ Pacific,-;; pass ed by congress la 1364. nam ed '; 135 i-persona -v; as r_: connnfcßsToners,< thirty-five o* whom met fn Boston in September of that year and elected Joslah Perbarn as president. Mr. Perbaxa began .««>» * >;' • *••'»>*>'»»>'« ««•>>♦<•»» :; ; the agitation iof building a - ra,JJroad to ?. the ■ Pacific \by the northern route early - as 1853 with; his People's Pacific Railroad -. company, t which had beenychartered \ by the f state, of: Maine. > Jay Cooke floated ■ :.:■ tht first -bonds for buildingr th# sNorth'- > crn Pacific but Henry Villard completed •/■.!*•"•■.'. ■' -'...-.-■■:: • ■■ rTr-..---7 J :.--,V ; Wisconsin Central Railway—"WlthHiearly' ■ 1.000 m«es ;of - track hi r Minnesota,' Wis- -\ f consin, jMichigatt and~ Illinois, it :*wa» : organised In 18S7• by the consolidation of-' 1 the Wisconsin Central and th» Minne»»r > ta, r St. Croix )&: Wisconsin railrwHl,"; ta» latter being the consolldatr&n of two other companies; - -, /. ;." Seven different express companTe* ar« ... operated on the line* reaching: St. Paul, * n and mo . leas '- than ■-'; twenty-flve different V' frelght and ; equipment companfea; are a*- - '>:. " seased i for ; doing - business in : the stat* The value tit railway;llnea In ■" tftft - state fit | placed at | $2,60e,«0,©00, . and the '; sum <tjsM ':. nearly J2.000.000 wag paid Into ; the stat* treasnry last 3'ear: on earnings- amotrhting rto over |3fi,000000. Over 22.000 men ■ flnjf . employment on: the Bnea of the state at j ; an average daily wa^e of about %1 each> St. Paul's Debt to the Railroads '■. Beyond a '.- question it is 7to its com- ■ . niandingr- position as a transportation center that SK Paul owes its greatest development. It is 1 the eastern terminus of great systems and the point whera they break bnlk. To the south stretches the open highway of the Mississippi and the railroads that have competed with It so successfully of late years for traffic in that direction. It is so near the head of navigation on the Great Lakes that It gets the advantage of the rail and water haul. And as the years go by this su periority increases and becomes a strong er Influence toward the upbuilding of tha business interests of the city. Recent events and others that are not yet come to maturity add to the value of Its position. The harmonious operation of great systems for transcontinental traf fic, with Puget sound as the western terminus, have brought and will keep her* an enlarged volume of traffic. As Orien tal trade expands, the through business* will multiply enormously, and with it will rise the significance of this as a point where freight is assembled and distribut ed. The development of the rich coun try to the west of us Increases our own Arade as rapidly as it is put within easy reach by the opening of branch X nea. In fact, by reason of her splendid railroad system, the tributary territory of St. Paul has been extended to near Chicago on the east, to Omaha on the south, to the international boundary on the north, and on the west to the shore ot the Pacific ocean. There is no other city In the United States possessing a domain so imperial. It has been conveyed and it is held by the abundance and the superiority of ita railroad facilities. In this age when com merce rules, St. Paul is perfectly equipped by the iron highways that are at ence her support and her protection against suc cessful rivalry. She has many titles to eminence and many guarantees for the future, but none more significant than that which she bears as the "Railroad Center of the Northwest." American Trains Slow Apart from track and traffic consid erations, the principal thing which la Interfering 1 with the Increase in speed of passenger trains In the United States is the excessive weight of both locomo tives and cars and the marked tenden cy to make them heavier. Recent American passenger locomotives with four drivers weigh 95 tons and the loaded tender 75 tons, making a total of 170 tons. The total resistance of the engine and tender alone on level at 60 miles an hour is equal to a drawbar pull of 3,100 pounds, requiring an ex penditure of 500 horse power to over come it, and at this speed -there re mains at the drawbar a tractive power of onl^ 7,500 pounds for useful work In hauling the train. At 70 miles an hour the calculated power at the draw bar Is 6,060 pounds. The heaviest pas senger work at high speed on British or French roads Is represented by a dynamometer drawbar pull of 5,00© pounds at 70 miles an hour, but this work is performed by an enerine weigh ing 73 tons and total weigttt with ten der of 115 tons, or 32 per cent less than the weight of the American engine as above stated. The American train is made up of cars 70 feet long, weigh ing 50 to 60 tons, an average .express train weghing 450 tons. The English coaches with four-wheel trucks weigh only 30 tons, and the heaviest din ing and sleeping cars weigh 45 ions. When we attempt to run passenger trains at anything like the fast sched ules in use in England and Prance It will be necessary to reduce the weight of our trains and to use more e&clent and perhaps fighter locomotives ana cars.—Railway Age.