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The Represent a tive
••SPEAK TO THE CHILDREN OF ISRAEL THAT THEY GO FORWARD." SI.OO )y/ar} in ADVANCE. ST. PAUL, MINN., WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 30, 1893. VOL. 1. NO. 18. SILVER IN 1543. Debasement of Silver in England by Henry the Eighth, Not Like the Pending Proposition. A Gross Misrepresent* tation. The Minneapolis Tribune of Sun day, Aug. 6th, contains a column long article, the purport of which is to show that the debasement of the silver currency of England by Henry VIII, in 1543 and by the guardian of his son Edward IV, by mixing it with lead, reduced the wages of the Eng lish workman ; and the writer argues that this is the same thing as the pending proposition to put silver back where it stood in this country for eighty-one years, and until de monetized in 1873 by British bribery. Where does the resemblance come in? In the one case base metal was mixed with the pure silver.; in the other case the coin is all pure standard sil ver, without debasement. In the one case there was a vile alteration of the ancient coinage ; in the other we propose to restore the ancient coinage to just what it was for four thousand years. And would it not he well for the Tribune writer to remember that the working classes in shop, factory, mine, and on the farm, never were so prosperous in this country as when specie payments were : suspended and gold was at a premium of 240 per cent over our paper money. Does that show that debasing the curren cy lessens the workman’s wages ? But the writer of the Tribune ar ticle, With all his pretence of learn ing and fairness, misrepresents the facts. He would have his readers believe that the debasement of the silver coinage of England, in 1543, lasted down to 1601, when the Eng lish poor law was enacted. Now the the fact is that thait debasement lasted only 17 years, i to-wit: from 1543 to 1560, when Elizabeth restored the currency to its former purity. What was the real cause of the falling of wages? Thorold Rogers, in ihis great book, “ Work and Wa ges,” preface, page 6, answers the question. He says: \ “ I have attempted to show that the pauperism and thb degradation of the English laborer were the re sults of a series of acts off parliament, and acts of government, which were designed or adopted, with the express purpose of compelling the laborer to work at the lowest rate of wages possible, and which succeeded at last in effecting that purpose .” And this not during the seventeen years from 1543 to 1560 alone, but down to our times; for during all that period, as Rogers says, “The wages of labor have been a bare sub sistence, constantly supplemented by the poor rate” The only relief in these latter days has been the capacity of the workmen to organize for self de fence. For generations the courts of quarter-sessions fixed the workman’s wages for him. But think of the demoniacal cun ning of the enemies of mankind when they can thus pervert the plain facts of history to mislead the labor ing people to their ruin ! In other words, they seek to abuse the God given intelligence of the to bring them and their wives and little ones to poverty and suffering. Is it not horrible ? Al7-years experiment of mixing lead with silver 350 years ago, in semi-bar barous Eng-land, with s,ooo.ooopeople used to justify the Rothschilds in re ducing the mighty western republic, with seventy million people, to bank ruptcy by striking down silver! And this is the leading republican paper of Minneapolis! This is one of the guides of the people, to lead them to higher levels of knowledge and greatness!! I.D. A Cassandra in Breeches. Read the following: Atchinson, Kan., Aug. 2.—Ex- Senator. Ingalls this afternoon in an interview with a United Press re porter said: “Thi&day is balmy and sunshiny in comparison with the ’clouds and storms just ahead of us. The ultimate result will be a redistribu tion of the assets of the country. The millionaire of to-day will occupy the pauper’s hut and the pauper in the near future will ride in the charioVof the millionaire. Colorado and toe other mineral states should be blotted out as states and added to the great American desert from which they were taken. The devas tation of the yellow fever in the south was not near so disastrous as the situation in Colorado, produced by the closing of the mines. Thous ands of people are walking the streets of Denver like the lowly Nazarine; foxes have holes and the birds of the air have nests, but the tramp of Colorado has no-where to lay his head. On every corner in Denver goes up the piteous cry for bread, in Wall street the piteous cry goes up for gold. When these two panicky conditions come together in the great Mississippi valley chaos and anarchy will follow.” There is some truth in this and much folly. We cannot put to gether the two ideas of the Ameri can people and anarchy. There is suffering—there will be more, pos sibly ten times more; but there is no necessity for a revolt, except at the ballot-box.' Violence is not a reme dy. It is unreasoning, destructive, illogical. If Wall street insists on still further ruining the whole coun try the people may seize upon Wall street and have a magnificent “hang ing bee.” The Shylocks are fooling with a terrible people. There are depths in the nature of the Ameri- ( can populace which the plummet of events has not yet sounded. < Let us keep our tempers; help the suffering; and advance on the ballot , box. The men who resort to viol ence can only be justified by star vation and we must not permit that dread alternative to be reached. The government, local and nation al, must buy up all the food in the mills, granaries and warehouses, and feed the wretched, until wise legis lation brings relief, and extricates us from the gulf into which the old parties have swept us. Keep cool gentlemen; but like the Irishman’s parrot—an owl—“keep up a divil of a thinking.” I. D. That Infamous Decision. It will be noticed that the court excepts from this sweeping assertion all those who have public duties or contract claims to meet—that is, all workingmen affected by the recent decisions of the federal courts in railroad cases. That, however, is a minor point of this decision. The main point lies in the declaration that what one man may do singly any number of men may do jointly. If that became a maxim of law, or ganized society would be impossible. One man may resolve to have nothing to do with one of his neigh bors to whom he may have a violent, unreasonable and unjust antipathy. To this antipathy he may have no moral right, but he does have a le gal right, and he can exercise it undis- 1 turbed as long as he does not at tempt to communicate it to others. When he does so the question of his moral right is at once raised, and if, as is taken for granted in this case, he is morally wrong, then in inducing others to join with him he is injuring his neighbors, whom the law must protect.—St. Louis Republic. Nothing could more clearly dis close the animus of our supreme court than the exception referred to above. Every man, they say, has a right to refuse to work for another, or to sell goods to him, or to deal with him, in any way, or to fix the price of his commodities; therefore all men have a right to unite for these ends; therefore there is nothing to prevent all the rings and combines that can be formed in any way or to any extent: except— oh here’s the rub— except the employes of railroad corporations! They can’t combine; they can’t unite; they are a class separate and apart from the rest of mankind; and have fewer rights. Because why? Because the machinery of govern ment must not be interfered with. But the people, who made the gov ernment, for whose prosperity it was made, may be plundered into uni versal ruin, without a shred of de fence. The railroad corporations are sacred, —the people contemptible. The other day, in the old world, they or their ancestors were serfs. Their liberties are a mere accident,—in cident to the settlement of a new world, amid semi-barbaric condi tions. They must be put back into the old status. Liberty! Pshaw! It is a thing of butternut-dyed home-spun and deer-skins. Mere man is a overcrowded, sweaty, smelly, unpleasant animal. It is the bank account alone that fcounts. The Declaration of Independence! Why Rufus Choate said it v as “a string of glittering general ties.” The mob hail it once a year with drums and fire-works. The a istoc racy sneer at it and ignore i t—all the year rouhd. “All men are created equal!’ Ri diculus and impotent conclusion. “How,”—says my Lord Stealage— “can the man who wields the ham mer, or raises potatoes on a jorty acre lot, be the equal of the posses sor of a hundred millions? lippos sible! Absurd! Why the poor man holds life and property by the toler ation of the rich man; for the rich man controls politics, courts, juries, legislatures and public opinion. The declaration of independance in deed! It is as dead as John Adams.” I. D. Seeking Relief. Secretary Samuel W. Thompson of the Duluth Chamber of Commerce talked to the water commerce con gress, at the World’s Fair, yesterday. He took for his theme “The Econo mic Value of a Ship Canal from the Great Lakes to the Seas.” Secre tary Thompson’s ideas briefly sum marized are as follows: The extortion practiced by the railroads will bring about the reme dy in the building of ship canals. The cost of moving freight by rail has been reduced from 1.236 cents in 1882 to 9.27 mills in 1890, a decrease of 25 per cent, which increased in 1892 to 9.67 mills, while the average cost per ton per mile for moving the freight passing through the Soo Ca nal last year was 1.31 mills. The ocean steamer Manola in 1891 moved freight for an average of .46 of a mill per ton per mile. The cost of move ing freight on the canals of Belgium by steam towage is from .46 of a mill to 1.5 mills. The average earnings of the steamers on the great lakes is .75 of a mill per ton per mile. Coal costs 30 cents a ton from Buffalo to Duluth, equal to .75 of a mill per ton per mile. The cost of running a steamer of 2,700 tons is .15 of a mill per mile and the coal consumption is one ounce of coal per ton per mile. By the system of towing on the lakes a single steambarge and its consorts now move 10,000 tons of freight in a single tow. In five years more I ex pect to see 25,000 tons moved in one tow. The time will come when the towing will be operated as a railroad is now operated. Steambarges will be notified by wire that a loaded barge is waiting at this port and an empty is wanted at that one. A twenty-foot canal to the seaboard will bring about the construction of steamers of 5,000 and 6,000 tons and will cut the pesent cost of moving freight in two parts. The average speed of the new steamers is 16.44 miles an hour. Freight trains move at about that rate when under way, but stops were so frequent that the actual net rate of progress was eight miles an hour, so that there was an actual increase of speed in freight delivered by water. From the best information at hand I favor a route by canal around Niagara Falls, down Lake On tario to Oswego, up Oswego River to Oneida Lake, thence to and down the Mohawk and Hudson to New York. This route would be one mile shorter that the Erie Canal, would not cross a single waterway, would be a quick route owing to most of the distance being in deep water, and according to the best obtainable estimates would cost about $150,- 000,000. A tax of one-tenth of a mill on the property in the commercial territory directly tributary to the great lakes would pay for the canal in ten years. We are a great people and we will not remain forever imbedded in the mud of wretchedness in which we are now struggling. Secretary Thompson is an able man, and his ideas are good. Then there is a pro ject for the different western states to unite in building a railroad from Duluth to the Gulf of Mexico. If the people of the Mississippi Valley States would stand by the populists, at the ballot box, we would soon con trol the machinery of government, and give the people efficient relief; but as long as they follow the two old parties, or, strictly speaking, the one-old-party, the demo-repub combination, so long will they suffer, utterly powerless to defend them selves. We are not enemies of the railroads; but we perceive that while the price of all productions, and of labor itself, has shrunk about one half, during the last few years, there has been no substantial decrease in the charges for railroad transporta tion. “Where combination is pos sible competition is impossible.” We want to make combination im possible by a people-owned railway from Duluth to the Gulf. We are now simply tributary provinces of the Atlantic coast states, which in sult us while they plunder us. Let us have access to the ocean at both ends—at the Gulf and the St. Law rence river. It will be a declaration of independence for us. Let us all move together. I. D. The Horrible Pressure. Suicides—suicides—every-where! While I was in Chicago two men ended their lives through business troubles. One, a man of 70, Nelson Van Kirk, once a millionaire, failed to go through the clearing house, for the sum of $56! He shot him self; leaving a wife and several child ren. In St. Paul five banks have closed their doors. I have no doubt they were solvent, but wealth is not mon ey; and the lack of currency—legal tender tokens —ended them. But the worst of all is the condi tion of the working people. Broken banks and ruined hopes are bad enough, but they are nothing com pared with the empty stomachs of those who are willing to toil and cannot get work. That is the awful part of the whole business. I. D. The senate may tie up the Wilson bill. THE UNEMPLOYED! An Immense Gathering of Unem ployed Workmen at Market Hall. They Pray for the Restoration of Free Silver Coinage. We live in the midst of profound peace. No war has devastated the country or depleted the nation’s trea sure. No blight, no drought or other calamity has worked destruction to the people’s crops. On the contrary the harvest is an average one and we are upon the very threshold of the season when Agriculture pours her year’s product of newly created wealth into the nation’s lap. And yet, in the face of these facts, there is an almost total collapse of busi ness, hundreds of thousands of men are without money, work, or credit, and, in some places, rioting for bread. Nature has done her part. The hu man suffering and loss of property cannot be laid at her door. Clearly and indisputably the trouble comes from bad legislation. This was obviously the opinion of the crowd of unemployed working men who packed Market hall Mon day from rostrum to gallery to take steps for the relief of the unem ployed. It was necessary that some-; thing be done by the city or state, or j both, to give employment to labor to provide against present suffering; I but to remove the source of the trouble financial legislation was necessary. Edward Peterson was elected chair man, and the object of the gather ing was explained by Mr. Bantz. What they wanted to do, he said, was to adopt means whereby they could make a living without accepting charity. All of the unemployed per sons present were industrious men, who at present by force of circum stances found themselves out of work. HON. IGNATIUS DONNELLY, The speaker of the evening, was then introduced to the assemblage, and was received with vociferous cheer ing. “The present,” he said, “ was not a time for speechmaking, but for ac tion. We were never before con fronted by such a condition of things. It seems to me that the one remedy for this state of things would be a , little more confidence on the part of those who have money in the bank- j ing institutions of the state. Why are you unemployed ? The man who employed you conducted his business on credit, but cannot longer get cred it at the banks, because thousands ' have drawn their money out of the banks ; and with the bank today it is a struggle. It does not know at what moment it may have to close its doors because the deposits are be- j ing withdrawn. And where has that money been put? It has been put into stockings, into chests of drawers and into the earth, and withdrawn from circulation; and its effect upon the industrial world is just the same as if a man had the life blood drawn from his veins. It seems to me that there ought now to be a renewal of confi dence in the banks on the part of those who have withdrawn their money. The banks could then lend their money to employers of labor, tlfe factories would be opened and there would be peace and plenty where now We have terror, doubt, and danger. This seems to me one of the great remedies in this case. AN EXTRA SESSION CONSIDERED. In regard to the calling of a special meeting of the legislature, the speak er said there was a fear that the ses sion would be unnecessarily pro longed. It cquld not be ascertained I ion whether session was necessary. If lindtion by the ward com ch Appeared to be the case, effect an agreement that confeider no measurs not ) the|present condition of i (applause) and we would ession up inside of 30 days, pass li|ws that would enable o create a bonded debt at i of interest which would city tb expend the money int works that would em (Appkuse.) The last leg solved that the state re jw capitol, which is to cost It could be decided at the ion to proceed with that ce. (Chfeers.) The expen 1, million dollars here now ;ve a great portion of the >rce of SU Paul and Min nd the distribution of the aid help tb restore confi lusiness circles. I believe crisis we have a right to >urden upon posterity, or ords, to borrow from the wenty years from now the country may be in a prosperous con dition and be well able to pay bonds which must be issued now. Now what can be. done immedi ately? The first thing necessary is organization. I think we should organize a central committee here to-night composed of representatives of each ward and each voting pre cinct to collect facts as to the actual number of persons out of employ ment. Whatever is done for the unemployed should be done in the way of loans projected into the fu ture, which will fall due in better days than those in which we live. ADVISED MODERATION. And whatever is done should be done peacefully, for a single drop of blood shed would be a disgrace to our civilization. He believed with Thomas Jefferson that the country could be made prosperous or de pressed by legislation. He dwelt at length upon the silver problem, and said that by limiting the currency to gold the value of gold was in creased. It made money dear, and when money became dear men be came cheap. “In 1873 our miserably corrupt or stupid congress shut the door of the mint forever in the face of silver from the silver mines of America. What has been the con sequence? From that hour to this the property of the world had been on the down grade and the troubles and miseries of men had increased.” Mr. Donnelly deprecated any allus ion to political parties on such an occasion as the present, but he was strongly reminded that but a few months ago we were in the midst of an exciting political campaign. The skies were illuminated with rockets and bonfires, and the air was filled with the music of brass bands and promises. Before him was one of the results: a tremendous gathering of people—with their stomachs empty. “Oh, what a lot of poor, God for saken editors of daily newspapers we have got in St. Paul,” he exclaimed; “each one with a railroad president behind it. These blind leaders of the blind have led you into this ditch. (Applause.) They have told you that the Sherman act was the cause of all your misfortunes. (Laughter.) Why do not the infer- • nal fools know that this calamity ex tends over the whole world where they never hear of the Sherman act? The whole country is governed by the newspaper press, and the newspa per press is the mouthpiece of the money power of the country. Nor has the press any space for labor meetings like this. In one paper I think I saw a notice of this meeting of about a finger’s breath.” RESOLUTIONS. He concluded by moving that a committee of twenty-five be appoint ed, divided into wards, to collect in formation in reference to the un employed of the city and suggest action for their relief. The resolution was unanimously I adopted. Mr. H. A. Wallraff handed Mr. Donnelly the following resolutions: Resolved, That we demand a sound and flexible currency, issued by the general government only, without interest charge, a legal | tender for all debts public or pri vate, to be put into circulation by I instituting great public works at once, and paying for the same in such legal tender money; and be it |further i Resolved, That should the United j States congress decide to abandon the use of silver as one of the mon ey metals of this country by repeal ing the Sherman law uncondition ally, we demand that gold be de monetized. Resolved, That we are in favor of postal savings banks. Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be sent to our represent | atives in congress. Mr. Donnelly moved that the fol lowing be added to those already be fore the meeting: Resolved, That this great meeting i of the unemployed labor of Ramsey county, Minn., hereby affirm that the calamities which afflict them and afflict the whole world are due to a conspiracy of the money powers of the world demonetizing silver and reducing it to one-half its former value. Resolved, That we declare that upon this question the newspaper press of Minnesota does not repre sent the people of Minnesota. Resolved, That in our judgment chambers of commerce are necessary evils which should not obtrude them selves into the domain of politics. Resolved, That we serve a notice upon our members and senators in congress that if they vote for the re peal of the Sherman act of 1890, without at the same time repealing the Sherman act of 1873, which de monetized silver, that they need not expect political support in the future from those present at this meeting, nor from the great body of the peo ple of the state of Minnesota. COL. J. H. DAVIDSON. Arose as Mr. Donnelly was about to submit the resolutions for adoption, and requested the privilege of speak ing to them, which was granted. He opposed the adoption of the resolu tions in a vigorous and forcible speech, but the laboring men knew what they wanted, and the resolu tions were adopted. Mr. Bantz moved thai(t it was the sense of the meeting that a commit tee of twenty-five members of the Trades and Labor Assembly should be appointed to act in obnjunction with the committee appoiqeed by the meeting. The motion carried. A motion was next adopted author izing the chairman to appoint a com mittee of five to ascertain if the ex penditure of SIO,OOO by the city for the Hill celebration was legal, and if not, to prosecute the guilty officials at law. The proceedings ended with the adoption of a resolution to appoint a committee of five to call on the gov ernor and request him to call an ex tra session of the legislature. Bank Checks for Wheat. Our friend, O. G. Lyman of Sauk Centre, writes: “Oppose the issuing of bankers’ checks to move the crops. Let us have it out on the old lines. The present conditions are opening the peoples eyes in a wonderful way.” We are always reluctant to give ad vice to farmers as to what they should do or should not do with their grain. But it seems to me that men who have crops— food —have real weath— real value; because men must eat to live. Hence nothing brought gold back into this country this year but the European demand for our food crops. We have fallen upon terrible times, and no man’s solvency is cer tain ; and it would be wrong for the farmers to part with wheat, meats, etc., which have a world value, for pieces of paper which may turn out to be as worthless as dead forest leaves. We would suggest that if farmers are offered any kind of pa per not money in payment for their crops, they should go to those they owe and say: “ Will you take that paper without recourse to me ? ” If the merchant or tradesman says Yes, in the presence of a witness, before delivering it to him write on the back of it: “Without recourse to me,” and write your name right under it; and then take a receipt from the creditor for so many dollars paid on account. Then if the banker fails the farmer will be out of the woods. If he owes a non-resident on a mortgage, write him and ask whether he will take such checks, without recourse to him the debtor. If he says yes, go through the same form. Be sure to keep the letters received, and copies of those sent, as together they constitute a contract. Do not act “ ugly” in these trying times. Be reasonable and just. Put away enough food to carry you and your family through to another har vest ; have some good newspapers and books to read in the long winter eve nings; and thank God, in these aw ful calamities, which afflict the whole world, that you have a house over your head and enough for you and yours to eat. And don’t be disheart ened. Things cannot continue as they now are. They must mend themselves; or there will come a world-wide revolution which will mend them. The human family can not be permanently ruined to please a few gold conspirators. Keep a stout heart and maintain friendly social intercourse with your neighbors. Gather from time to time and talk things over; and give the women and children some enjoy ment. Let intoxicating liquors alone, if any of you are inclined that way in your sorrows. They never helped any man but the one who sold them, and very seldom even him. And above all, post yourselves; it is the ignorant who become slaves. I. D* Ward McAllister says that Amer ica is drifting toward a monarchy. The wish is no doubt the father of the thought. It is more than likely that he aspires to be a prince. He is already a prince of apes.—Ex. The whole course of our politics for the past twenty years has been to breed Ward McAllisters and bring on a monarchy. This country to-day is a republic only in its forms. In its essential spirit it is already a money-aristocracy—ruled by an oli garchy. The spirit of ’76 is as dead as the men of ’76. I. D. The Saloons. In Norway there is a saloon to every 5,000 thousand inhabitants. In Svyeden there is a saloon to every 2,000; but in Denmark there is one to every 200. The saloons of Nor way and Sweden are conducted by the “Bolag” and controlled by the government—a system almost simi lar to that in operation in South Carolina, and it has met with suc cess and has been satisfactory to the people in both these countries. —Fer- gus Falls Journal. Yes; but the beautiful courts are doing their best to destroy it. The peoples party platform last year de manded the Norwegian system for this state. The saloons have no principles. As a rule they and their influences are for sale to the highest bidder; and the highest bidder is al ways the corruptionist and the plunderer of the people; for having stolen the fruits of labor they have something to buy with. I. D.