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Bf. Vol. XXVII, No. 46. •V •v I .- sMy. 1J 4i **, REVIVAL OF ERIN'ii ANCIENT ART Book of Kells in Trinity College Said to Have no Superior in the World. Foreign Art Critics Examine its Pages Under the Glass Covers For Months. Far Ahead of Modern Skill in Every Way is this Marvel of Medieval Art Miss Mary Synon, of Chicago, has contributed a series of letters l'rom Ireland to the American press on the revival of the Irish language and man ufactures. In one of her letters before starting for home she wrote the fol lowing on the ancient art of Ireland, eaying in part: To artists and antiquarians the art of Ireland has long been known as the basis of modern art, since at the very opening of the historic period in Ire land there appears a well-defined style of art, distinctly Celtic in character, *nd of which no trace can be found in any country except those visited by the Celt. This style not only left its impress on the art of these other countries, but took root and flourished only where the Celt found a home. The occasional specimens of Celtic orna ment found by Swedish or French an tiquaries in pre-Christian graves can hardly be accounted for by the theory that various men and various nations placed in similar circumstances will "kct and express themselves precisely in the same-m&nner. The only feasi ble conclusion of the prevalence of -Celtic forms through, the other coun tries of Europe is that the Celts dropped seeds by the way, since the evidences of Celtic art in the Irish museums prove that the Irish devel oped the art to Its greatest height. In order to, appreciate the remark able culture expressed by the art treasures of these storehouses it 1s necessary to realize that at the time that some of the finest of these exam ples of illumination and metal work were.executed in Ireland, the rest of Europe-was in a state of barbarism. The disintegration of the Roman em pire had plunged the continent into a darkness in-which neither art nor lit erature could flourish. Ireland, sot on the extreme western edge of Eu rope, isolated enough to work out her own forms of art and to preserve them, progressed until not later, than the eighth certtury, and possibly during the seventh, there was made the won derful Illuminated manuscript of the gospels, the Book of Kells, now in the Trinity college library and acknowl edged by Scholars and artists as the finest example of its kind in the world. A study of soma of the pages of the great book—one page is turned every day and there are in Dublin foreign scholars who remain for months in or der to study the pages under the glass covers—is certain to impress the ob server with wonder that the progress of centuries has not advanced art. For '.n -eolor, in form, in design, the Book of Kells has everything that modern illumination, illustration, coloring aJid design approximates—and a great deal more. It is a commentary on the book and on modern art that copies made •t it less than thirty years ago and Bet close to it in the library, already show evidence of facing colors, while, the book itself preserves unfadingly Its splendid, softened shades of reds, and blues, purples and greens, yellows and rose. The book is believed to have be longed, to St. Columba, if it was not actually written with his own hand, and owes, its title to the fact that for centuries it was preserved as the most valued treasure of the great Church of Kells, the .monastery of Kells having been the chief establishment of the Columbian Order in Ireland. .In -1006 the book was stolen from the church, stripped of the gold and precious stones that ornamented its covers, and buried under some sods, where it was found "after forty days and two months." Ussher, Bishop of Meath, secured possession of it while he was employed In collecting Irish manuscripts. It passed with his li brary to Trinity college in 1661. The boolf consists of 389 leaves of vellum, -J 1 meMur lng.t wel ve Inches by nine. Cn-lBttnc* of the atrahgier and the thug fartuiu4^^tW:Madin*:of the boc*•-to •arttWi. afllpteUua. "esponsible for the trimming of V»_. edges. **y great antiquarian of as paid homage to the che Book of Kells, being in asserting that the far invention, the profound knowledge of art principles, the prac tical taste and the wonderful dexterity or execution of the Irish artists re sulted, not from the genius of any sin gle individual, but from the emulation of various schools of writing and the improvements of several generations. The suggestion that the Irish artists, those who produced the Book of Kells, the Book of Armagh, the Book of Dur row, also claimed to be a fragment of St. Columba's work, and the other scores of most gorgeous illuminations took their art from any foreign source is disproved by the internal evidence of the work which could not have been brought to such a high stage of per fection, especially as it did not exist o/ beau unanihi.. tility of The Irish art revealed by the illum inated manuscripts in the Dublin mu seums and libraries, which contain a larger collection of them than any other institutions in the world, is sym bolic. The interlacings, the mono grams, the circles, tell stories of be lief and of imagination to the student. As well as the manuscripts the Dublin museum holds rare specimens of priceless value, notably the chalice of Ardagh, whose beauty cannot be described, so dependent is it upon the softness of metal work and enamels with jewels insets and the Cross ot Cong. The Tara brooch, composed of a metal harder than silver, formed by ,a combination of copper and tin, and containing insets of gold work and The league, by consistent effort, has not only made the revival of Irish art a national issue, but has proved to the people of Ireland that Irish art, mod eled on the ancient forms, is more beautiful than any importation has ever been. 1- The O'Donoghue. When The O'Donoghue was a repre sentative for Kerry In the British Parliament and fighting for the bet terment of starving peasantry in Ire land, he was declared by "The Times" to be one of a band of "marinikin traitors,", says the Standard and Times. This same "Times," the bully and hirer of forgers to assassinate the character of Irishmen who have the audacity to stand up for the rights of their country, now uses very different language when commenting on the vaporing of Orange humbugs. It says that "rebellion is not a remedy to be lightly adopted," but that circum stances justify the Ulster Unionists in talking of it and if they actually in dulge in it the country will know where to- look for the real conspira tors. There is a hint that "The Times" regards the Liberal Ministry as the persons who are really responsible for the murderous mood of the Ulster "loyalists." This was ever the way of "The Times." It represents the in- A JUDGE OWYEH ON E QUEST elsewhere, except through centuries of posal to exhibit divorce, which had its own development. Art in Ireland been presented to the recent Ohio Con had clearly grown during a long period stitutional convention by Hon. Stanley before the time of St. Patrick and the Bowdle, Judge Dennis Dwyer, of Day early Christian artists, finding the Irish attached to, and influenced by this art, adopted and developed it, gave it a Christian character and utilized It in the service of religion. Domestic Happiness of Catholics Equal to That Enjoyed by Any of the Sects. His Observation is That Most of the Divorce Cases are Outside the Churches. There Has Never Been a Divorce Granted in South Carolina and Morality is High. enamel, and the T-tda'are?, brooeh-of the- ceded that-thc foundation—for~tTiig"~iir Petrie collection, are examples Of the sort of. work done ,bj' irish jewelers at a time when in other parts of Europe gold, silver and other precious metals were being used in only the crudest fashion. For the Tara brooch, con temporaneous with the Argah chalice, and certainly executed before the tenth century, is the finest example of fine metal work ever discovered. The number and variety of the brooches, chalices, book-shrines, bell shrines, crosiers, crosses, gospel-cases. pins and necklets assert the wide spread culture of the Irish people long previous to the civilization of any part of western and northern Europe. "Where did the gold come from?" is the familiar query of visitors to the guards in the Dublin museum. "From the mines of Ireland," is the answer of the well informed. For not only the quantity of gold, but researches of geologists and acheologists have proven the existence of gold in the Irish mountains. A 22-ounce gold nug get found in Donegal has a real Klon dike look. The existence of the great mineral wealth' in the Irish mountains has long been more than a conjecture and it is the hope in Ireland that the industrial revival will in time extend its operations to the opening of the natural resources of the country. In advocating the adoption of a pro- ton, temporary chairman of the con vention, delivered the following able address, which so commended itself to the editor of the United Presbyterian that he published it in his paper: No better assembly could be found for the consideration of the subjec* of divorce, and remarriage of divorced persons during the lifetime of each other, than I see before me. Here are ministers of the gospel, physicians, men who have had the subject before them in a practical way, such as at torneys-at-law and gentlemen who have occupied the bench, also men en gaged in everyday iife, and I venture thfl .assertion that the consensus of opinion' is that divorce and remarriage of divorced parties during the lifetime of each other is most unfortunate' for the welfare of society. To make a state or nation prosper ous and happy requires good citizen ship, and I believe that it will be con the family. If the family life is what we would have it to be. we are .sure good citizenship will follow. Take the case of a family, where the father in returning' home from his dally toil, is watched for by his children—they run ning gladly to meet him, and the good •housewife is at the door with a pleas ant greeting, and the meal nicely cooked is ready awaiting his coming, and when the meal is over his evening paper is ready for him, and the chil dren press closely to him, trying to sit on his knees and when the hour of retiring arrives there Is family prayer, and you have an ideal family. In such a family the children's rais ing is carefully watched. As they grow up they are advised as to the associations they should form, so that when they leave the parental roof to take upon themselves the duties and cares of life, they are, by moral, do mestic and industrial training, well fitted for the work and they in turn are sure when they enter matrimony and are blessed with children to fol low the examples by which they were guided in childhood and youth. I have in business and social life been brought up in contact with a great many Jewish people, which af fords me pleasure of bearing testimony that no people, in their domestic life, are more devoted than they, parents to children and children to parents. During my many years on the bench I never had an application for a di vorce from a Jewish husband or wife. Of course it Is known that by the laws of the Catholic Church Its mem bers are not allowed to seek divorce, more especially they are absolutely prohibited from remarrying during the lifetime of each other. The Scriptural injunction in the marriage ceremony that, "they whom God hath joined to gether, let no man put asunder," is literally and strictly enforced. It was so enjoined on slave owners by the Church as a duty to their slaves in the days of slavery. And I believe that the domestic happiness of Catho lics is equal to that of any other class of people. It is pleasing to know that the ministers of most of the other denominations are ait the present time taking a very firm stand against di vorce, and especially against remar riage of the parties during the lifetime of the other. During the many years I served on the Common Pleas bench there were about 300 divorce. cases brought annually in the Montgomery county court of Common .Pleas, and my observation leads me. to the opin ion that scarcely any of the parties to sanie belonged to any of the religious denominations, So that my observa- &8Wijr y'fc i'. MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 7, 1912. are outside of members of the religious denominations. This being so it is the duty of us all to Investigate the ques tion closely with & view as to the best course to adopt to- minimize, if not en tirely prohibit, the evils of divorce. Right here let me draw a picture of domestic life which! usually finds its way into the divorce court. A young man without moral re straint, or Christian ei.vironment sees some young woman of the same stripe. He takes a fancy to .her, and in haste and without investigation as to whether she has g'ood domestic habits and will make a good wife and mother for a family, he proposes she accepts, and then a marriage. Now comes the aftermath. She Is perhaps no house keeper knows nothing about cooking would rather read dime novels and at tend matinees, or card playing parties, than stay at home and do her house work, and he is unable to hire help He cornea home, his meals are poorlv cooked, if she cooks them at all, then a fuss—this continues, more fusses. He goes to t'he saloon, becomes dis couraged, quits work: no money is coming in. Things are now ripe for divorce, so one is obtained. In many cases 'before, the final rup ture which leads- to divorce there are children of the marriage, and they .ire brought up in the environments have described. What can be expected from such children with the examples of home life they have had? No Sab bath school, nor moral instruction, and in the case of divorce-of the parents and their marriage, these children are waifs in society like the Kentucky mule—"they have no pride of ances try." How can yon expect good citi zenship that way? The blame in this class of marriages is not always on the wife. She would in many cases be P"Od if she got a good man, but she marries a fellow .of loose character, of lazy habits, with saloon attachments included, without beforehand taking lime to investigate as to what Tile consequences. if stiGli' marriage- is a« 1 have already described, and if there are children, the result is the same as I have portrayed. My observations through life, my years on the bench and at the bar, satisfies me that I ha.ve not overdrawn the sketches of married life, either in' its good, or bad aspects. What, then, is to be done? If you agree with me so far, next comes tlje remedy. As to the'solem nizing of marriages I would ha-ve all sujh performed by ministers of the gospel. A marriage is a civil contract but in my judgment it is more. It is a means provided by the Almighty to perpetuate the human race, and in do ing so to develop all that is noble, moral and useful in their lives in the family relation, and as members of the state and nation, and therefore the marriage rite should be more than the lip service of a civil magistrate. I would also refuse drunkards, de generates and pa.nies of known vicious habits the right to marry while these conditions exist. I have already described t'he class of people who seek the divorce court. Did they know beforehand that they could not obtain divorce, would they not be more careful in investigating each other's character and their adapt ability to each other before they en tered the marriage relation? I believe they would, and as this is what Is done by Catholics, Protestants and Jews at the present time, why should not the classes from whom divorces come lo It likewise? There has never been a divorce granted in the state of South Caro lina, and in that, grand old common wealth, I believe the citizenship and morality of its people rank as high as In any other state in the Union. In giving my reasons against grant ing divorces, I speak as a layman, but with my Church teaching, my obser vation, and my judgment as my guide. Cruelty to Animals. "Walt, Mr. Knox," said Mrs. Sta.r'.'- em, "and we'll have the catsup on the table." "O! don't," protected the sarcastic boarder. "Don't, be so cruel to them." "Cruel to whom?" "To the cats. There's not enough of this cold meat, here for them." tion is thatmost of the cases of do. ford It. That helps me when I'come "J^adJaf. to .dtvpraito-n^alM out my Financial Diagnosis. "But,'-' asked the young doctor, 'why do you always order champagne for every new patient that comes to you?" "Because, my boy," replied the old practitioner, "I can judge by what the patient says whether or not he can af- V.. THREE COUNTIES ON THE RAMPAGE In North-East Corner of Ulster Where Orangemen are in the Majority. In the Entire Nine Counties of the Province, Parties are Nearly Equal. Threats of Rebellion by Carson Not New, and Only Excite Amusement. The following interesting article on Ulster appeared in the Chicago Trib une of last Sunday, Sept. 1, from Mr. Bernard llaeCliUian, a native of the province: gpvernment in Ulster and take up arms against the forces of the British empire 1b highly amusing to every person familiar with conditions tiiore. What are these conditions? Ulster comprises nine counties and is repre sented in the imperial parliament by 33 members. During two parliaments the-'PJWlno* haB beetv. represented 17 home- rulers and 16 Unionist*. "Frott) 1886 until 1892 the figures were IS home rulers and 15 Unionists, while at present the representation is 16 home rulers and 17 Unionists. The present Unionist majority is owing solely to dissension in the Nationalist, ranks in Derry City, which cost the home rul ers a seat there- Five bounties /\re Nationalist. Analyzing the situation further, it is found that five Ulster counties, Done gal. Tyrone, Fermanagh, Ca.van, and Monaghan arc overwhelmingly Na tionalist, while but. three counties. An trim, Down, and Armagh, are corre spondingly Unionist. The people of the remaining county. Derry, are prac tically equally divided on the question. In the five Nationalist counties there are but two Unionist districts, while In the three Unionist counties four districts arc represented by home rul ers. There is in Ulster much opposition to home rule. That cannot be denied, but the opposition Is confined almost entirely to the northeast corner. An trim and Down, together with the larger part of Armagh and about half of Derry. Clamor to Arouse Sympathy. What the opposition lacks in num bers it endeavors to make up for in vociferous protests against an Irish parliament. It does not hesitate to misstate the case, loudly proclaiming that Ulster will never submit to a government in Dublin. All this, of course, is designed t.o arouse the sym pathy of the English electors and thus defeat the home rule bill. The threats deceive no one, however. The English as well as the Irish people have grown accustomed to them. They are no more serious than those of 1869, 1866, or 1893. When Gladstone proposed the dises tablishment of the Episcopal church in Ireland in 1869 similar threats wore made. One reverend gentleman de clared the Orangemen "would kick the queen's crown into the Boyne" If she dared sign the disestablishment bill. The bill became law, and neither the queen nor her crown was molested. Instead the law was obeyed and all hands now concede that it was a ben eficent measure for church and coun try alike. Would Line the Ditches. Gladstone's first home rule bill In 1886 was received with a storm of execration in Orange circles. Threat* of rebellion were openly made, lord Randolph Churchill, father' of the present war minister, crossed over to Selfast and urged resistance. He de clared "Ulster will fight and Ulster will be right,' Ulster is not opposed to home rule. Instead, a majority of the people of Ulster have declared In its favor at every election since 1SS5, when the household suffrage law was passed This is a fact notwithstanding the cabled reports that Ulster is preparing to resist home rule by armed force. These reports are so inaccurate and the prevailing impressions on the sub ject arc so erroneous that the writer an Ulsteran fully conversant with conditions, is impelled to attempt, ai other cages seems a pertinent ques correction. tion. Can it be that the charges of members of parliament were home rulers. William Johnston, then leader of the Orangemen, talked of "lining the ditches" north of the Boyne. He said they would go into battle "with a Bible in one han^ and a sword in the other." When later their misguided followers threw Belfast Into turmoil, wrecking and burning business houses, the leaders left them to their fate. Again in 1893, when the second home rule bill was before parliament, similar scenes were enacted. The riot ing this time was curbed in a brief period and comparatively little dam age was done. Fiendish Atrocities Committed. With the introduction of the third home rule bill came a recurrence of the bluff and bluster so frequently heard in the past. Came, too, a recur rence of the. rioting, wrecking, and looting which accompanied the out bursts of past years. Came also fiend ish attacks on inoffensive, unprotected home rulers. Cable, dispatches have told of Ul ster's protests: have told, too, of Ul stermen's dread of an Irish parliament. They have told naught, however, of the savagery of the (lends who strip ped a workman naked in a Belfast shipyard and held him over a fire un til driven off by men armed with ham mers. Neither have they told of many hundreds of English and Scotch work men driven from their employment simply because they were known as favoring home rule. Why they have not told of these and hundreds of The threat to set. up a provisional, bias' sometimes made against them are Justified? Opponents Fear Loss of Power. The question remains why a. se-tion of Ireland opposes the granting to the Irish people of the right to make their own Iqws, as every state in thlB union does now. Their reasons are purely selfish. For three centuries they and tlwir- -ancestors have been the recipi ents of "all the official perquisite^. For most of this period the laws proscrib ing Catholics prevented any division of the spoils of office. This resulted in the "ascendency party." as they are known, retaining all offices of emolument. They contrive to hold them practically to this da.y. They feel that such Is their right. They proud ly proclaim themselves "England's faithful garrison in Ireland," and cer tainly they have served England well, if not at all times faithfully. They realize that the great body of the Irish people will come in for Its right fill share of both patronage and power under a home government, and herein is to be found ihe great cause of their opposition. Stage Irishmen. Two young Irishmen, dressed in knee hrecches, green stockings, ragged swallow tail coats and wearing dilapi dated hats and green neckerchiefs— they were stage Irishmen—walked up the stairs to the platform where Irish dances were being danced, in Gaelic Park, Chicago, July 25. They did not get quite up to the platform before two of the officials saw them. The two young men were firmly but courteously thrust back down the steps by the. officials. They were told they could not enter the Irish jig dancing contests. "We have been fighting this sort of thing 25 years," explained Donald O'Connor, master of ceremonies at the first annual 'Chicago Feis. "This Is no place for burlesque stage Irish men." The youths retreated abashed. They were barred from contests, protesting that they were as good Irishmen as any present. Jewish Tribute to Church. The "American Israelite" In a recent issue pays the following glowing trib ute to the Oaitholic Church: "It must bo said of the Roman Catholic Church that It always was able to Inspire a considerable number of Its priests with the spirit of self sacrifice In mission service. We. are reminded of this by the report of the death of the Jesuit priest, Isador Du puy, who succumbed to leprosy in Madagascar, after having served as missionary in that country for seven teen years. He 1b the tenth priest stricken with that terrible malady within fifteen years. Surely, there can be no stronger proof of devotion to a cause than the fact that the devotee is wllllDg to face a danger or, one might Bay, almost the certainty of death, and what is more, of a slow apparently blissfully death, resulting from the most terrible unconscious of'the fact that at the mo- mala'dy in the catalogue of the aftlicr •mot figbteen of Ul«t«r*a thirty-three tiona of the human race. '&•< MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. $2.00 Per 7wr REMLE SKE1GH OF ROSE UIHIP Daughter of Nathaniel Hawthorne Now is Mother Alphonsa of Servants of Relief. After the Death of Her Husband Became a Dominican Nun to Soothe the Afflicted. She Inherits the Literary Genius of the Great Puritan Author of New England. From the home circle of New Fnc land's—indeed,' America's greatest rotnancist, from the literary and artis tic life of two continents, to withdraw to the narrow rooms of a cancer hos pital, and there minister in cheerful ness and devotion—such is the life history in brief of Mrs. Rose Hn«v thorne Lathrop, the daughter of Na thaniel Hawthorne. whoso former identity is now merged in the religi ous na.me of a Dominican nun. She Is Mother Alphonsa, the Mother Supe rior of the Servants of Relief, an order which she founded to be devoted to nursing, free of charge, the incurable cancerous poor. To do this, says Ma bel Potter Da.ggett. In The Woman's Magazine (New York), "she separated herself from a. long line of Puritan an cestors and withdrew from the Unita rianism professed by her Immediate family to enter the "Catholic church and take up this llfework." This itep was taken fifteen years ago. Her pri vate fortune and the contributions of friends cna.bied her to establish the little Cancer Home in Cherry su-eeti New York, where tarry for a short time the strlojken procession of the dying and the dead. Its history is told in the simple language of the children who play on Ihe sidewalk be fore it. "Every day the ambulance Is bringing sick ones and always the un dertaker's wagon is taking dead ones away." Mrs. Daggett writes: "It Is a. little old-fashioned three story brick building on Cherry street, in the shadow of the tall tenements where Mrs. O'Ha.rrigan and others sometimes sweep the hallways at the sign of the overflowing garbage-cans by the doorways. "But th* Cancer Home itself, set in this district of poverty and dirt and disease, Is Immaculate, like the spot less white muslin curtains that hanf at its windows. "A ring for admission is answered by the portress, who first looks out through the tiny sliding panel In the door. In the reception room little tap ers afloat in olive-oil in red glase tumblers burn dimly before the reli gious pictures on the wall, and the carved figure of the Christ, hangs on the cross above the mantel. "In the rooms of the upper floors He the white-faced patients to whom this charity ministers. They are suffering death in life, and a misery one of the most awful that humanity Is heir to. The stillness In the little home is the stillness of endured pain. It is broken by the sound of a low moan of an guish. "Then there is the soft chanting of prayers in the chapel, where the sis ters, repeating with tense lips their Ave Marias, are beseeching the saints to intercede in compassion and soothe the pain of their helpless charges "I waited. After a time she came. The silver crucifix gleamed brightly as it dangled from the black-beaded ros ary hanging at her side. It was a Dominican nun in the rough cream colored serge habit of the order who extended her hand in greeting. "But It was Ro%e Hawthorne L/ith rop, whose wonderful eyes flashed from beneath the black-veiled head dress. "Strange to say, she has not lost her smiling. "Sorrow and self-denial and self sacrifice in the service of humanity, all the burdens that the troublous years have laid upon her, have not been able to silence the joy-note thai still dominates the key in which hec life was originally written." In all New Tork there is no nthef free home for this class of sufferers As soon as they are pronounced in curable, the other hospitals must turi them away. "Blackwell's' Island, which to some who know Dante's In ferno on earth, is their final destlniai'^fi^j tion.". But the woman who provltfeil'^ the first means of relief hu how -V:% 'M fc.