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The Irish standard. [volume] (Minneapolis, Minn. ;) 1886-1920, May 29, 1886, Image 1

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The Manner Winch the Natives Irrigate
the Soil so as to Produce Cotton
Corn in Egypt."
ana
THE RUINED TEMPLE OF KARNAK.
"Those Temples, Palaces and Piles Stu
pendous, Of Which the Very
Hums are Tremendous."
(Written for The Irish Standard by Davi'I M.
Carle v-)
It has often been remarked anrl with
a considerable degree of truth that" the
Nile is the life of Egypt," for if it were
not for its fertilizing waters Egypt
would not be such an exhaust-less gran
ary and storehouse of food for man,
while farther east, year after year, the
despairing cry of famishing millions is
heard to echo across the wide waters.
Give us bread or we perish."
3?ARMING IN lSGYPT
has many drawbacks. Lack of rain is
one of them, and, consequently water
has to be drawn from the Nile river
and canals dug inland for irrigating
purposes. This keeps a large propor
tion of the native population in con
stant employment. The modus oper
andi of irrigating the soil is probably
precisely the same as that in force in
the days of "Abraham, of Isaac and of
Jacob." It is about as follows: First,
a bole is dug in the ground to a level
with the Nile river and on the banks.
Two upright" poles are erected, and an
other pole or crossbar is extended from
one to the other. Then a long pole is
placed upon the crossbar. Attached to
one end of this pole is a stone of prob
ably twenty or twenty, five pounds in
weight, and upon the other end is a
rope to which a bucket is made fast.
A. native or slave belonging to the
Sbekbs, and in some cases women,
operates this novel irrigating ma
chine,
WHICH IS.CALLED A SHAKIRA.
He draws the pail down, fills it with
water, and then the weight raises
it up, after which the water is
emptied into a channel, which con
veys it over the land and into other
channels. A water wheel propelled by
oxen or camels is sometimes used.
Crocks or jars are attached to the
wheels, and as these jars descend to
the river they Gil up, and by this means
they keep up a continual stream of
water, which, wheu it reaches a certain
altitude, empties into the channels be
fore named. The overflow of the Nile
at certain seasons of the year furnishes
sufficient water for the land during the
time it is at high tide. In ancient days
the sacred river was allowed to follow
the even tenor of its ways," and fre
quently overflow its banks, and place
thereon the rich fertilizing deposits
which it brings with it from Abyssinia,
but of late years engineering skill has
been called into force to restrain and
direct that overflow by means of canals.
The amount of
LAND UNDER CULTIVATION
in Egypt Proper may be roughly esti
mated at a little less than five millions
of acres, out of which, according to
government statements, *719,000 are de
voted to cotton about 260,000 to sugar,
and the rest to different species of
grain. The cotton plant is indigenous
to Egypt, and has been cultivated time
out of mind on the narrow strip of fer
*-ile land which fringes the Upper Nile
.. ^ginning at Thebes. This native eot-
uon,
however, is of an inferior quality,
and is used only to manufacture the
coarse goods worn by the fellah men
and women. It was the only kind used
in Egypt until 1819. In that year the
India plant was introduced, but it was
not until 1840 that the experiment of
using the American sea island cotton
seed was attempted. It is now largely
grown and flourishes equally as well in
Egypt as on its native soil.
MOSQUES, TEMPLES, PALACES, ETC,,
occur all along the river Nile in endless
profusion. The most important of
these is that of Karnak on the one side
of Luxor and the Hundred-Gated
Thebes on other. The latter was a
great city when Abraham led his flocks
to drink of the waters of the Nile.
Homer.,
saug of it as the richest city in
the world, through each of whose
hundred gates two hundred heroes
burst forth in their clashing chariots
and to victory. Although it was dark
when I arrived at Luxor I immediately
& started for Karnak, the ,/
Mi'4
LARGEST OF ALL THE RUINED TEllPLES.
I was accompanied by two friends,
and a gentleman tourist who had re
sided some months in the city of Luxor
kindly acted as our guide. .Karnak is
about two
situated at a distance of
jniles from the town,
As we proceeded
,^-nr, way towards the temples, we
..... ..
ft ji -.ed by dogs, which infest
msT
.iwv^olcl ruins in the vicinity. All at
once we came upon the temple. Its
numerous piliars and their gigantic
size sent a thrill tnrouffh us., a-nd the
wdd, weird scene presented recalled to
my mind rorciblv the words of the poet,
Horace Smith, in his address to the
Egyptian mummy:
And thou lia-t wnllcud about, bow strange a
storv
in '.uieoes street '.m-'ju ihou.-Kti.uj yeu.ro ngu,
When the Memnorrium was in all its glovy
And time had uot began to overflow.
Those temples, palaces and piles stupendous,
Of which the very ruiua tue tremendous.
It is said that when Napoleon's army
came in sight of the Theban monu
ments, they immediately halted, and in
a passion of admiration clapped their
hands and shouted aloud, as if, says
one traveler, the end and object of their
glorious toils and the complete con
quest of Egypt were achieved and final
ly secured by taking possession of the
ruins of this ancient metropolis.
THE TEMPLE OF KAIINAK
was built by kings of the Eighteenth
Dynasty, and is pronounced without a
parallel in the world. It has twelve
principal entrances, each composed of
several huge propyla and colossal gate
ways, besides other buildings attached
to them, which themselves exceed
the dimensions of ordinary temples.
Their sides are equal to. the bases of
the greater number of the Pyramids of
Middle Egypt, and are built in so-called
rustic style, each layer of stone project
ing- a little beyond that which is above
it. One of the propyla cousists wholly
of granite, and is literally covered with
exquisite hieroglyphics. The
MAGNIFICENT AVENUES OF SPHINXES
lead in several directions to the pro
pyla. In fact one of these avenues ex
tends the whole distance to Luxor, two
miles. Between each sphinx is an in
terval of six feet, so that there must
have been a large number of these huge
monsters on either side. The body of
the great temple is preceded by a long
corridor, at whose sides are colonnades
of thirty columns iu. length, and
through whose center run two rows of
not less than fifty feet high, consisting
first of
THE SUPERB "HALL OF COLUMNS,"
309 feet long and 170 feet wide, sup
ported by 134 pillars, some of which
are 66 feet high and 36 feet in circum
ference and others 64 feet high and 27
feet 6 inches in circumference. Next
appear two shapely obelisks marking
the entrance to the adytum sanctuary,
where the monarch is represented as
embraced in the arms of Isle. The
adytum is built entirely of red granite,
and is divided into three apartments.
The central room is the principal it
measures 20 feet long, 16 feet wide and
13 feet high. Three blocks of granite
form the roof, which is st lidded with
dusters of stars
GLOWING ON A GROUND OF AZURE.
The tomb is remarkable for the num
ber of its astronomical emblems. It is
encompassed with a golden circle 365
cubits in circumference, to represent
the number of day3 included in the
year. The rising and setting ot' the
sun are also depicted with great accu
eacy, proving that the Egyptians were
not by any merns ignorant of astron
omical emblems. This edifice is said
to have been the abode of Barneses II.,
whose statue in a sitting posture was
considered the largest in the world.
The following inscription is recorded
thereon "1 am Osmandyias, king of
kings: if any one desires to know what
a priDce I am, and where I. lay, let him
excel my deeds." The future of
EGYPT AND THE SOUDAN
is one of these things that no person
can calculate upon. It is no doubt a
country of illimitable possibilities. The
soil, when sufficiently watered, is fer
tile in the extreme in no other coun
try in the world can the same number
of crops be produced within the space
of one year. The adaptability of the
soil for growing certain crops that will
always occupy a prominent place in the
export trade of a country situated as
Egypt is, will readily lead the least im
aginative to believe that with capital
judiciously expended she may yet hold
her head as high as she did in the days
of old, but scarcely ever as a nation.
The amount of capital required to be
invested to bring about this state of
affairs will have to come from some
foreign power, and this would neces
sitate the complete sale of the country.
England evidently intended more than
rescuing Gen. Gordon from Khartoum
when she sent forth the late expedition
up the Nile. By having a complete
monopoly
of the valuable commodities
which that country can produce, it
would place her in a more independent
position than she now occupies
WHEN SHE REQCTIRES SUPPLIES.
When it is. considered that she has an
enormous amount of capital expended
in tnat country one can understand her
obj.ect was not wholly a charitable one.
Time will tell..
•'THE fflDbf""
THREATENED ORANGE WAR.
Oanstic Speech of Mr, Jordan, the National
Member for West Glare, in the
Eouse of Commons.
ACTUATED BY PASSION. NOT FEAR
Not Only Justice, but Generosity, Shown
by the Catholics Towards Protestants
in the South of Ireland.
During the resumed debate on the
Home Hide bill on May 11, the plea
made by Mr. Jordan, the National
member for West Clare, should be re
membered. He lives in Enniskillen,
the very heart of Orangeism. Mr.
Jordan is a tenant farmer, as well as
being engaged in trade. One sees in
his eyes a reservoir of ready humor,
and this overflowed, when, arising late
in the debate, he said: "I have lived
all my life among the Ulster peasantry.
I hear it contended that this bill places
the Protestant population of the North
under the control of a Parliament elect
ed by the National League. Those
who argue thus seem to forget the na
ture and constituent elements of an
Irish Parliament. It would not be a
Parnellita Parliament, and the Na
tional League, having answered its
purpose, would, in the. natural order of
things, dissolve (cheers). The members
would not be elected on any question
as to separation, but on Irish issues,
and the provisions as to the two orders
would afford ample security. It was
said that the Protestant people would
have to leave Ireland, but they might
go farther and fare worse. Why should
the landlords leave the country if their
incomes were diminished by half? They
would not find any other country so
cheap to live in (laughter). But all this
talk about leaving Ireland is nonsense.
If an outrageous Orangeman was asked
whether he was getting ready to go,
he answered, with a twinkle in his eye,
4
Not yet' (laughter), The people liad
no notion of going, and the more they
assured those Orangemen in the North
of their safety, the greater noise they
made. He did. not believe that they
had any fear for their lives, their liber
ties or their property. As to their re
ligion, property was a very large part
of it. They prayed alternately to
Providence and to the noble Lord Ran
dolph Churchill, the member for Pad
dington (laughter). One could not tell
whether they put their trust in God, in
the great Tory party, or in powder and
ball, because they used the phrases in
discriminately (laughter). Protestant
ladies and the farmers' wives said they
had no fear, and why should the stal
wart majors and military pretend to be
more apprehensive? The truth was
that it was
PASSION, AND NOT FEAR,
which actuated them. These people
had been pampered all their lives. They
had enjoyed ascendancy and monopo
lized place and power, and they did not
wish now to be put on an equality with
other people. The loyal minority, as
they were called, were enraged because
they would have to go into competitive
examination with their Bioman Catho
lic countrymen, and get only their fair
share of anything that was going (a
laugh). If, however, that bill became
a law, I am satisfied that they would be
quite prepared, from the greatest to the
least among them, to make the best of
it. During the last five or six years I
have heard the Catholics and their
teachers, the priests, continually giving
the advice' to take and give no offense,'
and I wish the same were said on the
other side. Then they were told that
that might be the case in the NVirth,
but that if they went to the South they
would find Catholic oppression of
Protestants. I have gone to the South
and found not only justice, but gener
osity, shown by the Catholics toward
their Protestant neighbors. If there
was discontent or disloyalty it was
landlordism alone that incited the feel
ing. It was against paying tribute to
England the Orangemen of Ulster
would fight, and if they would fight
against paying that tribute to Eng
land, why, it would be ail right (laugh
ter). A very worthy minister had said
that it would be unjust to send .English
and Scotch soldiers to shoot the Ulster
farmers because they would not pay
the tax, but they must do so other
wise, the loyal minority would not pay
up. The question was, would these
Orangemen really fight? (Laughter,
and cries of "No.") Of course, they
would not. They-- had no notion of
fighting. The honorable member for
southern Belfast, Mr. William John
ston, reminded him of a vision in the
Apocalypse, going about like an angel,
with a Bible under one wing, and a rifle
under the other (laughter). I never
could
quite
understand whether the
honorable member was going in
FOR DEATH OR FOR GLORY.
"Tha Ulster Conservatives never
could tell whether they were going to
be lieutenants, captains, or majors in
the new Ulster army. If they intend
righting they would want arms, am
munition, a commissariat, and a medi
cal department, and then they would
have to borrow an English general.
Aud when all was ready they would
have to fight, not against a national
army, but against the Queen's army.
The fact was, that these men do not in
tend to fight at all, and their defiant
language is mere buncombe. I never
objected to what was fair rent. I have
been consulted by thousands of tenants,
and have never given advice which I
should feel ashamed to see placed be
fore the House. I deny that the Metho
dists of Ireland are unanimous against
the bill. I admit that a majority of
them are antagonistic, but here, as
witli the Presbyterians, there is a think
ing and growing minority in favor of
Home Rule. I have letters in my
pocket from Presbyterians, who have
changed their views siuee the last elec
tion. I urge the House to give a large
measure of Home Rule, aud not to re
peat the blunders of the land legisla
tion by giving bare measures which
only keep the agitation alive."
Mr. Jordan had followed the tedious
Ashmead Bartlett, which made his
speech the more interesting and wel
come.
'Twas Pitt Did It !M
The above interjection from Mr. Glad
stone, during Major Saunderson's
speech, on Monday night, is of historic
interest. It shows that Englishmen
have at last brought themselves to con
fess one of the blackest crimes ever laid
to the charge of English rule in Ire
land. Major Saunderson was repeat
ing the hoary falsehood which was so
often on the lips of those who carried
the Union that it was the granting of
National Independence in 1782, that
caused the rebellion of 1798. "The
very reverse
1" shouted Mr. Gladstone,
'twas Pitt did it!" Never did a more
awful impeachment pass the lips of an
English Prime Minister. It is only
what Irish publicists have been pro
claiming for the past three-quarters of
a century and it is as patiently true as
that the Union was purchased with
gold but how we have advanced, to be
sure, when Pitt's successor, from Pitt's
place in the House of Commons, avows
that not only was the immediate means
of the Union shameless bribery, but its
way was paved by the most hideous or
ganized massacre. In order to carry
the Union, Pitt had first to terrify the
aristocratic classes out of their wits,
and with this object the rebellion of
1798, was deliberately nursed and or
ganized. The hundreds of thousands
of people who were shot, hanged, flog
ged, and pitch-capped were all killed or
tortured as a necessary portion of the
cold-blooded scheme which Pitt
sketched in his closet. The massacres
of "the Croppies" were the first portion
of the programme the bribery of the
Parliament the second. Murder was
the foundation, and corruption the sup
erstructure. Is it wonderful that the
edifice should tropple? Irishmen knew
this ail along but it is of incalculable
importance that English eyes should at
last be opened to the infamy. Mr.
Gladstone's exclamation is one of the
most significant pronouncements of
the century. Like Morley's famous
declaration, that "he could very
well believe" any story of the
baseness and mendacity of the anti
Irish Press, it shows that the thick
wall of misrepresentation which con
cealed the truth about Ireland from
English eyes is riven, aud that all men
now recognize what Irishmen have so
long been protesting in vain -that Pitt
was a murderer, that Dr. Patton is a—
sayer of unsooth, and that the whole
system of English rule, founded and
maintained by such men, is a colossal
crime, tyranny, and lie. Mr. Glad
stone's exclamation is scarcely less re
markable than his bill.—United Ire
land.
Those New York Irish-Americans
who cabled their readiness to go to Ire
land to resist the Orangemen simply
wished to be as well to the fore as the
Orangemen of Gotham who previously
expressed their willingness to hack up
their saffron brethren of Armagh.
Chamberlain evidently recognizes the
mistake he has committed, and has
grown desperate over it, since Justin
McCarthy says he now speaks of Glad
stone in words which are unfit for
publication. When a demagogue de
scends to blackguardism it is a pretty
good, sigh that he has staked his all and
lost.
Secretary Bayard has lo3t no time in
negotiating with the British minister
for the protection of American fisher
men on. the coast of Canada. Consul
Phelan has been ordered to Digby to
investigate the difficulties at that port.
Meantime the secretary expects Amerk
can captains to observe every local reg
ulation. /V'v*
fi
Short Biographical Sketch of a Singer
Whose Songs Inspired a Strug
gling Nation.
AN HONEST, LABORIOUS STUDENT
His Attainments "Were Characterized Less
by Brilliancy than by Depth and
Compass.
Thomas Osborne Davis was born in
Mallow'in 1815. His father was a na
tive of Wales, who came to Ireland as a
military surgeon and settled down in
the County Cork. Here he met his fu
ture wife, a lady sprung L-ora the O'Sul
livans and Atkinses of the South.
Thomas Davis was not, indeed, wholly
Irish, but the influence of native land,
the magic of its history and the warm
blood of its ancient chieftains which
came to him through his mother, con
tributed to make him, as
they
made
many others before him, "more Irish
than the Irish themselves." His youth
was spent in Mallow, and, as far as we
can learn, had nothing in it to foresha
dow the brightness of his future. He
was, I suppose, as mischief making as
boys will be. He was shy, retiring and
timid, and loved like Tasso "to dream
the visions that arise without a sleep."
He was accustomed, we are told, to
wander often among "the monuments
of clay and stone" around the pleasant
city of his birth. The surroundings of
his early years must have done much
to instil into his young heart the en
thusiasm he afterwards displayed in
the language, antiquities and history of
Ireland. The very breezes than lifted
his sunny locks as he strolled on the
banks of the Elackwater came laden
with the glowing traditions of the South
and the songs of forgotten bards, and
prepared his soul .for the reception of
those noble impulses which, in after
life, drew him from the quiet pursuits
of his profession to do and dare for Ire
land. Often amid the din of busy life
did his thoughts go back in later years
on the wings of poesy to the happy
days of his boyhood.
"When thoughts were mine in. early yoi'tta,
Like some old Irish song
Brimful of love, of life and truth,
My spirit pushed along,"
And again:
"When boyhood's fire was iu my blood
I read of ancient freemen,
For Greece and Home who nobly siood,
Three hundred men and three men.
And then I hoped I yet might 6ee
Our fetters rent in twain,
And Ireland, long a province, be
A nation once again,"
He was sent in due course to Trinity
College, Dublin, where it was intended
he should pursue his studies for the
bar. In Trinity College he attracted
no notice by the manifestation of more
than average abilities, but was known
to all as
A if HONEST,
HARD-WORKING STUDENT.
His attainments were characterized less
by brilliancy than by depth and com
pass and as he plodded on in his sober,
quiet way his superiors and his fellow
students failed to discover in his unas
suming manner and dogged persever
ance the genius that wa3 yet to burst
forth in the service of his country. He
had, in fact, been looked upon as more
of an Englishman than of an Irishman,
and was perhaps the last man in Trin
ity that would be suspected of sympa
thy with the popular cause. From
Trinity College he went to study law
at the Inns of Court, London. One
evening while resident here, he and a
fellow-student of his, also an Irishman,
visited Drury Lane Theatre, and dur
ing the evening's performance an inci
dent occurred, which, though slight in
itself, gives us an insight into his feel
ing towards Ireland even at this period.
It happened that, contrary to the uni
versal custom then prevailing in Eng
lish theatres, some allusion of a gener
ous nature was made upon the stage
about the Irish people. So much was
D?.vis affected by even this slight token
of a just appreciation of his country
men that, as his companion afterwards
related, his head sunk with emotion
and tears fell from his eyes. lie must
have felt towards Ireland then as he
did later on when, in the ardor of his
patriotic love, he poured forth his feel
ings in the words of that noble song:
"She is a Rich and Rare Land." Soon
after his return to Trinity College a
marked changed became evident in his
manner. He was no longer the shy, re
tiring youth, the silent devourer of
books that had passed unnoticed
through the halls of Trinity. A genial
frankness beamed from his eyes the
cheerfulness and buoyancy of his con
versation made him a favorite
GUEST IN THE GAY DKAWINGTtOOZkIS
of the metropolis But all this time his
mind was at work wandering through
the vast region of legal and philosophic
speculation, aiid laying,
pp there
of kuowledge which afterwards stood
him in such stead during the few event
ful years of his political career. He
took a medal in ethics became a lead
ing member of the College Historical
Society wrote a pamphlet on the House
of Lords—which it is interesting
to
know he considered an unmitigated
nuisance—and was called to the bar in
1838. In a short time unmistakable su
periority of talent, energy of character
and varied knowledge gave certain
hope of a brilliant professional career.
Fearful commotions were at hand. It
was not the time for a true patriot to
hesitate, and in the storm of agitation.
Davis appeared in the oolitical arena..
His accession to the Repeal ranks in
1S41 influenced the whole current of his
after life, and brought before the world
the hidden beauty of his generous and
unselfish nature. The repeal move
ment was set on foot by O'Connel! .in
1840. As we all are aware, the native
legislature was torn from Ireland by
Pitt in 1800 and it is well known that,
the repeal of that iniquitous act was
considered by O'Connell of more import
ance than even emancipation itself.
His first political speech in 1SI2 .was
directed against the union. By the ad
vice of friends, however, he was in
duced to take up the emancipation
question first. The ever memorable
year of 1829 came, and the fetters in,
which she had. writhed for centuries
fell from the limbs ot Catholic Ireland
at the voice of her "great liberator."
Ten year3 of comparative inactivity fol
lowed then out from the gathering
gloom strode the "mighty tribune of
the people" and six million hearts
leaped up at the sound of his clarion
voice. Bug there was more difficulties
to be overcome than even O'Connell
had anticipated. In the emancipation
campaign he had received the support
not only of the more respectable por
tion of the Protestant aristocracy in
Ireland, but also of all. the advanced
members of the English House of Com
mons. Without the co-operation of
these political factors O'Connell could
scarcely hope for the success of his re
peal movement, but they turned from
him now and growled resistance to the
death against "that horrid
DISMEMEJERMENT OF TELE EMPTIIB."
Nothing daunted, O'Connell labored on..
Two causes contributed much to retard
his progress at this period. The worth
lessness and. insincerity of many of his
confederates, and the appearance ot
sectarianism attaching to his move
ment. Among those who surrounded
him there were, besides rnanv genuine
patriots, many genuine humbugs who
had joined the repeal agitation simply
because they expected it would pay,,
and who were only to ready to sell their
country and their leader in the hope
of personal aggrandizement. Up to
this time the Catholics and Protestants
of Ireland had never thoroughly united
in a common cause. Even the eman
cipation had not extinguished their
tendency to sectarian strife and be
sides, O'Conneirs character was not at
all calculated to allay the old feelings of
mutual hatred and distrust. He was
justly looked upon as the champion of
Catholicism in Ireland. The Repeal
Association was entirely under his
control, and, though its aims were
purely political, it came to be regarded
by the Protestants of the country as an
exclusive Catholic organization. The
co-operation of his Protestant country
men, if not altogether indispensable,
was at least of paramount importance
to the success of O'Connell's movement,
and that co-operation was, in a great
part, secured, by the accession to his
ranks of a Protestant gentleman whose
unquestionable sincerity, high moral
character and social standing precluded,
the possibility of interested motives.
His name was Thomas Davis. The im
portance of his accession cannot be
overrated. He was a man of profound
learning, of independent thought. It
could not, therefore, be supposed that
he would league himself with a cause
unworthy of
A GREAT AND ENLIGHTENED .MIND.
After all there must, be somethingm
repeal. So the Protestants of the coun
try veered round, and the Catholics,
growing ashamed of their apathy,rallied
round their immortal leader. In 1S40
Davis was appointed auditor of the
College Historical Society, in which he
had lately distinguished, himself as &
debater. About the same time also he?
contributed largely to two Dublin
papers, the Citizen and Register. He
wrote much on the question of land
tenure, but the subjects to which he
directed his most serious attention,and
which became in time the leading idea
of his political programme, was "the
union of all classes and creeds in the..
struggle for national independence.5-,/
He afterwards sang
p.^"And,
oh, it were
To show before mankind
|MHowevei7ra»i^d^ry ^reed|||
"ill* Might be by love Combined fjMts
Stores IOontinu^on'f«ur&i^^M%M4fM|»ll
I

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