OCR Interpretation


The Saint Paul globe. (St. Paul, Minn.) 1896-1905, July 03, 1904, Golden Jubilee Edition, Image 68

Image and text provided by Minnesota Historical Society; Saint Paul, MN

Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn90059523/1904-07-03/ed-1/seq-68/

What is OCR?


Thumbnail for

■ x ■ ■ ■ ■>'
\, All roads at one time led to T<^
<•■ . . R*ne, ■■■■■ '■■■■■-:- " '^- '■''■
*\ From Asia, Carthage, . Egypt, j; '■
<•'•-.. Gaul. :'~r. "'-•' ■ '. -'/-■>'::
' | Look from our marble state house 4^
i, dome, •■•-.•..?;^.: • "'. '■ ■.■'.':<[
MethinUs all roads lead to St. <■'
t PauL - : . ;y\,; p ;^;^
<£'»♦♦>♦♦>♦»>♦»»»♦♦» »»»♦'♦ ♦ »»
FRENCH traders, vrj&o accompanied
or followed black-robed priests,
sent hither to bear the banner of
the cross among the Indians and
win them to its mild religion, inaugu
rated commerce in the Northwest. It
•was by the great lakes, in birefabartc
canoes, that these zealous, men and
their associates first came to what is
now Minnesota. This amphibious nav
igation and commerce extended over
150 years. The canoes used In the
early travel and trade were from twen
ty to thirty-five feet long, four to five
feet wide in the center, sharp-pointed
at the ends and capable of carrying
from four to five tons of, freight or
from fifteen to eighteen men. For
tunes in furs were carried each year
for' a long period in these frail crafts,
playthings when considered In com
parison with the splendid steel built
steamships and monster sailing vessels
plowing the waters of Lake Superior
an-d its sisters beyond. It was rare that
wrecks of these canoes occurred In nic
long years in which they were the only
means of communication with the out
er world, bringing in trinkets and car
rying away furs and pelts. They held
the business, however, until 1823, when
on the morning at May 20, the little
steamboat Virginia surprised the gar
rison at Fort Snelling and alarmed the
Indians in their tepees on the hills,
with a shrill whistle which sounded the
death knell of the career of canoe,
barge; bateau and keelboat The Vir
ginia was eighteen days In coming
from St. Louis, ana cut down the time
of barge and keel boat travel from
forty to fifty days in making the same
trip. Previous to the coming of the
Virginia the supplies for Fort Snelling
were brought up by this slow and tire
some method, the boats being able to
make one round trip in a season. It
v.as a quarter of a century after the
Virginia arrived before a regular line
of boats began running, the Galena
Packing company, H. H. Sibley, of
Mendota, being the Minnesota partner
In the company, putting on a small
steamboat, which made a weekly trip
between Galena and Mendota and Fort
Snelling. Other boats were gradually
added to the line and other compa
nies were organized: one of them, es
tablished in 1566, still existing. The
palmy days of steamboating on the
Mississippi were during the decade be
tween 1850 and 1860. In 1857 and 1858
the number of boats arriving at St.
Paul exceeded 1.-000 in each year.
The Red River Valley Carts
While growth was In progress at
Mendota and St. Paul there were flour
ishing settlements along the Red river.
It was in the feciile valley of that
Northern stream that the first actual
settlement was made in the North
west and the growing of wheat began,
many years before Minnesota had a'
place on the map or St Paul was
known. This Red river region had a
route to the world by way of Hudson
bay; a long, circuitous and difficult
journey, open barely two months in the
year. In 1844 Norman W. Kittson in
augurated a cart trade with St. Paul
by sending down from Pembina six
Red river or "Pembina" carts loaded
with furs. These carts were of rude
construction, of wood and leather, no
fron being used, and able to carry from
800 to 1.000 pounds. To the cart was
fastened an ox or pony, geared with
broad bands of buffalo hide. One roan
would manage several carts by guiding
the head animal, the rest being tied
to the tail end of the preceding cart.
Grease was seldom used on the axles,
and the creaking of the wheels could
Le heard a long distance, especially
when the train was made up ef a hun
dred or more carts, as was often the
case. The drivers were as picturesque
Cis their vehicles were cr«3e.
For twenty years the cart trade was
an; important feature in ; the business X
life of St.. Paul. vßut the cart was not
\ swift enough for the • energetic people."
; who were beginning to do business in :
- the capital \ city. Then was ; inaugu
-Irated the stage and freight'.wagbn..:
traffic, which :; ended 5 cart,: travel, ■ but '■'■
' also the dog sled, as a method' "at trans- "
§ pqrtatioit, which latter for a time daJr- ,
tng the winter was about the only way
to get in or out of the Red river ; coun- ;
: try. : v The ; members of the ; Minnesota S
territorial assembly, . Messrs. Kittsoti,
- Rodctte "and; 'Gfiigras, came to the sey-'.
sion of -i 1552 from Pembina ;by dog- '
sleds in sixteen .days. . \ The dogs were :;
driven tandem, to ten dogs in line, .
attache* -to sleds; capable of carrying,.
: from 600' to 1,000 pounds. ; V " :-; r • :~C ■
"^ :% The -dog:- sleds and the "ox i carts: only
V; started out when ■ there was business, 1
and therefore jrere.: very : irregular in *
: their \ movements. ,- In 1848 1 the : first :
regnlar - inland transportation service -
began,, when WiUoughby •. and Powers ?
put on a two-seated open wagon be
. tween St. '- Paul r? : and ' St. Anthony, ;a;.
t service . which , increased fn -7a • few- 1;
; montha to a rtg . large- enough ■to carry f;
fourteen persona,'-r Next ' yeair •- a read '$
i»'«'t*«V»''»'»»'»'»'»'" -
Red River Carts of Fifty Years Ago
was opened to Prairie dv Chlen, which
gave the first winter outlet eastward
to the young city, and Willoughby &
Powers put on vehicles to carry mall
and passengers between the rival Mis
sissippi villages. Other lines were soon
organized,, and stages began ; - running
to Stillwater and points in Wisconsin,
Illinois and lowa. Competition sprang
up In the business between St. Paul
and St. Anthony, and for a year or two
the passenger rate -. was cut from 75
cents to 10 cents for the trip ; of ten
miles.
Stages and Steamers Arrive
In due time the various companies
engaged in the stage and \ wagon trade
were merged into the Minnesota Stage :
company, of which J. C. Burbank was
general ■ manager, Col. v Allen superin
tendent of stock and traffic, and Capt.
Blakeley superintendent of mail serv
ice. John L. Merriam afterwards be
came a member" of the company. In
1854 Mr. -'•■.. Burbank organized the '-
Northwestern Express . company, in
which he. was associated with Messrs.
W. L. Pawcett, Ed Holcombe and C.
W. Carpenter, and it. became an im
portant factor in the business Interests
of the Northwestern country.: The
business of the stage company also
: grew, and in 1861 the owners, Messrs.
Burbanlc, Blakeley and Merriam, had all
of the mail contracts in the state of
Minnesota '■'■ and „gave employment to
hundreds of , men and horses. The
stage company then served the people
of the Northwest as the" railroads serve
them today. Its stages ran into Wisr
consin, Illinois, ' lowa, . and into ■ what
is now the Dakotas and up into Mani
toba. It is said of Mr.: Burbank that
he laid out more new roads than any
other hundred men ever in the ■ state,
and his interest" In transportation mat
.l ters did not end with stages, but ex
tended Oto steam lines and street
car lines, he being one of the pro
moters ;of the . St. Paul street
railway . and the first president
of the company. The . operations
of the Minnesota Stage company, and
its work In ; the 1 development of the
country is ancient . history and well
nigh ; forgotten, but it: filled - a large
place. After being driven from orig
inal routes by railroads, the stagecom
; pany went back into the country Into
new fields. , The wrtter* of \ this ■ article
made his firs?t trip into the Black Hills ■
on a stage belonging to this St. Paul
company. '/-■:■ :'':"_ ■■-' '.'l•"'.. -O^rr .; ~ ;■'■ .■:.-■
--''-'■ In 1850 St. Paul was beginning to
spread along both - sides of the river,":
and regular ferry service was demand
■ cd. This was supplied in the spring of
that year by' James \M. . and :. Isaac -N.
Goodhue, and two years later D. F.
: Brawley .established another, and the
two ferry lines were operated as suc
cessful business "enterprises; until
growth demanded a bridge, which was
completed in 1858. i": V.:'.";:..;:. :. £i
Regular navigation of the Minnesota
.; was begun in 1856, - by ; Capt. I«ouis
Robert, for i whom a ; principal street .in ■
this city is named. An attempt' was
: made late In the *50s to reach the Red
river by boat, but the venture "elided. in
failure, ■ the steamer wrecked be
. tween Lakes Traverse \ and Big Stone'
; Tl»e ; machinery, however, was taken
out and used in the International, the
- first steamer to navigate v the [ famous •
'* boundary T»tceajia- between < Minnesota'
•: and North Dakota. For a t*:ae steain-
THE ST. PAUL GLOBE GOLDEN JUBILEE EDITION
ers were operated on the Mississippi
above the falls.
Steamers and stages were slow prop
ositions and. the people yearned and pe
titioned and prayed for a railroad.
Minnesota, while a territory and during
its first years as a state, covered a pe
riod when congress waa making lib
eral grants to aid In the construction
of these arteries of travel' and trade.
It was in a grant that the people saw
their first hope of a railroad. This
hope was gratified as far as a grant
wa* concerned, in 18S7, when 4*500,000
acres were set apart by the government
at Washington to be divided between
six different companies which had been
chartered by previous territorial as
semblies.
The six companies created to enjoy
this gift of land were the Minnesota
Western, the Minnesota & Northwest
ern, the Transit railroad, the Central
Minnesota, the La Crosae 8c Minnesota,
and the St. Pstil & lowa State Line
railroad. The act granting the first
named company was approved by Gov»
Ramsey oa March 3, 1*53- A year and
a day later, March 4, 1854, the year St.
Paut was incorporated* Gov. Gorman
THREE STAGES OF THE EVOLUTION OF TRAFFIC
approved the - act creating the second .'.
g named company, , and later approved.
acts creating the remaining four com- §
panics. Nothing of actual railroad
■building came of al] thfs legislation,
a owing to the financial distress existing:
at that time. The charters of these
companies : and the lands attached
v thereto were kept alive by subsequent
legislation and incorporated Into later
and existing companies. ... .
Big Bond; Loan Voted
The legislature of 1858 submitted a
constitutional . amendment ,; to popular '
vote loan the different :companies
J5.000.000 in bonds, . the amendment
carrying a vote of 25,023 to 16,733. ':
In 1859 Gov. Slbley refused to issue
bonds withouf having mortgages; with
first lien, but one of the companies ap- '
plied to the supreme court for a man
damus to compel : the governor to Issue '
bonds . without this restriction. • The
_ court, Judge Flandrau opposing, or
dered the governor to; issue bonds as
sqpn as any company delivered its
mortgage bond 3 to hhn. In ; obedience
to this mandate $2,300,000 of bonds
were issued and not a rail laid, and
only here and there fragmentary grad
ing to show for this vast bonded .credit*
of the state. The bonds, were disposed
of at all kinds of prices to outside par
ties. Then followed -a long S struggle ..
• with. the holders and much dissension
at home. ; A plan to settle was rejected
by popular | vote, : bat later, by legis
lative action, the bonds were redeemed,
--■ the last one • being presented for ' pay- .
■ ment in 1897, -on which the interest
amounted to :.more than the original
. face value of the bond—sl,ooo. V Then
. the. stigma of repudiation which had
long attached to the state was wiped
■ out. :"'-'.:y -~<\. .'-.-' ■'■■'..; . !. '::''.: ■'-'. -!!'
- The preliminaries for railroads had :
been arranged in the way of charters
and organized companies, bonds were
outstanding to a ! large amount,* and
the coveted land grant had been made,
- but a crisis—civil war—was Impending :
and no more money cottld be had ' fn
the East to Invest 'in the building; of :
railroads out in this little known coun-,
try west of the Mississippi. This, how
ever, did not prevent the hopeful peo
ple, - through the legislature, from cje-^
; ating companies. As r already \ noted, ;
the assemblies of , 1853 and . 1854 j had
I. chartered : six [companies. The assem
bly of 1356 added two more to the list,
Minnesota & Pacific, empowered to :
; build from Stillwater via ; St. Paul ; to ;
V. St. CloucL ;; This company filed its cer-
VOflcate of ; organization with the sec
. retary of the . territory on May 27, nam
ing the following as officers: - Edmund \
Rice, president; R. R. Nelson, vice
president J. W. Taylor^!' secretary; L J,
■ M. \' Stine, treasurer, - and J. ;B. - Bris
', bin, attorney. The : first surveys \ were
■'■: made between f St. Paul and : ; St.*? An-"
i. thony, and V charts showing '■ the loca- •
) ■ tion of the line were filed with the gov
ernox- in; November, and with ; the land
office in Washington jin December, the ■
; trip ?! to the national V seat ; of govern
ment at that ' time \ being a question of ■=
weeks.' Meanwhile the company : was
>. trying ito ; get I money ■■ to 1 begin actual -
work. In October, 1857, it: made a con
tract with Chamberlain >to;begfn-;
:/ the ; work of grading between. ISt Paul !
■ and St. Anthony, but he only had. fair
•i started when he had o*deriitotatop?»
-" and • the; company "sobni ? after failed, "■ the
•'•■--«■•'• v: r '- ■'■/• %:■■ ';';:;.-. '■:-'-yZyi---::<-: : ',r.:------. •.- *---i'->i
stringency pending the war was too
much for it. By Sh act of the legis
lature In the spring of 1861 the enter
prise was given new life and a con
tract was made with Winters, Harsh
man & Drake, who resumed the grad*
inf, laid 1,400 feet of track, imported
an engine, the William Crooks, which
weighed 55,000 pounds, a toy in> com
parison with the monster locomotives
of today. The William Crooto is still
in service, having been changed from
a wood burner to a coal burner by the
Great Northern, its present owner, and
successor to the first line built* in tfte
state. The little engine and the first
cars and rails came by barge up the
river from La Crosae, reaching there
by rail from the East.
Affairs remained at a standstill after
this start until May 22, 1862. when the
legislature created a new company, the
St. Paul &. Pacific* to which was given
all the rights of the Minnesota. & Paeifle.
Edmund Rice was continued as president
of the new company. The CIvH war had
begun aud money was scarce, but the
new company persevere* and succeeded
in getting enough to resume work. A
contract was madia with, the same parties
Rlver Traffic of the Sixties
who had laid the quarter of a mile- of
track the year before, ajid by July 2 the
road was finished to St. Anthony, and
the first excursion train was run on that
date wtth W. C. Gardner as engineer of
the William. Crooks, and J. B. Rice as
train conductor. The excursionists re
ported a good time on the trtp through
the farms between the two places, a
section now largely laid out in city lots.
Although there were two daily papers
In St. Paul at this time, no mention was
made of the excursion until July 5, three
days after the event which inaugurated
railroad business In Minnesota. No men
tion appeared in print of the arrival of
the Willfam Crooks In the previous Oc
tober.
James J. Hill to the Front
The panic of 1873 wrecked the St Paul
& Pacific company and It passed into the
hands of a receiver. J. J. Hill was sta
tion agent at St. Paul and was also in
terested iri a steamboat Una on the Red
river. Mr. Hill endeavored to organize
a company to take over the bankrupt
property, and it was not until June, 1879,
that the final foreclosure decrees were en
tered and the St. Paul, Minneapolis &
Manitoba railway took possession of the
632 miles of track belonging to the St.
Paul & Pacific. The new company was
officered by George Stephens, president;
R. B. Angus, vice president; Edward Saw
yer, secretary and treasurer, and James
J. Hill, general manager. In 1882 Mr.
Angus retired and was succeeded by Mr.
Hill, whose place as general manager
was taken by Allan Manvef. On. Feb. 1,
1890. the Great Northern Railway com
pany, which now directly includes more
than a dozen different railway corpora
tions, assumed control of the St. Paul,
Minneapolis & Manitoba.
The first of the .three transcontmental
lines running from -St. Paul was the
Northern Pacific, the act of congress
creating it having been signed by Presi
dent Lincoln July 2, 2854, exactly two
years after St. Paul sent out her first
railroad train on a run of ten miles to
which is now East Minneapolis. Con
struction on the Northern Pacific began
in 18S9, but it was- not completed as a
through line to the coast until 1883, the
celebration of which took place in St. Paul
Sept 9.
Landmarks of Progress
When the first railway train left St.
Paul July 2, 1862, for St. Anthony, ten
miles away, the Capital City had. less
than a.OOt) population, and the people of
Minnesota numbered about 200,000.
Now St. Paul Is pushing along to the
200,000 mark in population and is a mob
which radiates railway lines in all direc
tions, like spokes in a wheel, and the
number of passenger trains alone daily
leaving the city haa swelled, from one,
with Its toy engine and "dinky" little
cars, with oil lamps and wood stoves, to
more than 100 splendidly equipped trains,
not to speak of hundreds of freight
■ t rains, which, go and come every day from
the yards of the different companies, and
from the Minnesota Transfer. The num
ber of passenger trains from the union
station is not as large as formerly, when
there was a- suburban service supplanted
now by electric lines, but the trains are
more than double In number of cars and
the cars arte one-half larger In capacity
and superb in furnishings.
A million square miles of territory, a
greater region than the original United
States, and richer far i n material re-
sources and climatic advantages, ;/is*.tra-*y
versed by railroads that center -atf\O*^
reach. St. Fjuifcf'ftad'.-.. millions V- of people :i
r living Jbi?ja:^3iayr f supplies from tßla city :
- and r;fes turn dispose 2of r '■ thefr 5 products ■-
through St. Paul houses. One only needsv.
2to f stiidy>fa: map; to see that : St. Fanl 'Is
the heart ctty of the continent. It was
■ a deduction such aa this that lead W, H.
\ Seward, th« ; statesman who added Alaska!
: to the American domain, in face of fierce
opposition, to make ttie.: prediction, often
quoted ! and always good, jin ; a speech fa ':.
z 1866, from the steps of ' the old wooden;
capital of Minnesota. ■ .•* ■:••-' ;-.:;>
"I feel ; myself Jor i the ; firat; time upon:
the high in the center of the conti
r . nent of I North America, equldtetant from -
ith& J waters of Hudson bay and the gulf
of Mexico. Here is the place—the cen
tral place wbete agricultural ■ products of ;
: this region s must pottt" out * their tributes
to the world. >I- have • caat about ; for the
* future j aadi ultimate seat of : power of
. North America. I : looked Jto Queb^ to£
New Orleans, to Washington. San Fran-;
cisco and St. Louis, for i th* future seat k
of power. Bat I have corrected :: ti»at
view. ;• I now believe t6a t tft* ultimate last f
seat |of government :on this great contl-
nent wfll tw found somewhere not far
from the spot on which I stand, at the
head of navigation on the Mississippi
river."
Unthought of developments of steam
and electric transportation and communi
cation may prevent the fulfillment of this
prophecy as to our city's relations with
the whole country, but ft has already been
established as regards the Northwest, an
American region vast in extent, and still
In the early stages of development. While
above the 49th parallel, across which" is
stretched an artificial barrier, some day
to disappear, is more territory reaching 1
to Alaska, the trade of all which naturally
belongs here. Railroads* from St. Paul
touch and cross this boundary at many
points in 1,500 miles straight away .from
Northern Minnesota, to the Western sea,
which separates us from the Orient, the
trade of which is being sought and en
couraged through ships controlled from
St. PauL
Railroad Mileage in Minnesota
Of the hundreds of railroad companies
chartered by the legislature of Minnesota
and neighboring states to build roads In
our state, many only reached the paper
stage, while others constructed lines
which became links in existfng companies.
Of these twenty-one—exclusive of six
terminal and transfer companies—remain
and operate the nearly S.OOO miles of
track in the state. The companies now
reporting mileage m Minnesota are as
follows:
Canadian Northern '■"..'. .'...;!;,...» 43.70
Chicago,-Burlington & Qiiincy..... 23.61
Chicago Great "Western -."...-...'.:. 145.62
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. PatrF.\ ,1,147.05
Chicago. ' St. Paul, ■ Minneapolis & - -
'; Omaha '.;v..v.......:...-..-.;.;,. 434.57
Chicago^ & NoTth-Western „-.;,.'.- 650.3*
Chicago. Rock Island & Pacffic.... 235.87
Dubuque - & Sioux . City - (Illinois
: :Central> " .'. :■.: :...; ;iz. .'.:.:.v.,. -" 29.99
Dultrtli,-. Mlssabe & Northern .:;;': 161.33
Daluth & Iron Range............ '209.54
Duluth & Northern Minnesota.'.;. 70.00
Great' Northern -..;;v.i',r»,..;:. 1,832.25
Minneapolis & St. Louis ".....'...'. 378.61
Minneapolis. St.- Paul & S. M.. 230.34
Minnesota & Northern Wisconsin. 66.40
Minnesota & International ........ 146.67
Northern - Pacific -:...........:..; .1,022.98
Red Lake :. V..:.;■:...::... ..:;...;>- 14.05
WilLmar & Sioux Falls "..;...;..., '■■■ 133.31
Wisconsin, i Central .... :?... .v.V..'-'. 25.32
Wisconsin, Minnesota & Pacific... r 247.50
",-The:-; six -; terminal transfer L com
panies operate-, over 10ft .miles at track, '
: three of them in ; the Twin Cities, two at*
i Duluth 1 and - one at Wlnona. There are
various logging- roads In' the northern part
-of the state n not; now considered common :
carriers .which;; in '^tlmeito,■ come wffl be.
s added ;to ; the: permanent railroad i mileage
I at " the : state, Inasmuch '% as if settlement "» is '
following the tracks into the fecests, and
every / sawmill \ becomes \ the : nude iof / a ';
town ' surrounded by fields : from which \ the •
stumps ;: have not disappeared.'' but -in
which the plow is btisjr.7 ." -* ', V, :~ ; ;
'--. Forty-two years : ago .witnessed the tey>
. tog :at the flret ran ' to. Minnesota at St.
; Paul, and many of our older citiiEensiWer»
present at tllis Important event. Today \
I the.: number: of; miles of track % operated 1
\by / lines entering it is not ;■ less: than 69,- !
- 000, or one-quarteT of the mileage of I
the United States, while with allied Hnes,
or lines represented! in the city througrn
general agencies, ther: total is- not less
than 100.000 miles. And the local sys
j tern is extending all the time. It has not t
been long since one of ; great lines of i
■fhe 1 Soutlr and West entered the city 'on
its own tracks, and " another great ? line i
I wiH be here In due tfme, seeking a sharo
of the business originating in the fair and
vast empire' that c lies ' tributary . to-" St. '-
PauL .-.;-••! L-.'.'. .". " ■•'- ■• . -!'-. i-' ..
.- St. :: Paul had be^\oa'the- ; map '."a '■[ good
many yearai a frontier ■ town, enjoying .'*
limited trade with f the Northwest through
Red river carts, and occasional steam-
ere coming fronii.fheSouth to the head of
navigation on the Mississippi, ontii in 1862,
when tt;| telt the Srst v strong impulse
which jthif locomotive, thft great , civiMzer, ■
gives to ; every community. The -^ Civil
:war retarded tli»- march 'i to cotiQUest;^ but
.when armed conflict ceased the construc
tion ;of steel arms began in earnest and
L trad* J was d*aw* from fa^ distance • Httle:
dreamed :of ."lfijpioneer: days. Now the
? trains of | ten companies ester the :; union
sta on/L representing the ; following ; Mnes.
each rof which Includes from *a- dosen to
fifty different companies: :^^ ..;. : :
■..;: Same R*ih*oad Chronology >
. Tfaa Chicago. Burltegton <^ufncy—
'Burlinston Hoafe"—covering neatly't,9oo
miles of track In the eievon • states of
Minnesota, Wisconsin, -IBlnols, lowa,'
; Mfcssotirt, Nebraska, v Kansas, ■.';: Colorado.
Wyoming, South Dakota and Montana. It i
•In a consolidation, ; merging, of bo less
than forty companies. V; ■ :
•-:- Chicago Great Western—"Maple Leaf
Route"— ovst I.SOO miles of track
iln Minnesota, lowa, IllinotSv : Missouri and
Kansas. It iis upon the 'charter Issued to'";
the Minnesota & Northwestern, the second
fona crested ra the state by the territorial
.assembly of 1854, and approved by ; Got.-'
Palace Car Vestfbuled Train of Today
Gorman, with whom Mayor Robert A.
Smfth. of this city, served as private aee
retary. and who announced tfce governor's
approval to the legislature.
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul rail
way, with 7.000 miles of track, extending
in the eight states of Minnesota., North
Dakota, South Dakota. lowa, Missouri,
OTmois, Wisconsin and Michigan. The
date of its organization under its present
title was May i, Ig6l, formed on the fore
closure of a portion of the La Crosse &
Milwaukee road, which reached the Mis
sissippi in 1859, and for a" time was St.
Paul's nearest point of accessibility to the
tron horse. The Chicago, Milwaukee &
St. Paul now operates bo less than fifty
purchased and leased lines.
Chfcago & North-Western railway—
"North-Western Line"—with over 9,000
miles of track in the nine states of Min
nesota, Wisconsin. Michigan, Illinois,
lowa,* Nebraska, Wyoming, South Da
kota and North Dakota. The Chi
cago & North-Western was char
tered by the legislatures of Illi
nois and Wisconsin in 1859, and now rep
resents by purchase and Tease over fifty
different lines, including the Chicago, St.
Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha railway, the
general offices of which are at St. Paul.
Chicago, Rock Ifiand & Pacific railway—
Rock Island System—with 8.000 miles of
track (exclusive of the "Frisco" system,
with oVer 5,000 miles). In twelve states
and territories: Minnesota, Illinois, lowa,
South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Col
orado* Oklahoma, Indian territory, Texas,
Arkansas and Tennessee. The Rock Island
was the first railroad to reach the Mis
sissippi at Rock Island, m., an event cel
ebrated !n June. 1g54, by an excursion
to St. Paul. President Franklin Pierce
being one of the company of distinguished
visitor* and the first president of the
United States to visit our city: The
Chicago, Rocfe Island & Pacific is made
op of many allied companies.
Great Northern railway, with its nearly
S.eeo mites of track In the states of Minne
sota, Wisconsin, South Dakota, lowa,
Nebraska, North Dakota, Montana, Ida
ho, Washington and the province of
British Columbia, whfch it enters at sever
al points. It was completed to the Pa
cific coast in 189 a.
Minneapolis & St. Louis—"Albert Lea
Route," with nearly 700 miles in Min
nesota, lowa and South Dakota. This is
operated under a, cfiarter Issued In 1853,
the first In the state, authorized to build
a road from the St. Croix river to St.
Paul, and approved by Gov. Ramsey,
with a capital of $2,000,000 and sbc years
to complete the line. The charter was
kept alive by subsequent legislation until
it took Its present title.
Minneapolis, SL Paul & Sault Ste. Ma
rie Railway—" Sco Ltne"—wfth over 1,600
miles of track in the states of Minnesota,
"Wisconsin, Michigan, South Dakota and
North Dakota. It connects -with the
Canadian Pacific both east and west and
Is the important link on the Canadian
Pacific system. It was organized in 1888
by the- consolidation of fivp different com
panies.
-J Northern Pacific Railway—"Yellowstone
Park.-" Line"— over \ 5,005,; miles of
track ;fn tho , seven/states!. of Minnesota,
Wisconsin. North Dakota, Montana, Ida- ■
ho, Washington and V Oregon. Tha bill
; creatlae -'^'tha-^ Northern '$ Pacific,-;; pass
ed by congress la 1364. nam
ed '; 135 i-persona -v; as r_: connnfcßsToners,<
thirty-five o* whom met fn Boston in
September of that year and elected Joslah
Perbarn as president. Mr. Perbaxa began
.««>» * >;' • *••'»>*>'»»>'« ««•>>♦<•»» :;
; the agitation iof building a - ra,JJroad to
?. the ■ Pacific \by the northern route early -
as 1853 with; his People's Pacific Railroad -.
company, t which had beenychartered \ by
the f state, of: Maine. > Jay Cooke floated ■
:.:■ tht first -bonds for buildingr th# sNorth'- >
crn Pacific but Henry Villard completed
•/■.!*•"•■.'. ■' -'...-.-■■:: • ■■ rTr-..---7 J :.--,V
; Wisconsin Central Railway—"WlthHiearly' ■
1.000 m«es ;of - track hi r Minnesota,' Wis- -\
f consin, jMichigatt and~ Illinois, it :*wa» :
organised In 18S7• by the consolidation of-'
1 the Wisconsin Central and th» Minne»»r
> ta, r St. Croix )&: Wisconsin railrwHl,"; ta»
latter being the consolldatr&n of two other
companies; - -, /.
;." Seven different express companTe* ar« ...
operated on the line* reaching: St. Paul, *
n and mo . leas '- than ■-'; twenty-flve different V'
frelght and ; equipment companfea; are a*- - '>:.
" seased i for ; doing - business in : the stat*
The value tit railway;llnea In ■" tftft - state fit
| placed at | $2,60e,«0,©00, . and the '; sum <tjsM
':. nearly J2.000.000 wag paid Into ; the stat*
treasnry last 3'ear: on earnings- amotrhting
rto over |3fi,000000. Over 22.000 men ■ flnjf .
employment on: the Bnea of the state at j
; an average daily wa^e of about %1 each>
St. Paul's Debt to the Railroads '■.
Beyond a '.- question it is 7to its com- ■
. niandingr- position as a transportation
center that SK Paul owes its greatest
development. It is 1 the eastern terminus
of great systems and the point whera
they break bnlk. To the south stretches
the open highway of the Mississippi and
the railroads that have competed with It
so successfully of late years for traffic
in that direction. It is so near the head
of navigation on the Great Lakes that It
gets the advantage of the rail and water
haul. And as the years go by this su
periority increases and becomes a strong
er Influence toward the upbuilding of tha
business interests of the city.
Recent events and others that are not
yet come to maturity add to the value
of Its position. The harmonious operation
of great systems for transcontinental traf
fic, with Puget sound as the western
terminus, have brought and will keep her*
an enlarged volume of traffic. As Orien
tal trade expands, the through business*
will multiply enormously, and with it will
rise the significance of this as a point
where freight is assembled and distribut
ed. The development of the rich coun
try to the west of us Increases our own
Arade as rapidly as it is put within easy
reach by the opening of branch X nea. In
fact, by reason of her splendid railroad
system, the tributary territory of St.
Paul has been extended to near Chicago
on the east, to Omaha on the south, to the
international boundary on the north, and
on the west to the shore ot the Pacific
ocean.
There is no other city In the United
States possessing a domain so imperial.
It has been conveyed and it is held by
the abundance and the superiority of ita
railroad facilities. In this age when com
merce rules, St. Paul is perfectly equipped
by the iron highways that are at ence her
support and her protection against suc
cessful rivalry. She has many titles to
eminence and many guarantees for the
future, but none more significant than
that which she bears as the "Railroad
Center of the Northwest."
American Trains Slow
Apart from track and traffic consid
erations, the principal thing which la
Interfering 1 with the Increase in speed
of passenger trains In the United States
is the excessive weight of both locomo
tives and cars and the marked tenden
cy to make them heavier. Recent
American passenger locomotives with
four drivers weigh 95 tons and the
loaded tender 75 tons, making a total
of 170 tons. The total resistance of the
engine and tender alone on level at 60
miles an hour is equal to a drawbar
pull of 3,100 pounds, requiring an ex
penditure of 500 horse power to over
come it, and at this speed -there re
mains at the drawbar a tractive power
of onl^ 7,500 pounds for useful work
In hauling the train. At 70 miles an
hour the calculated power at the draw
bar Is 6,060 pounds. The heaviest pas
senger work at high speed on British
or French roads Is represented by a
dynamometer drawbar pull of 5,00©
pounds at 70 miles an hour, but this
work is performed by an enerine weigh
ing 73 tons and total weigttt with ten
der of 115 tons, or 32 per cent less than
the weight of the American engine
as above stated. The American train
is made up of cars 70 feet long, weigh
ing 50 to 60 tons, an average .express
train weghing 450 tons. The English
coaches with four-wheel trucks weigh
only 30 tons, and the heaviest din
ing and sleeping cars weigh 45 ions.
When we attempt to run passenger
trains at anything like the fast sched
ules in use in England and Prance It
will be necessary to reduce the weight
of our trains and to use more e&clent
and perhaps fighter locomotives ana
cars.—Railway Age.

xml | txt