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/F ADAM and Eve had no other reason
for self-congratulation, they are to be
envied, modern housekeepers believe,
in hazing escaped the servant-girl problem.
Mrs. Adam did her own cooking and
washing, in addition to caring for the little
Adamses. Her descendants for many genera
tions undoubtedly did the same. It was when
they began to shift zuork and responsibility
upon the shoulders of "help" that their trou
These troubles, like the "thoughts of
men," have "broadened with the process of
the suns," until now they form the most ag
gravating, if not the most serious, of all the
perplexities of household economics.
Necessity, however, is even yet recognized
as the mother of invention, and from the
many experiments that are now being made by
harassed housekeepers all over America a
permanent solution of the problem, it is be
lieved, will come.
TT IS not every one, of course, who can follow the ex
ample of John Farson, the Chicago banker, whose
L extraordinary bid for the services of a model servant
was heralded broadcast about a year ago.
Mr. Fareon offered to provide, for the right kind of
*irl, an excellent home, to pay her exceptional wages, and,
at his death, to bequeath to her $1,000,000.
Such an offer naturally attracted thousands of re
sponses, but the "model servant" has not yet succeeded In
cooking a codicil onto Mr. Farson's will.
Only a week or so ago it was announced, however,
that Gertrude Tannehill, of Wheollng, W. Va., had been
bequeathed $50,000 «y the will of her late employer, Charlea
E. Hoyt, of New York.
About seven years ago Mr. Hoyt broke down under the
■train of an unusually active career. During his long
period of invalidism, Miss Tannehill managed his New
York home and his summer residence In Maine with
thoughtful tact and to his entire satisfaction. Now good
fortune has come to her as an unexpected reward.
It is upon the great mass of men and women without
great fortunes to leave to exceptional servants that the
problem bears with heavy weight.
ENTERTAINS HER FRIENDS
It is how best to establish cordial relations with Biddy
and keep her contentedly at her post during their lives
that worries them. It doesn't matter so much after death.
After long and thoughtful consideration. Dr. and Mrs.
L. H. Moore, of Appleton, Wis., have worked out a
scheme by which they think servants ought to be made
loyal and happy. Here are some of its features:
Parties once a week.
Use of parlors.
Facilities for dancing and cards.
Library and music privileges.
"Treat the girls as if they were your own—that's all
there is to it," Dr. Moore 1b quoted as saying.
This expounder of advanced domestic theory practices
what he preaches. Recently he opened his residence for
the entertainmeat of the friends of his servants. The
evening was spent in singing, dancing and other amuse
To employers unable to attempt such a form of con
ciliation, an idea emanating from No* Orleans may ap
This idea was advanced at a recent meeting of the
Era Club, the leading woman's organisation of the city,
during a discussion of the ethics of « Uicing a neighbor's
The only possible solution of trk« servant $h" problem.
A Serrjn?£~ C/vb
It was agreed. Is to "kill with kindness."
"I managed to keep my cook four years," explained
one woman, "because I bought matinee tickets for her
once every week. It Invariably put her in a good humor
for the whole week."
"Where is she now?" several others eagerly Inquired.
"Dead," responded the first woman, sorrowfully.
Even at the risk of inviting a visit from the rider of
the white horse, nearly all the members then and there
determined to try the theatre-ticket bait.
It is befitting that a more dignified and thoroughly
up-to-date plan should originate in the cultured minds of
Boston matrons. There a club for servant girls has been
opened in the heart of the aristocratic Back Bay district.
The main club house is located at 642 Newbury street,
and branches will be established in Roxbury, Cambridge,
Dorchester, Newton and Brookllne for the accommoda
tion of servants who live in those districts and find it
difficult to visit the headquarters in the city proper.
The principal object Is to promote mutual respect be
tween employers and employes, and to impress upon the
master and mistress that the hired girl has certain rights
and must be treated with due consideration. The club
also keeps ever before- the girls the rights and interests
of their employers.
In addition to bringing the servants into more friendly
relations with their employers, other objects of the plan
are to improve the social condition of girls who "live out"
by providing them with a club house where they can meet
and entertain their friends, and obtain medical and legal
One. thousand servants have already been enrolled as
members of the club, and fully five hundred families, in
cluding some of the wealthiest In the city and suburbs,
have pledged their support, declaring that in the future
they will engage only members of the organization.
In Richmond, Va., where negro aid in the household
has been relied upon for generations, feminine heads of
households are approaching the subject from the stand
point of education.
THE ST. PAUL GLOBE. SUNDAY. DECEMBER 25, 1904
\&mijy' in Neiv fork ae/egjtes
a Member, b sii up£?ch Mffi h
lei ihe Servants ?n
A school of domestic science, in which white girls aye
to be trained, free of all charge, is being established by
It is believed that at the end of a few years enough
white girls will have been educated to take the places of
all the negro women now employed, although in some
cases the employers say they will not give up their negro
help. These cases, however, are few, comparatively
It is proposed to hiF© competent instructors, who will
teach girls how to cook every dish likely to find a place
upon the menu of any family with whom they might take
service. The instruction, however, will not stop with the
kitchen, but will include all that goes to make a^ trained
house servant or housekeeper; in fact, when a girl leaves
this school, it is expected that she will be competent to
take hold of any line of work, and do It well.
A problem that has worried the promoters of the en
terprise is how to get hold x)f the white girls to train.
It has been practically decided, however, that when the
school is ready to open, girls will be advertised for in the
Assertions are made that white girls from the country
will refuse to take lessons in housework, deeming such
labor to be beneath their dignity. Little difficulty is ex
perienced Jn persuading the same girls to 50 into tobacco
and other factories; but, it Is argued, as soon as they
know that it is intended to train them afi cooks or house
servants they will not leave their homes.
A HELP TO BOTH SIDES
Explanation Is made that house and kitohen work in
Richmond and, indeed, throughout the South, has been
done from time immemorial by negroes, and they are
indissolubly associated with it. A certain class of whites
in the South can seldom be induced to do any line of work
which appears to link them with negroes.
There is at present in Richmond a large school for
training colored cooks and maid servants. A number of
servants have been graduated, but they do not, it is said,
remain lons in the South. They are offered higher wage*
Mrs I.H Moore of' Appkhnjf/sconsin Permit
her Ser/jnls b (five d Party m her Pdrhr
in the North, and almost invariably accept.
JLadies of Philadelphia, New York anU Boston have
recently organized the Intermunlcipal Committee of
Household Research In order to aid their fellow-house
keepers out of the wilderness of despair. In Philadelphia
the headquarters are at 1325 Walnut street, and in New
York at 111 East Twenty-third street.
The purpose is to aid the servant as well as the mis
tress. Help will be obtained and places found free of
charge, and any questions the applicant for service wishes
to ask concerning prospective employers will be answered
by the committee.
The raison d'etre of the Intermuniclpal Committee's
bureau is stated succinctly as follows:
"This movement is not an employment agency; it Is
not competitive with any existing business. It advocates
no reform; it has no theories whatever to prove, and it
charges no fees whatever for information or publication.
Its work is entirely co-operative and educational. It seeks
to place the situation clearly before employers and em
ployes, and to do the little it can to advise and direct
employers and employes to the sources which may meet
A QUESTION OF CIGARETTES
After all these co-operative plans have been tried,
whether with success or without, there still remains the
worried individual housekeeper who must face and solve
the problem for herself.
One woman who applied to an agency in New York
made this frank statement: .
"I want a girl not afraid of work—one who can bring
In coal and wash skylights, and tend the furnace and
chop wood. She doesn't have to do these things in my
house, but I want her to know how—that's my principle.
I am all right to live with if a girl will work, but I'm
the devil to get along with If she won't."
Many girls complain because their mistresses will not
trust them with latch keys. One instance is cited by
Mlss Margaret D. Dreier, treasurer of the Municipal Com
mittee on Household Research in New York, where a
member of a family is obliged to remain up in order to
admit the maid on her night off.
Kings as Workers in Their Offices
JUST LIKE THE HEAD OF ANY GREAT BUSINESS, THEY GET
DOWN TO THEIR DESKS AND DO HARD LABOR
THE latter-day ruler of an empire is a working man
—a business man, if you like the term better.
Kings and emperors, as well as presidents, must
get through with a vast amount of business every
day, despite—or perhaps, because of—their-high stations.
They have found it necessary to adopt business methods,
and most of them settle down to. hard work at their
desks for a part of every day, jusjt like any other man
Thus King Edward, who Is one of the busiest of them
all, has at each of the royal palaces what; is nothing
more or less than a simple office, devoid of all the lux
urious appointments that one might reasonably expect
to find in the private apartment of the ruling head of
Great Britain. "Business methods for business men" is
King Edward's motto in this connection, and as, on an
average, there are some 40,000 letter's or official papers
of one kind or another which demand either his atten
tion or that of his secretary every year, the wisdom of
It can be appreciated by the humblest commercial person.
"Whatever writing his Majesty finds it necessary to
do himself is done in a quick, hurried style of penman
ship, which in itself is a suggestion of the quantity of
work he has to perform.
The King is most particular that all his letters and
papers shall be arranged and filed according to an ex
cellent system, which is largely his own invention, and
he never keeps any of them after the necessity for doing
so has ceased.
It is an instance of his Majesty's reluctance to accu
mulate "rubbish," as well as his strict regard for secrecy,
that every morning the contents of r, large waste-paper
basket are taken charge of by his private secretary, who
Is personally responsible for seeing that they are burned.
He smokes hard while he is engaged on business makers,
and invariably haE a box of cigars and another of cigar
ettes at his elbow.
THE CZAR HAS LONG HOURS
The Czar of Russia spends more time In his office—
which is the name that he personally prefers to glve.it—
than perhaps any ruler in the world, an>i. since the war
with Japan broke out, he has frequently been engaged in
it Vith first one Minister and then another from breakfast
time until approaching midnight. Usually on these busy
occasions, when there is no one else in the room but her
hueband, the Czarina sits quietly in a chair in on© corner
anfl knits or stitches at some fancy work while his Im
perial Majesty gets on with his business. This was before
the imperial heir arrived. Since then she spends most of
her time in the royal nursery. The room is simply fur
nished, with plenty of desks and cabinets of drawers, most
of which came direct from London.
Of all the offices of kings, that in which the King of
Italy performs his daily task 1b the plainest and least pre
tentious. This arises partly from the fact that King
Victor Emmanuel's tastes are of the simplest and his
views on business matters very strict, and partly from
the rigorous, Spartan method of his upbringing, in tae
course of which he was taught to go without everything
that savored of luxury and comfort. He is at his 3esk
every morning not later than 9 o'clock, and, being such
an early business man himself, he cannot tolerate tardi
ness in others.
Not long ago he had occasion to notice that the work
of one of the government departments was very much
behindhand, and, wishing to find out why, he turned v.>
at the office of the chief one morning at 9 o'clock.
ttchmotrd Women foye~£S4JP/is/ted a fcftoo/
of Pomes tic saence Wxeft fffcte &r&
ere Band 7ji&M &//<?iisett'ork -. ". '
Objections are often entered against the wretched
sleeping quarters provided for the help. The Employers
and Employes' Court of the New York Bureau of Licenses
has aired a great many grievances of this nature. —•
Recent instances have come within notice of this
bureau where girls were expected to sleep in the bath
room, on a bed made by placing boards over the bathtub.
A mattress on the washtubs in the basement was another .
expedient which a mistress thought good enough. In
some houses a bed is made up on the kitchen table.
A great many girls complain of insufficient food; they
do not get enough sustenance from scraps left over from
the family meal.
A striking case of unreasonable discharge was re^
ported to the courts in New York a few weeks ago. A
woman refused to keep a cook sent to her by an employ
ment agency. The girl had good references, apd .the
matron was asked her reasons for discharging her. , ...
"She refused to smoke cigarettes," was the startj}^,,
"What has that to do with it?" the agent asked.
"Well, I smoke myself, and I have to have some on«
to lay the smoke to when my husband smells it."
Several golden rules are laid down by Miss Frances A.
Keller, who has just written a book upon-the subject of
household help: —
"The housekeeper," she writes, "should pass through
each department of work once a day.
"The employe should have her dues as to personal
liberty—her sleeping quarters separated by a screen from
her companions, if greater privacy is impossible. She
should have a corner where she can bathe, dress and gp
to bed without inspection from others.
"She should be able to go t out one hour a day, and
have one-half day a week for her own purposes, and
every other Sunday free.
"She should be allowed to receive her friends as call
ers at stated and convenient times.
"Unless all this is looked into and observed we shell
continue to have second-class help in our kitchens, for
decent, self-respecting women will not 'live out' as they,
say, when treated without consideration for their self*
The first of the subordinate officials of the department
did not put in an appearance until two hours later, and
it was midday before the chief himself arrived. When
he did so he was astonished to find the King himself
at his desk doing his work. Needless to say, in the course
cf a day or two, there were some important changes in
that department gazetted.
But the Kaiser can beat his Italian brother monarch,
for he is in his office arranging affairs of State when
most of the other sovereigns of the world are still in bed;
that is to say, he is customarily in the thick of it by 6
He finds such early habits absolutely necessary, if he
is daily to accomplish the task which he sets himself, for,
on an average, besides signing innumerable documents,
every one of which he reads himself, and holding count
less conferences with Ministers and chiefs of departments,
it is estimated that he eithqr writes himself or dictates
an average of twenty letters a day.
LIKE AN EDITOR'S SANCTUM
The office of the King of the Belgians resembles
nothing so much as the sub-editor's room in a daily news
paper office. There are no "comforts" of any descrip
tion, except one big easy chair, which has seen a great
deal of service; but on tables and round the walls are
many bulky newspaper flies.
This state of affairs arises chiefly from the circum
stance that his Majesty is very intimately concerned with
numerous great enterprises of a commercial character, and
that he has big dealings on the various bourses. There
fore the prices of the money market have a constant at
traction for him, and he likes to keep all the newspapers
by him for a year. King Leopold is in his work room
every morning at 8 o'clock, and at that hour he is en
gaged closely scrutinizing the financial columns of tbe
The Emperor Francis Joseph starts his business at 7
o'clock in the morning and gets it done early.
King Carlos of Portugal hates the routine work of
State, though, of course, he has to do it like other mon
archs. It is said, however, that sometimes, when a sub
ordinate Minister has repaired to his palace, prepared to
discuss various matters with his Majesty in the course of
an hour or two, the King has suddenly suggested that
their time would be better spent in some form of exercise
or sport, of which he is very fond, and a few minutes
later the two might be discovered in eager participation of
what' the King had suggested. But things go. very
smoothly in Portugal, and there is no need for any one to
worry. When the times are anxious King Carlos can work
as hard as any one.
WILL NOT STAND STRETCHING
AT A RECENT gathering of ministers in Cleveland, the
following advice, given to a graduating class by the
president of a theological seminary, was repeated:
"An accordion, like a sermon, has its limitations. If
you insist on stretching it beyond these limitations, bad
broaks-occur, and discordant notes will irritate your hear
ers. Then, too late, when you attempt to bring the rup
tured parts to a close, the sweet E^flody which should
have leaped forth from its proper piaue In the instrument
oozes out through the rifts caused br the stretching, and
your audienco retires, a portion resolved never to return.
"The pulpit, which should have seriN forth a cheering
note, has been ruptured, and the peopl£.are depressed bf
a dreary drone."