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JUVENILE COURTS SOLVE THE PROBLEM OE WAYWARD CHILDREN OVER in the office of Probation Officer Graves, In the city hall, is a very long and very wide and very thick book most unattractively bound. It does not look particularly interesting, but it Is decidedly so, for it contains mute but eloquent testimony of the strongest effort Minnesota has made so far to save the delinquent children of the state from becoming criminals. In it is the record of every St Paul boy and girl who has been arrested charged with a misdemeanor or -rime. Also it is a brief summary Of what takes place during the ses- B jonfl of the city's juvenile court. It tells of the success and failures of the probation system, admittedly one of the best systems of its kind in this coun try and the foundation of child and youth saving work In the state. Min nesota has her eyes fixed thoughtfully and consideringly just now on the mis chievous small boy and the bad small boy and their equally willful sisters. Philanthropic societies are investigat ing them and the legislators are study ing them, for it is thought that the state <an throw stronger safeguards about tin in than it has yet thrown. Already, however, it has accomplish ed much, and because Minnesota uses the term juvenile in a more elastic sense than other states that have made even more careful provision for the protection and aid of its children, its effort goes further. Colorado and Illi nois, the two states whose juvenile laws and the method of their enforce ment are admittedly superior, regard a child an a juvenile until he is 16, but Minnesota chooses to consider him one until he is 18. When a lad is arrested for petit lar ceny in this city he must go to the police station because there is no de tention house where he can be kept until brought before the judge. This is one of the serious defects of the present system of dealing with ju venile offenders. He must be brought into the courtroom by a police offi cer, another defect, since it unneces sarily humiliates one who may be and probably is the victim of his sur roundings, and makes him defiant. Kept Apart From Criminals But once in the court house, the law differentiates him from the criminal of mature years, for he is not brought into the courtroom, where are the other criminals, but is kept in a sep arate room until the older offenders are tried. The courtroom is then cleared of all except those who are concerned in the trying of the cases. Probation Officer Graves or his deputy, Miss Bal four of the Salvation Army, are present at each session of the court, and if it is the young prisoner's first offense, or if there are extenuating circum etances, even though his name is down on the record book kept by the proba tion officer, he is given a chance — that Is, he is placed on probation. When the case has been proved against any offender his name is en tered in the book and the history of it is briefly cited. There are many quiet sessions in the chambers of Judge Finehout which are not reported even in the record book and which bear no judicial aspect at all, but the good ef fect of which is testified to by Mr. Graves and Miss Balfour, one or the other of whom is always present at one of those informal conferences where sound advice is given to young offenders. In the juvenile courtroom the train ing schools are regarded as the very last resort in dealing with an offender. He is sent there when probation meth ods have repeatedly failed and when the offender's incorrigibility has been fully demonstrated. The probation law permits the judge a wide latitude. One section of it specifically states: "When any child under the age of 18 years shall be found guilty of the violation of any law, ordinance or regulation, or of ineorrigibility or vagrancy the judge may stay the execution of the sentence for such period as he may deem prop er, not exceeding one year, conditioned on the good behavior of the child, com mitting the child on probation during such stay to the care of the probation officer, or he may return the child to the custody of his natural guardian, subject to the supervision of the pro bation officer, under such conditions as the court may prescribe. If at.any time during the stay of execution of the sentence it shall be made to ap pear to the satisfaction of the court that the sentence should be enforced the court shall have the power to re yoke the stay of execution and enforce the sentence immediately, if at the expiration of the stay it shall appear to the satisfactin of the court that the said child has complied faithfully with the. conditions of his probation the court may suspend sentence abso lutely." t . Few Go to Training School The most conclusive proof of the practical success of the probation law and its judicious exercise is that out of the 700 juveniles who have been put on probation, only 125 have been sent : to the state training school. i«w« defect of the Minnesota Juvenile laws as they exist at present is that children cannot be corrected without !vKit •, o enl chai;, ged and convicted of. what Is technically a crime. The Colo rado laws and the Illinois laws, desig nate all offenders under the-age of six teen as delinquents and they are charged as such in the complaints or the petitions that are filed. Judge B B Lindscy, the "father of the Juvenile court" in Colorado In an article on child reformation, has stated «*" Th£n Ci >V rt. does not tolerate the Idea of a child being a criminal. It does not consider the question of punishment the important thing. If the child Tan not^e. corrected at home for its own good and for the good of society at large, it is simply sent to a state public ?w° V «her, disciP»ne is superior to that of the home, and where it is in tended to correct its waywardness in others. The purpose is in delinquent cases, to inspire and receive obdience to improve and strengthen character" According to Probation Officer Graves and his statement is confirmed by Judge Finehout. there are more truant children in St. Paul than in any other city of the same size in this country. Children who should be In school are on the streets, or, frequent ly, m questionable resorts. t The police cannot gather them in for/the reason that every police officer in the city has a beat the length of which 1: gives ; him little opportunity to perform a truant officer's work. It is because of the lack of truant laws that the city's cur few ordinance is practically a dead let ter. If the policemen of the city stop ped to inquire into the conduct of all children who are on the streets in. this city after 9 o'clock they would have no time to devote to mature offenders. St. Paul is interested in the Illinois juvenile laws at present because the Chamberlain bill now before the legis lature embodies some of the best fea tures of those laws. The foundation thought underlying the juvenile court law of that state was born in the of fice of the Chicago Visitation and Aid society which had been devoting its time to child saving work. Previous to 1899, when the juvenile court bill be came an Illinois statute, a child of 10 or over who had committed a depre dation of any sort that could be con strued as an overt act against the laws of the state was arrested and thrown in-to prison with the most hardened criminals. Problem in Chicago When the bill was passed that pro vided for the establishment of a juve nile court, with Jurisdiction by the circuit court, Chicago especially breathed a sigh of relief for youthful offenders against the majesty of the law had become a serious prob lem there. The court was opened July 1, 1699, and has been increasing in its activity and the volume of work it has accomplished until, at the time of the issuance of its report for 1904, twelve district officers and sixteen police pro bation officers were working under the direction of the chief probation officer. To utilize the forces of the Juvenile court to the best advantage, the coun ty of Cook has been divided into twelve districts, and each district has been assigned to what is known- as a general probation or a district officer, who devotes his or her time to the work. Each child coming before the court, if paroled, is assigned to the officer of the district In which he re sides. The district officer is responsi ble for the work of the court in the district to which he has been assigned and in a general way oversees and systematizes the work of the proba tion officers in the district. One of the assistant state attorneys who has watched the cases coming before the grand jury of Cook county for years recently reported as follows concern ing the results of the juvenile court law establishment: "The effect of the juvenile court upon the number of cases coming be fore the criminal court is very patent. About 2,000 cases a year are handled in the children's court. Of this num ber perhaps ten or twelve a year are sent to the grand jury for Indictment for the purpose of having them sent to Ponliac, the state training school. These ten or twelve cases are the only cases of youthful criminals handled by the grand jury, and it is safe to say that of all the criminal cases 200 a year less are handled by the jury since the existence of the court." Children Are Classified The children in the Cook county court are classified into truants, de linquents and dependents, the last class Including those dependent on the state for their support, and each class has a separate day in court. Since the juvenile court has been In operation in Cook county not over twenty boys under the age of 16 have been sent to jail, and they were boys who had, early in life, started on a career of crime. The truancy laws are an important feature of Illinois' efforts to redeem the children and make good citizens. All truants are paroled to truant offi cers whose business it is to see that children of school age attend school during the sessions and that no chil dren loiter about the streets or visit questionable places. •There Is very little that is new in principle in what is known as the ju venile court laws," wrote recently one who has made a practical study of their workings. "It is rather the surer, more constant and intelligent applica tion of old principles that deserves to make noteworthy the present agitation for so-called Juvenile courts. We are infinitely more in need of men and women to do the work than to make the laws." Colorado, one of the first states to create the juvenile court, has developed it Into an admirable reformatory sys tem, the success of which, after a four years' trial, has been proved In brief but eloquent figures. At the end of the last year a brochure was gotten out by the probation department of the juvenile court of the city and county of Denver which explains the method of work in detail and which throws many revealing sidelights on boy nature and on what public spirited men and wom en of that city believe to be the best way of converting unpromising raw material into the sound fabric of good citizenship. The brochure gives full credit for the success of the experiment to Judge Lindsey, already referred to, who pre sides at its sessions, and who, when those sessions are over, continues to keep in close touch with the Denver boys by constantly displaying his good fellowship for them and his under standing of the difficulties that lie in the way of their "being good." According to the brochure. Denver is now in the fifth year of this juvenile court work. Up to 1900 there were nearly as many children proceeded against in the justice's court and in the criminal court for crime as there were in the county court, which is also the juvenile court, although a law approv ed by the legislature in April, 1899, provided that school children under 16 who are vicious, incorrigible or im moral in conduct, or habitual truants from school, or who habitually wander about the streets and public places during school hours or in the nlgnt time, having no employment or lawful occupation, shall be deemed juvenile disorderly persons, subject to the pro visions of the act. The act, known as the "school law," was approved two months before the juvenile law of Illi nois went into effect. It further pro vided that any person might file com plaint in the county court and that the case could be continued for further hearing upon the conduct of the child. It provided, too, that the school board could appoint truant officers to look after the children. For several months after the passage of the act, however, no systematized effort was made to bring juvenile offenders into court. The act needed the touchstone of genuine interest and faith to make it a living influence, and fortunately this was pro vided for in the man who became the judge of the court and in the men and women who assisted him in his work. Out of the act grew the school report system, probation officers, an adult de linquent law which makes parents re sponsible to the state for the offenses of their children, and a well equipped detention house where boys in need of such restraint could be "sent instead of to jail. Before the detention house was provided 2,000 Denver boys, be tween 10 and 16 years of age, were thrust during the six years prior to the establishment of the Juvenile court into jail; that is, one out of every six THE ST. PAUL GLOBE, SUNDAY, APRIL 2, 1905 boys in Denver had a taste of jail life during his formative period between 10 and 16. No Criminal Charge , Ten acts in all have been passed by the Colorado legislature in order to establish on a firm legal foundation this work of aiding the children of the state. The first defined delinquent children, and provides that any child committing any of the offenses men tioned in the act shall be considered a juvenile delinquent. A probation of ficer brings him into court, but the act specifically states that a disposition of any child under this act, or any evidence given in such cause, shall not in any civil, criminal or other cause or proceeding whatever in any court be lawful or proper evidence against the child for any purpose whatever, except in subsequent cases against the child under the act. He is not thus stamped with a criminal charge in the very beginning of bis life. The next important act was one which holds parents or other guardians responsi ble for the moral delinquency of chil dren; another hold* fathers legally re sponsible for the physical support, care and maintenance of children; still an- other is a compulsory education law. This latter law is the result of the co operation of the teachers' association and the Juvenile court of Denver. It makes the common grammar school education compulsory as far as possi ble for all children between 8 and 16 years of age in some public, private or parochial school, and it applies to the whole state, not particular dis tricts. A child must attend school during the entire school year and not for limited periods, as in the school laws of many other states. There are sensible exceptions to this, but none of them weaken the effect of the law ac cording to the opinion of those inter ested in its enforcement. Another act regulates child labor. It prohibits the employment of children under 14 years of age, and it restricts the employn^nt of those between the ages of 14 and 16, but the law vests a discretionary power in the judge of the juvenile court in regard to the latter cases. FEEL SOME GRATITUDE . TO MR. WYNDHAM Special Foreign. Service DUBLIN, April I.—Mr. Wyndham's resignation has not surprised Irish Unionists. They felt, in spite of recent official dementia, that it was the only way out of an intolerable situation, and that it was bound to come. Person ally Mr. Wyndham made many warm friends in Ireland, and by them the causes and the manner of his resigna tion are much regretted, more especial ly as the trouble of ill health now seems to be added to the political troubles of the late chief secretary; but all Irish unionists, friends and ene mies alike, agree entirely with Mr. Wyndham's own view that recent events have "greatly impaired, if not wholly destroyed, the value of the work which he had to do In the office that he has so long held." After the devolution disclosures he could not have hoped to recover the confidence which his carelessness or weakness has destroyed. Unionist Ire land is not ungrateful to Mr. Wynd ham; it recognizes his genuine Inter est in the prosperity of the country, and it owes to him a great land act which will be In the long run a perma nent benefit to the country; but the error Into which his sanguine tem perament betrayed him was fatal to his position as a working head of a unionist government in Ireland. If he had remained at Dublin castle Irish unionists would not have taken the faintest interest in the outcome of the next general election. What they are still wjlling to recognize as nothing worse than a great blunder would then have revealed Itself to them as a great betrayal. Mr. Wyndham had to go, but they are sorry that he did not choose an occasion of resigning at a time when he still held the reputation of a suc cessful Irish administrator. FEELS ANXIOUS REGARDING MILITARY HORSES Special Foreign Service LONDON, April I.—"We view with anxiety the coming of the motor om nibus, and the consequent curtailment of the supply of good, serviceable horses for military purposes," said the earl of Minto this week, quoting from a letter he had received from the war office on the subject of the failing sup ply of horses for civil and military use. Lord Minto presided at a meeting convened at Bridgewater house, the earl of Ellesmere's residence, to consid er this question. "The annual peace requirements of the war office amount to 3,500 horses," said Lord Minto. "all of which are pro curable in the united kingdom; but In case of sudden mobilization for war purposes about 102,000 would be need ed. These would be difficult to find. I am glad to see that the demoralizing means of locomotion which have so much come to the front during my ab sence have not caused interest in horses to suffer as much as might have been expected. This is a national question." A resolution was passed advocating the better organization of horse breed ing, and a permanent committee, com posed of Mr. Henry Chaplin, the earl of Rothes, Lord' Chesham and Capt. Pyers, was selected to Inquire into the matter. POLICY OF FOLDED ARMS DOESN'T SUIT Special Foreign Service LONDON, April 1. —Outlining some points of the liberal programme this week Mr. Asquith said: *(I( is the greatest delusion to Im agine that the liberal policy consists only of negation and defense. We are not satisfied with a policy of folded arms. We want to deal with live ques tions as they arise. "The education act of 1902 cannot be regarded as a settlement. There can be no final settlement of this ques tion which does not give to the people absolute, undisputed and unequivocal control of every school which is maintained at the public expense, and which does not purge our educational system of any form of religious or de nominational test for teachers. "The licensing act must be revised. There must be a time limits Liberals must exert themselves to secure from the trade an adequate contribution to the state in return for the privileges which the state has conferred .upon it. "Then, too. the relation of land tax ation, the housing of the working classes, and the proper way of dealing with locomotion must all be considered. •The dominant vice of the present government Is its lack of political straightforwardness. Witness their attitude on the fiscal question. The only safe position for an elector at the general elections is to remember that every vote recorded for a supporter of the present government is a vote against free trade." ."^--. , «— ■■■!■!■■ ii-i JTffatv^va^BViYmrnriTTrrr ■ nr^r r^ 3»tsu- l3rgaw^'^v^^«^u^v l^*i^^ .^^TT^^^l .1 - . For St. Paul and Vicinity—Threatening. " ~ ~~ '. 1 -gm^ jB&UmSESm. -— Tor Minnesotay cloudy, variable winds. • j£&&Lli3m&k HB^ With the Arrival of Spring (© _Thousands of young people in this city will be joined in the holy bonds of matrimony. To all of them will come the thought— A Home and How to Furnish It Those who will worry the most about it will be the young men who work on salaries and have little or no deposits in the bank. They have pride and ambition and want homes to take their youno- brides to To all these vouns tTwe T^Y™ ni? U find th f. CO tta^ h°USe °r flat> the" C,? me tO US and WC'willtenwh £complete^ for you on the We Trust You plan or in other words, you pay us a small amount, get the goods in your home riehtawav and pay-us the balance later as your circumstances may permit. y g y ' \a/ ir \A/"iiT\ "•* "-'jß™*^^^ w"i v/ 5 r caincr We Will Furnish Your Our Price for Dining Room Bedroom Furnished Com- All We Ask to Furnish Your Kitchen for Outfit pletely for Parlor Is $25.00 $28.50 $25.00 $30.00 Consisting of .one steel range, one Includes one solid oak extension Includes one dresser, one commode, You get one parlor set upholstered large kitchen table with roomy -,,. . „ one rock-r one larpe floor rncr one in beautiful colored velour, one ma- drawer, one solid, substantial kitch- table. 6 very fine dining chairs and °"d r°- CK-r- one lar ge loor rug« one hogany finished parlor table, one en chair, and a splendid set of m ae, lvo sideboard iron bed. one steel spring, one soft reverslble brusse i s rug, size 9x12 kitchen utensils. • one ma-sive sideboard. mattress. feet> one han(]some parlor lamp. WE TRUST YOU gg WE TRUST YOU \ WE TRUST YOU WE TRUST YOU Direct Action Gas Ranges, SLOP Down and gl.oo &. Week c ron cc?io ns # Smith (§h Farwell Co. (A jlllj^ Minne"ota a Str— fPlk^ HjOlfie P liritlSherS Mmn"ota flStreets' M Minnesota Str ? -*^ I II©'OOIB© I 1 UHIISHeFS Minnesota Streets FOR BARD OF AVON American Discusses Memorial to Shakespeare Special Foreign Service LONDON, April 1. —Commenting this week on the proposed national memorial to Shakespeare, Mr. J. Chur ton Collins, an officer of the American club, said: "There seems to be little doubt that a large sum of money will in any case ultimately be collected for the proposed national memorial to Shakespeare; but a very much larger sum would be sub scribed if people were satisfied that the memorial would take such a form as would recommend itself to gen eral approval. Some hundreds would no doubt give their money for the erection of a statue, but from many thousands such a project would, for tUe reason so elo quently urged nearly three centuries ago by~ Milton, receive no support. Many would certainly be ii. favor of a great public library, which should be an exhaustive repertory for the extant editions of the poet's works, whether singly or in collection, as well as of all the literature circling round or bearing on his writings; but quite as many would be ready with the objection of the British museum, to say nothing of the numerous "Shakespeare libraries" to be found not only in London, but in many of the provincial towns, which already supply this want. "Surely this problem Is, before the appeal to the public is made for sub scriptions, to suggest some scheme for the memorial which appeals neither to this clique or class, nor that, but which is likely to appeal to Shakespeare's countrymen generally. And I venture to think that the true solution of the problem is the obvious one^-namely, the establishment, under the auspices of the London city council, of a great central theater which shall be dedicated to the production of Shakespeare's plays, and which shall stand, in one particular at least, in the same rela tion^ to Great Britain as the Theater of Dionysus, where the tragedies of Aeschylus were regarded as stock pieces, stood to ancient Hellas. Why should not Mr. Hamilton Fyfe's sug gestion that the Lyceum should be re purchased and redeemed from its pres ent conditions be adopted? There is no doubt that if Mr. Beerbohm Tree, who has labored as much as any single man could possibly do to make the stage a factor in popular culture, and to keep Shakespearean drama alive: if Mr. Pinero and others of our leading actors and playwrights would give their support to such a scheme, the money necessary for its realization would very easily and very speedily be raised. "The restoration of the Lyceum to the position it held In its palmy days, and its association with such a scheme as this, could not fail to appeal to pub lic sentiment, for what man or woman In England with any pretention to cul ture can contemplate with patience the fate which has befallen it? Certainly no more convenient site and center for such an institution as I have suggested could be found."' Drowned From Steamers Special Foreign Service BERLIN, April I.—Official statistics prepared in Hamburg show that a thousand people were drowned by ship wreck in January. Forty-eight steam ships, aggregating 61,408 tons, and fifty-nine sailing vessels, aggregating 27,617 tons, went down. The record for February was 875 drowned. Forty two steamships and forty-nine sailing vessels were lost. VALE "LADY COOKS" "Women Chefs" Supersede Them in London Special Foreign Service LONDON, April" L — "Lady cooks" have been superceded by "women chefs'in the kltehen of the Arnchne club, where girls of gentle birth are trained to become professional serv ants. "I have given eleven lady ccoks a fair trial during the last twelve month?, and the result has been a failure." ad mitted Miss Agatha Henslow, the sec retary, this week. "They were trained at various efficient schools of cookery. They had certificates and diplomas. They understood the theory of cooking. They could prepare clever treatises on its chemical aspect. They were au thorities on hygienic cookery. But when they came "to cook a complete dinner and serve it to time, the result was a hopeless failure. Each was a specialist in her way. Or»e made good soup, another excellent entrees, but not one realized the simple fact that a complete dinner cooked- to time is es sential in a well ordered household." Miss Henslow thinks the failure of the lady cook !s due to the system of training in the cookery schools, where the students do not undertake the re sponsibility of cooking a whole dinner, and are taught to escape kitchen drudgery. The best of the students be come teachers of cookery themselves, and the remainder become lady cooks and undertake duties they are unable to perform. The boaid of trade proposed to keep a paternal eye on tho culinary depart ment of the merchant marine, and to this end Mr. Gerald Balfour has in troduced a bill into parliament. It pro vides for certified cooks being carried by every British foreign going ship of 1,000 tons and upwards. A cook shall not be considered "cc-rtlfied" unless he is passed as competent In cooking by the board of trade or by some school of cookery or other institution approved by the board. As an alternative he must hold certificates of discharge showing at least two years' service as cook. Moreover, the cook must be able to prove six months' service at sea in any capacity, and shall be rated in the ship's articles as ship cook or steward. This proviso is for the pro tection of "doctors" who are seamen first and cooks afterwards. Otherwise landlubbers of the most objectionable type might find their way into the merchant service solely on their ability to make puddings and broil mutton chops. Although the new act will not be ef fective until Dec. 31, 1907. it Is already unpopular with merchant shippers. Writes Duke's Biography Special Foreign. Service LONDON. April I.—Col. TVilloughby Verner has completed the biography of the late duke of Cambridge, upon Which he has been engaged for nearly three years. It was at the duke's own request that Col. Verner undertook the work, which will confine itself to his military career. Meanwhile. Dr. Edward Shoppard, sub-dean of the Chapels Royal, is by special request preparing another "Life" of the late duke, which will deal with the social side of his career. An f-normous number of letters and per sonal reminiscences have already been collected. This biography, which win he pub lished by Messrs. Longman, will not appear before October.