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The representative. [volume] (St. Paul, Minn.) 1893-1901, July 10, 1895, Image 8

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INSECT MECHANICS
Wonderful Achievements of the Paper
Makers and Other
Artisans.
Tools Finer Than Any Ever Made by Man
-Twelve-Story House of the
Carpenter Bee.
To the proper study of art, music or
literature, in their highest excellence, ac
cess to collections, galleries,and libraries,
only to be found in. the centers of wealth
and population,is necessary; but to study
nature one has only to look about in the
country lanes and fields and forests. The
galleries of the Creator are to'bo found
everywhere except where those of man
exist. And what exquisite workmanship
do they not exhibit! A devout old man,
who may be pardoned by our modern ag
nostics for his anthropmorphism in con
sideration of the fact that he lived in the}
third century, has-said:
“If you speak of the organism of an in
sect, what you say will be in some sort ai
demonstration of his power whose hand
formed it; for the skill of the craftsman
Is exhibited more in the minuteness and
delicacy of his workmanship than in the
size of what he makes. He who stretched
out the infinite firmament and hollowed
the bed of the sea pierced the tiny sting
of the bee for the ejection of its poison.”
The astronomer who looks up toward
the unfathomable depths of space with
the aid of his costly instruments sees no
more of creation than is to be found in at
patch of living velvety moss at the foot
of a forest tree. In such humble and ob
scure localities exist little families, com
munities and nations, that carry on the
business of life in their own queer fash
ion, which, nevertheless, affords many
parallels to human life and man’s way of
doing things. Like us these pigmy peo
ples have their governments, their wars,
their children and their homes to look
after; they have servants, household
pets, and police; they are cattle raisers,
farmers, hunters- and fishers, and prac
tice all the handicrafts of men.
Take for example, the paper makers.
While the rest of mankind are writing
Imperishable thoughts on all sorts of
clumsy makeshifts, the pith of reeds —cut
spirally and flattened by pressure
leather, the leaves of palm trees, wood,
stone, clay and what not, the Chinese
painted their tiresome treatises on paper;
but even they did not invent paper. Long
before they discovered how to make it,
the wasp was manufacturing a firm and
durable artice of this vauable substance,
“by very much the same process,” says
Mr. James Rennie, “as that by which
human hands now manufacture it with
the best aid of chemistry and machin
ery.”
Not only do these insects make paper,
» but also cardboard; and, anticipating the
Japanese, build their habitations of pa
pier mache. One species of wasp in
South America, of whose curious nest an
illustration is given, manufactures a
cardboard of so firm a texture and so
smooth a surface that it can be written,
drawn, or painted upon like the best bris
tol board; and in one respect, at least, it
is superior to the man-made article, for
It is entirely waterproof. The heaviest
showers fail to soften it or dampen the
interior of the nest it encdses.
The carpenters find many representa
tives among the insect tribes. An Eng
lish insect, related to our bumble-bee,
but differing in color, being of a dark vio
let tint, well deserves her name of car
penter-bee. Selecting a suitable locality,
a stump, post, or any bit of timber —if a
little softened by decay, so much the
better —she proceeds to excavate her ten
or twelve-storied house with more ease
than a human workman, aided by every
appliance with which modern science
can supply him, can tunnel into the hill
side. First entering the timber in a hori
zontal direction, she abruptly turns and
extends the passage downward, at a right
angle to that by which she entered.
Twelve times her own length she hollows
out her tunnel (as if a man*with his pro
portionately greater size and strength
should cut his way some 60-odd or 70-odd
feet into the solid timber), and then she
prepares to put in floors and furnish the
chambers into which her tunnel is thus
divided. She has been very careful to
preserve her “chips”; no sawdust nor
shavings obstruct or litter her work,
which is clean cut and perfect. All the
results of her gnawings are gathered in
to a compact heap near by and preserved
for future use.
An observer says; “She proceeds thus:
At the bottom of her excavation she de
posits an egg, and over it fills a space,
nearly an inch high, with pollen of flow
ers made into a paste with honey. She
covers this over with a ceiling composed
of cemented sawdust taken from what she
has saved; this also serves for a floor for
the next chamber above it. She lays this
floor by cementing around the wall a ring
of wood-chips, and within this ring forms
another, and so on until she has construct
ed a circular plate about the thickness of
a 10c piece. She proceeds in the same
manner until she has completed 10 or 12
cells, when she builds up the main en
trance with her materials.”
From the bottom cell a back entrance
affords egress to the first born and first
adult bee; and Reaumur also noticed a
door opening from the middle cell. The
young bees readily eat through the floors,
but cannot penetrate the solid wood. The
Implements with which the violet carpen
ter- bee works her chisels —here shown—
hard and keen-edged, and most practical
tools, however, seemingly inadequate for
the work they do.
But while the carpenter bees work wth
chisels, there are many insects that use
saws. These saws, however, are much
better contrive!, finished, and sharpened,
and more effective, than any yet made of
steel. When the little craftsmen under
take jobs of work which, if multiplied pro
portionately to his size, no human work
man could think of entering upon unaid
ed. In the sawfly, which owns, perhaps
the most perfect instruments of the kind,
our inventors might find a teacher whose
suggestions would not be valueless. The
saw is the head of the insect. It is double,
working alternately in the groove, the two
very cleverly strengthened by a thick
plate of horn at the back. The system of
toothing is different from any used by hu
man beings; and tfie saw itself, instead of
having the teeth in a straight line, is
curved into the shape of the F hole In a
violin. Like the wonderfully 'effective
cutting edge of-shark’s teeth, the teeth of
the Insects saws are furnished with small
er teeth, and the sides of the saw Itself,
as well as its edges, are supplied, with
teeth. It is, in fact, a rasp and saw com
bined. It not only cuts a groove, but it
smooths the sawed surfaces and keeps the
kerf open. _
Mr. Gosse, as quoted by the Rev. J. G.
f -f'r.
#
Wood, points out that beautiful and elab
orate as these instruments are, they are
but the sheaths of a still finer and more
delicate pair -of saws. These secondary
saws have only a few teeth on the edge,
and these near the point; whereas the
sides are furnished with a number of razor
sharp blades, set on their edges, slightly
overlapping each other and dirested back
wards. In “Nature’s Teachings,” there
is a notice of several large beetles, called
sawyer beetles, which actually answer the
purpose of circular saws. Seizing a
branch with their deeply toothed jaws
they fly around and around it until It is
sawed in two. They have been known
to Aaw off a branch much larger than an
ordinary walking stick.
No observant lover of nature can have
failed to notice how the buds of the horse
chestnut and other trees are coated with
a natural waterproof varnish, a lacquer
that not only protects them from injury,
•but adds materially to their appearance.
There are times while this varnish is yet
soft and fresh when the buds and twigs
from which it exudes may be seen swarm
ng with bees, all busy in collecting it for
their own uses. Long before mankind
had arrived at what may be called the
varnish period, when the surfaces of fur
niture and utensils began to receive coats
of viscous material, not for the purpose of
coloring, but to make them look polished
and brilliant, the bees were expert var
nish ers.
Among hive bees wax is used with the
utmost economy, for its collection and
elaboration is attended with so much la
bor that only the hive bee takes the
trouble to store it in any quantity, other
species supplying its place with inferior
substitutes. The partitions of wax that
separate the marvelous structure of the
honey comb into cells—so arranged as
to combine the greatest amount of avail
able storeroom with the minimum of
material —are so extremely thin that (he
insect finds it necessary to strengthen
their edges with accumulations of this
bee vernish, or propolis, as it is called.
The comb is fastened to its support, and
all crevices are filled with this material.
The propolis can be easily distinguished
from the wax by its darkqr color and
natural luster.
Among the insect upholsterers we
have the leaf-cutting bees. It is said
that a French gardener, finding their
extraordinary nests in. his flowering
beds, could not account for the presence
of such skillfully contrived curios oth
erwise than that they were placed there
by some evilly disposed magician to
work him harm, and with this idea
showed them to his employer, who, with
some difficulty, persuaded him they were
the vfork of insects. In a cylindrical
hole excavated in a well-beaten and
hardened pathway, several thimble
shaped cells are constructed, made of
leaf cuttings very artificially and skill
fully worked and folded into shape, and
Inserted, the bottom of one into the
mouth of another. When one cell is
completed and stored with a rose-colored
conserve of the honey and pollen of the
thistle upon which Is deposited a single
egg, it is covered with three layers of
“leaf cuttings” so exactly similar that,
as observers notice, “no compass could
define their margin more accurately.”
The miners and excavators are best
represented by the mole cricket. Like
the mammal after which it is named
this little creature digs extensive gal
leries. The structure of its fore limbs
and feet much resembles that of the
mole. The tibiae of these limbs are
broad, flat and of a strong, horny sub
stance, and are armed with sharp, strong
claws. Nothing more unlike the ordi
nary fore-legs of an insect could haye
well been contrived. If the edges of
our spades were similarly armed, their
efficiency would be undoubtedly increas
ed. The whole structure of the insect
is in all parts adapted to the work it has
to perform. The breast is defended by
a cuirass of strong horn backed by dou
ble layers of tough gristle, in front of
which are firmly jointed the shoulder
blades, to prevent the insect from being
wounded by the powerful impact of
earth and sand in digging.
Passing over, for want of space, many
most interesting branches of industry
practiced by insects, we close appropri
ately with the sextons, or grave-diggors,
whose craft is the last that can be used
for the benefit of their fellows. These
Insects, however, do not confine their of
fices to other insects, for if they find the
dead body of any small animal or bird,
several unite in their efforts, get be
neath it, and dig with great energy,
shoving aside with their hind legs the
earth they excavate, without pausing
until the body gradually sinks below
the level of the surrounding earth. When
it has sunken low enough to serve their
purpose, having first deposited their
eggs in the body, they throw over it the
earth they have excavated, carefully lev
eling and smoothing,the ground above
the grave.
In conclusion it may be said that the
habits and life of American insects af
ford an immense and fruitful field to the
Investigator. With no more expensive
appliances than a magnifying glass and
a cheap pocket microscope, but with
eyes to see, patience to investigate, and
brains to be interested in and compre
hend what is seen and investigated, any
one who has sufficient leisure and love
for nature may make discoveries that
will cause his name to be known
throughout the civilized world. Indeed.
I doubt if there exists a more promising
field for scientific investigation than the
open-air study of American insects.
J. CARTER BEARD.
THE SCIENTIFIC SPIRIT
A well-known Bohemian visited his
friend Professor Price, at the latter’s
laboratory. The professor was examin
ing a dark brown substance spread on
paper.
“Say, Petie, would you kindly let me
place a little bit of this on your tongue?
My taste has become so vitiated by tast
ing all sorts of things.”
“Certainly,” responded the ever-ac
commodating Petie, thrusting out his
tongue.
The professor took up a little of the
substance under analysis and placed it
on Petie’s tongue. He worked it around
for fully a moment, tasting it much as he
would a fine confection.
“Note any effect?" inquired the profes
sor. i
“No, none.” s *
“It doesn’ t paralyze or prick your
tongue?
“Not that I can detect.”
“I thought not. There are no alka
loids in it, then. How does it taste?”
“Bitter as the dickens.”
“Um-m; all right.”
“What is it, anyway?” inquired Petie,
■■as he spat out the hold-over taste.
“I don’t know. That’s what I’m try
ing to find out. Some one has been pois
oning horses with It over at the mission."
Petie rushed to the* telephone and
called up the veterinary surgeon.—San
Francisco Post.
SOOT IN LONDON
One thousand tons of soot settle
monthly on the 110 square miles of Lon
don.
AGING LIQUORS ARTIFICIALLY
Liquors may be aged artificially by
gradually coling them, in the case of
brandy, down to 200 degrees centigrade
below zero, and then gradually bringing
them up again to the normal temper
ature. Thp frigoric laboratory, In which
the new discovery is to be applied, will
shortly be established In Paris.
'THE
A VALEDICTORY
By M. E. W.
If the spirit of old Peter Bent happen
ed to be looking down upon the college
which he had so richly endowed, there is
no reason to doubt that it experienced a
thrill of very pardonable pride, for the
campus presented a brilliant scene. The
festivities of commencement day were in
full swing. • Seniors of both sexes—for
Peter’s proviso with his million had gal
lantly insisted on the rights of the weak
er vessel—hurried importantly to and
fro, picturesque figures in cap and gown,
youth and beauty in fresh muslins and
ribbons collected in Watteau-like groups
under the ancient elms, laughing and
chattering, and every half hour brought
newcomers to swell the already prodig
ious crowd.
Never had a more perfect June day
dawned upon the little town; never had
alma mater turned out so large a class,
nor one which everybody felt was des
tined to rfiake more stir In the world,
and never before had so many of her dis
tinguished alumni appeared to render
the occasion memorable. Rumors flew
that the mighty railroad nfiagnate, the
popular novelist, the scientist whose
electrical discoveries had shaken two
continents, and the professor who was
throwing a new light upon Grecian his
tory by his notes on the homeric poems
were all in the field in expectation of the
conferring of degrees, with their rela
tives down to the second and third gen
erations.
Beckford, in short, was en fete, and
when the holiday multitude began to
flock into Bent Hall, where the exercises
were held, and the seniors, marshalled
into line, moved slowly toward that
stately edifice the very air seemed to be
buoyant with excitement.
“It is a great class,” murmured the
Greek professor to the novelist, as they
sat side by side on the platform in the
seats reserved for honored guests, watch
ing the interminable black-gowned line
file up the steps and into place.
The novelist agreed, and having an
eye trained to nice observation, added
that there were some very good-looking
girls In the lot, which showed more than
anything else the increasing popularity
of higher education for women.
"Rather different from our time,” said
he. The professor nodded. He had not,
indeed, a very engaging recollection of
the young women who had pusrued their
studies in those distant days; if he ever,
thought of them at all it was as plain
fßatured* poorly-dressed specimens of
blue-stockings, with whom feminine
charms and attractions were the last
things to be associated.
“Some of them are awfully clever, I'm
told,” whispered the maker of books.
“It Is a girl who has the valedictory this
year. I qvonder which one? If I were
going to bet on It I should say it is this
damsel, just about to take her seat now.”
She was a tall, handsome creature,
with a superb figure, which the gown
could not completely conceal. Her black
hair broke into little wilful curls all
over in a very unacademic way a lively
coquetry looked out of her blue eyes, as
they glanced quickly over the body of
the hall, now an animated flower bed of
millinery. And the vitality, ttfe phys
ical richness of her beauty, the older and
wiser man knew well were not the out
ward and visible signs of a scholar who
loves learning for its own sake, and he
3miled quietly as his companion, warm
ing to his subject and ready at his trade,
proceeded to point out the inventory of
such unexpected loveliness. That phase
of the graduates did not interest him.
He preferred to amuse himself by trying
to pick out the winners among the young
men, scanning the rows of intense faces,
some fresh and boyish, some alight with
good humor and cheerfulness, some dark
and sullen, and almost all for the mo
ment touched with earnest feeling that
lifted them out of the commonplace.
How wildly all predictions about his
own claps had flown from the mark!
The ineffectual wonders had settled
down into hum-drum men of business;
several of the most brilliant lads had
gone to the dogs and disappeared from
the surface of society; drones had start
ed up suddenly with a spurt and led their
amazed fellows in prosperity. Death
had reaped his yearly harvest and
thinned the ranks, but every now and
then some such occasion as the present
brought many of the survivors back and
over a post-prandial cigar they exchang
ed biographies. Yet they were never
wholly frank. Some pages of the past
lives were sealed together, and turned
down, not to be read by any eyes but the
author’s, by his very seldom, if he had
grown wise by experience, never at all.
The professor drew a deep sigh. The
wife of his bosom was then beyond in the
audience. Her bonnet was gayer, her
dress richer, her air haughtier than any
other, for she loved the world and lived
for the world; a cold, proud woman, for
whom he felt great respect and grati
tude. Had she not given his position
dignity and shared with him her fortune
and her fine old name? Yet just now he
did not care to meet her eye and with a
start puffed himself together and glanced
at his program.
The exercises had begun during his
musings and were well under way. His
neighbor was nudging him playfully as
the pretty girl, blushing rosy red with
unwonted shyness which made her more
charming than ever and caused a little
buzz of flattering comment to run around
the hall, advanced to read a paper on
“The Specific Relations of Atoms to Mole
cules.” It threw a flood of light on this
vexed question, going into the matter at
length, but the visitors yawned first
behind their fans then openly, and only
the smiles and glances which the author
skilfully mingled with the dryest pas
sages kept them from dropping off to
sleep.
There was a good-looking dandy In a
front row. dressed in the height of fash
ion. beringed, boutonniered, frock-coated
who appeared to feel the deepest Inter
est in the subject, for he never removed
his eyes from the fair reader, at which
the professor wondered until he saw how
now and then when four eyes met, the
telltale color swept in tremulous waves
across that lovely cheek and the folds of
the black gown on her bosom rose and
fell more visibly. Again he was con
scious of a curious irritation within him
self. But it took no form. He only
thought that once again the mind was to
be conquered by the heart, and the schol
ar-would close her books to learn the les
sons, sweet and sad, that love could
teach her.
"She’s got a beau,” whispered the nov
elist, gleefully, “and that's why she
didn’t get the valedictory.” He was
pleased at his astuteness and on the spot
added an extra chapter to his serial run
hfng in one of the large magazines, in
which he might introduce some such
scene.
The morning wore on. There were es
says and essays, discussing everything
that is in the heavens above and the
oarth beneath, and the waters under the
earth, to the satisfaction of the faculty,
and showing the writers thereof to be
well informed. Through the stained
glass windows the warm June sunshine
poured in floods, painting the rows of up
turned faces grotesquely in patches of
vivid violet, green and blue. Through
the open door came now and then deli
cious whifs of air, fragrant with roses
and new-made hay. Some of the grand
fathers and grandmothers of the sweet
girl graduates had dropped asleep under
the soothing influence of the heated at
mosphere, and the monotonous voices of
the readers, but at length there was a
little stir and the hall roused anew Into
interest. The last number on the pro
gram had come. The professor listless
ly referred to the limp paper in his hand;
he was beginning to be bored. '
” *The New Woman,’ Miss Mary Lind
say with the valedictory.” The name
'•rv
'ATIYE. WEDNESDAY, JULY 10. 1895.
brought a sbdden hot flush across his
face. It was one with which he had once
associations, ten or fifteen years back,
a pure coincidence such as is constantly
happening to a man who lives a busy life.
Ordinarily the impression would have
been fleeting, but now with all the ac
companying circumstances stirring up
old memories, and recalling the contents
of those pages of his history which he
had fancied forever glued together, it
filled him with an absolute sense of dis
comfort.
A mild bustle on the platform aroused
him. The prize scholar of that large
and highly esteemed class was advancing
to the front, herself quiet and unmoved
by the newly-awakened attention of the
audience, which surveyed her sipall,
spare figure critically and then sank
back in its chairs with a shrug of disap
pointment, the women particularly, who
saw in her only a plain little person with
an utter lack of style. It did not require
a genius to perceive that she was also no
longer young, though the occupants of
the front rows were the only people who
noticed the tell-tale wrinkles at the cor
ner of her eyes and the lines of care and
weariness about her mouth. She had
brown eyes, fuff of a pleading, melan
choly—the eyes of an animal in whom
we like to fancy a human soul caught
and dumbly yearning to be made free
again, but very few of her classmates
knew anything about her eyes, or herself,
except that ever since the freshman year
she had carried off all the honors, was
homely and poor and seemed to wish to
avoid making friends. *
The president smiled indulgently and
stroked his chin, a way he had when he
was pleased. Then he settled back with
content to listen as the paper on “The
New Woman” began. The audience
pricked up its ears when the first tones
of the reader fell upon them —a very un
usual voice in America, so richly modu
lated, so round and clear, so capable of
infinite expression that it would have
made music out of phrases much duffer
than it was giving out. Fascinated and
delighted they sat under its spell, the im
patient young things in muslin and blue
ribbon, the nearly exhausted chaperones,
thp drowsy grandpas and grandmas,
while the distinguished visitors became
wide awaket recognizing- the magnetic
touch of genifis in that dashingly written
essay, its* well taken points sustained and
emphasized by many a cynicai epigram,
many a severe bit of philosophy of which
the youthful graduate is rarely mistress.
"She has lived through a great deal,
that woman has.” murmured the nov
elist half to himself. “She is no chicken.
I would give a great deal to know her
readl like a page out of
Balzac. Hey, professor?”
If he had owned such a thing as a
smelling bottle he would have offered it
to the professor on the spot, that learned
gentleman’s face having become fixed
and set in a way that suggested his
feeling very badly, or a study of futurity
quite inexcusable at such a moment.
Futurity? Ah, no. It was of the past he
was thinking. His thoughts had flown
back at the first sound of that charming
voice into a time long gone by. He was
a lad again, as young, as ambitious, as
ardent as any of those before him now
with their feet on the threshold of the
world, and he strolled in the summer
time along the moonlit hedges and lanes
of the countryside, with a little hand on
his arm, fluttering with happiness and
a little heart beating tremulously as he
poured out glowingly all his hopes ,and
plans and aspirations, and yes, his love.
She was only a simple lass, heaven help
her! but she had loved him with a love
which absorbed all her being in the most
cruel, relentless, fatal of all love’s ways,
and she had promised to wait for him
years—lo, 20, 50—tiff he had gone out and
made a place for himself and her In the
world of men.
And so he went. He remembered the
night they parted. She moved @,bout the
big farm kitchen singing “Kathleen Ma
vourneen,” with a shake in the voice
which sometimes when they were mar
ried and grown rich was to be cultivated
in Boston, maybe in Europe. Then she
had stolen down the long beach walk
in the shadow's and sobbed her tears out
on his shoulder, until himself distracted,
he had thrust her away and said good
by, promising to copie back very soon
wiht many vows and offerings to the
gods.
On the currrent of the reader's voice
his recollections floated along. He saw
himself unexpectedly successful, honor
ed, respected, dignities thrust upon him.
He remembered how, after five or six
years, he had returned to her for a few
days, finding her stiff loving, stiff pa
tient, but very plain, very simple, with
such a difference from the young women
with whom his lot was cast in the bril
laint university city. Her very affection
irritated him and made him feel uncom
fortable. After a while he went back,
and the marriage was stiff deferred. He
was a coward. He dared not see her to
break the cruel news to her in person, but
he Wrote her at last a letter in w'hich he
said that time and circumstances had
changed him—her, too, no doubt; that as
they bad drifted apart perhaps it was for
the best to give up the engagement. It
was a short letter, but to the point,
and after all the keenest knives made the
cleanest wounds and are the kindest in
the end.
She never replied to the communication
but some time later sent, hivp back in a
neat packet everything he had ever given
her, and he noticed with much satisfac
tion that the address was in a firm and
steady hand.
“Women have soft hearts,” he reflect
ed,. “quick to take an impression, quick
to lose it. They are too soft to break, ah
yes!” and wondered why he did not feel
more consoled by this view, as he turned
down those pages of his life, never in
tending to open them again. He married
Miss Roberta Van Ness, and her hundred
thousand dollars, and became an emi
nently prosperous and much esteemed
man, still young at 40 and with a future
declared by prophets to be couleur de
rose.
Meantime “The New Woman” had
come to its close. The valedictory was
being pronounced, and every soul in the
vast crowd felt a responsive thrill as the
appealing voice dealt out its farewells,
gay, gayer to the undergraduates, then
with an ever-deepening note of sadness.
The professor heard as in a dream the
words of Arthur Hugh Clough’s verses,
“Qua Cursum Ventu:.”
E'n so. but why the tale reveal
Of those who year by year unchanged
Brief absence joined anew to feel
Astounded, soul from soul estranged?
It was like a song. He hung on every
word, and could almost hear his heart
beat as the end drew near, and the
speaker forced a jubilation into her tone,
which, it was plain to see, she could not
feel.
One port, methought, alike they sought
One purpose hold where'er they fare;
O, bounding breeeze, O. rushing seas,
At last, at last, unite them there!
Loud was the applause, but the vale
dictorian was friendless. There fell no
laurel wreaths, flung at her feet, no arm
fuls of hot-house roses. The president
awarded the diplomas and announced the
degrees. The scientist, being a shy man,
fled as soon as possible, but the novelist
and the professor were forced to remain,
the observed of all observers. The latter
was very pale, which was thought to be
becoming and suitable In a man who
burned much midnight oil, and ascribed
by his wife to the unbecoming necktie he
was wearing. His taste in neckwear she
never could cultivate—lt was deplorable,
and betrayed his lowly origin as nothing
else. .
At last, with a burst of music, the
crowd arose and dispersed slowly. The
seniors, no longer students, but full
fledged members of society, remained on
«4he platform, lingering while a gentle
commotion was noticed by those strag
glers last to leave the hall. There was a
call for fans, for brandy, for smelling
salts, and the pretty girl who had views
on atoms and molecules sent her dandi
fied cavalier off post haste for a doctor.
The valedictorian had fainted in her
chair.
Several hours afterwards a train
whisked out of Beckford, carrying away
the swarm of visitors. The professor
was among them, but he sat alone, his
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Standard Castor Machine 45 27 22
Harvester Machine Oil 50 20 25
Standard Linseed Oil, for Painting 63 59 4o
Raw Linseed Oil 73 64 57
Boiled Linsped Oil 74 65. 58
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wife being in the seat behind with one of
her private and particular friends,
wealthy and well born.
"Did you know that girl who gave the
valedictory was foupd insensible after
tile exereises|” said one.
"No; was it the heat?”
“That and her age. She is 35 years
old, only fancy.” His wife shrugged her
shoulders.
“Oh, I detest these strong-minded wo
men. They are unsexed. They have no
hearts, only intellects. Did you notice
the lace on Mrs. Farnham's gown—
point de Alencon, wasn’t it?”
And the professor looked out of the win
dow as the fields and meadows flew by
in a green monotone, and the world went
on turning on its axe, as it did yesterday
and does today.
“UNCLE JOSEPH MEDILL”
IN 1873,
From the Minneapolis Penny Press.
Talk about epigrams! Benjamin Har
rison was never “in it” with the editor of
the Chicago Tribune, when that gentle
man really laid himself out. Here is
some mighty good reading for the advo
cates of the free coinage of silver: —
Chicago Tribune, Jan. 14, 1878.
“The effort of the gold men to in
crease the obligations of contract have
made it almost impossible for the debtors
to fulfill their obligation.
“Silver dollar* of 371% grains pure,
were established as the ‘unit of gccount’
by the act of April 2nd, 1792 —and con
tinued in full force until 1873.”
Chicago Tribune, Jan. 21, 1878.
“Persons of the greatest experience In
monetary matters, unite in calling for an
international congress to regulate the
standards. If that be not feasible, silver
should be made the standard with a con
current coinagd of gold.
“Stability in money values does not
mean the power to resist the deprecia
tion alone, but appreciation as well. Of
the two, a permanent and eternal appre
ciation of money value is vastly more in
jurious than a tendency to depreciation.
“The old silver dollar of 412% grains
standard fills the bill exactly. So long
as it was a legal tender it was an ‘honest
dollar,’ worth one hundred cents and had
the rilig of the true metal. Remonetize
it, and it will be again what \t was for
eighty years—worth an hundred cents.”
Chicago Tribune, Jan. 15th, 1878.
“When the time came that the United
States might have enjoyed and exercised
the option of paying in ‘either coin,’ it
was discovered that Congress had, un
known to itself, repealed that option—the
vital purpose for which the bi-metalllc
system had been established.
* "The wisdom and foresight of those
who had established the bi-metallic sys
tem, giving the country the option to use
either coin, enabled the people of the
United States from 1834 to 1873, to use
the cheaper gold coin, worth about 97%
cents on the dollar in silver to pay all
their debts.”
Chicago Tribune, January 14th, 1878.
“There has never been any contract
made with the bond holders, expressed
or Implied, whereby the government
agreed to surrender its legal right to pay
in silver when gold became the dearer
metal. The practice has always been
since the foundation of the government
not to pay in the dearer of the two legal
tender coins.
“Hamilton & Jefferson concurred in
the wisdom and necessity of having a
double standard, the purpose being to
grant to the debtor the option to pay hit*
debt in either metal at his pleasure.
Those great statesmen clearly foresawthe
trouble and disaster that a single stand
ard would bring upon the country. The
<►> - *■
70 Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111.
DO YOU Wf\NT > >
MORE. BONDS?
S (V d/!('/(<r
A, ~ c ..(. (>
1, v ... 'V
f.T t " a
. -V ..a
Which will entail 50 years of added labor, self-denial and privation. Had
COIN’S FINANCIAL SCHOOL been studied more generally some years
ago the wise men of finance could not today hope to carry their audacious
and infamous measure
COIN’S FINANCIAL SCHOOL
IS WAKING UP THE PEOPLE.
Read It! Study It! Recommend It!
This book is printed in three forms: 25 cents paper; 50 cents extra
heavy paper with cover in two colors, and in cloth sl. Sent post paid to
any address. Send dostage stamps or aoy other form of remittance except
check. Address
THE REPRESENTATIVE,
53 SOUTH FOURTH ST., MINNEAPOLIS. MINN.
retention of the option by the debtor to
pay in either sliver or gold ie vitally im
portant to the welfare of the whole
American people and must never be
surrendered.”
FEATHERED JAILERS
One South African bird—called at the
Cape the “butcher bird”—has the ghoulish
habit of killing smaller birds, extracting
and eating their brains, and then impaling
the bodies of the little victims on the four
inch long thorns of the “wait-a-bit” bushes.
Another very curious bird is the variety of
hornbill known as Tokus melanoleucus,
Licht., regarding which a paper by Dr.
Schoenland, of the Albany«museum, was
read at the recent meeting of the SoutJi Af
rican Philosophical society at Cape Town.
The nesting habits of this hornbill are so
extraordinary that they have been repeat
edly referred to by various writers; but,
owing to the difficulty of finding the nests
of the birds, many details of the earlier ac
counts are not quite correct, while others
are not touched upon at all. During the
last four years Dr. Schoenland has exam
ined, he said, no fewer than seven nests al
together, with the birds belonging to most
of them. The birds are often seen in win
ter in large numbers in the gardens at Gra
ham’s Town, but in the summer they are
only to be met with in proximity to closely
wooded kloofs, and this is due to the fact
that they nest in places where hollow trees
are to be found. All observers agree that
during Incubation the female is a prisoner
in a kind of cage, the entrance to which is
closed to such an extent that it has to be
broken open before the female can leave
.the nest. In all the cases he had seen the
nests were built in hollow trees. Mrs. Bar
ber has said that they sometimes made the
nest between the crowded stems of the tall
euphorbia, but that could not be recon
ciled with some of her other statements.
The bitds had apparently no preference for
any particular tree so long as it suited their
purpose. The essential point for them was
that the hollow stem should be sufficiently
large for the female to move about in the
nest, and whether there is one or more en
trances. all must be of such a nature that
they can be partly or wholly closed up.
The female, once inside, is fed by the male
through the narrow slit left in the material
with which the entrance is closed, or
through a narrow cleft in the wood. In
the latter case the main entrance is closed
up completely. This may be a precaution
ary measure to protect the female during
the season of incubation He questioned
the statement whether the male built or
the female, as Livingstone stated he had
been told by a native, the female took an
essential part In the plastering up of the
j
This book is creating a sensation
throughout the United States. It is
a revelation on the money question,
and is changing the viewsof millions
of patriotic citizens on the great is-
Eue now before the American people.
Anglo-Wall Street Admin!itol!?
is now endeavoring to precipitate
upon the nation
k Gold Debt ot $500,000,000
entrance.
Having described the nests which he had
seen, he proceeded to state that the female,
after going into the nest, usually began to
moult, and was sometimes almost naked.
She was usually fat while in her prison,
as the male bird brought her food every
few minutes. As soon as danger ap
proached the female bird climbed up the
nest aa far as possible away form the en
trance, and kept .perfectly quiet until the
danger had passed. The young behaved in
the same manner, the birds relying for pro
tection on the fact that the nest is not ea»-:
ily recognized as such. No doubt if at
tacked the hornbill could give a,good ac
count of himself. The female is imprisoned
for seven or eight weeks, certainly for not
less than six weeks. The eggs are laid
about the end of December or beginning of
January, and are usually three or four in
number and vary in size. He felt certain
from minute observation that the female
constructed her own prison, and left it
some time before her young were fully de
veloped. On her leaving it was plastered
up again in the same manner, and the fe
male helped the male to feed .the young.
He concluded by stating that there was still
plenty of scope for further investigation
into the nesting habits of the hornbill.
THOUGHT IT WAS HER BROTHER
It was her first ride out of doors on a
bicycle, and circumstances made it a
most delightful one. Few people were
on Riverside Drive when she and her
brother reached it. The morning was
fine and the view of th 4 Hudson and of
the Palisades w'as entrancing. The
brother had fallen behind, and he dis
mounted to attend to sorpe trifle about
his wheel. Knowing that he would Soon
overtake her, he did not think It worth
while to call her to stop. As she rode
along, exhilaration reached such a pitch
that when she heard the bicycle ap
proaching her from * behind she ex
claimed:
“Oh, Jack, you dear fellow! I shall
give you a thousand kisses for getting
me this whel.
She turned to hear Jack's answer, but
the man whom she had addressed wasn’t
Jack at all. The brute actually smiled
as he saw her blush of confusion, and
the unfeeling brother did more when he
heard her indignant story. He roared.
CALIFORNIA ONIONS
California raises some big and notable
crops other than peaches and pears. A
hundred car loads of red onions, each
car containing 24,000 pounds, have late
ly been shipped from Stocktpo alone.

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