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vv -, '." The Politico-Diplomatic Importance of The Papacy—Exemplar of Interna tional Court Given by Rome—Popes the Arbiters of Nations During the Middle Age*—Tribunal Set Up By League of Nations Would Have the Example of the Pope's to Follow. Men of learning, lovers of peace, have long been seeking to create an institution which would be superior to the sovereign States, not so much In political power or authority as in the realm of Justice and right. If two quarreling individuals we have been told time and time again, must be con tent to lay their cause before a court whose judgment they are bound to accept, two Nations, two States should also find it possible to submit their controversies to some tribunal. We have long been familiar with such ar guments and with efforts, directed to wards creating an institution which would embody the wishes of those earnestly seeking after relief from the evil they strive to overcome such wishes have been expressed long be fore the World War. Whether we designate the institution aimed at an International Court, an International Court of Arbitration, a Court of Na tions or a League of Nations' Court Is of no consequence the important consideration is the basic idea, and all friends of peace are of one mind concerning that: The Popes as Arbiters. What is now being attempted, what now looms up like a Fata Morgana deceivingly near at hand has been realized centuries ago the nations of occidental Europe had such, an insti tution, in the Middle Ages in the Pap acy. And if at present a really effec tive international court is being spoken of as the greatest and loftiest and most beneficent social institution, then these same characterizations ap ply with equal force to the labor^ of the Papacy in the interest of peace and the well-being of the nations. The time from Leo III, who on Christmas day in the year 800 crowned The "High Prices" Mania Due to Reckless Extravagance and Waste. In the old "green goods" days, the man who bought a gold brick did not usually advertise the fact and brag that he had been duped. He was trying to get something for nothing, and when his efforts reacted to his own loss he usually kept his mouth shut. Now, however, the American people are falling over themselves In their eagerness to spend something for nothing. And they shout the fact that they are being bilked trom the house tops with pride: The facts and figures both collective and individual showing that the high prices of necessities and non-necessi ties are due to reckless spending, ex travagance and waste, speak for them selves in no uncertain terms. The Massachusetts commission investigat ing* the high cost of necessities re cently made public some significant findings. One of the largest retail dry goods dealers in Boston told the com mission that he pur on sale a lot of shirtwaists At |2,5Q and $3.00 a dozen, bat that there was no sale for them, as his oustomers would only consider higher priced articles, and he ,was obliged to take the low priced goods oat of his store and turn them off some other way. A provision dealer ground op Ham burger steak. Part of it he marked 88 cents a pound and the remainder 42 cents. At the end of the day all the 42-cent Hamburger had been sold and aot a customer bought at 28 cents, although the meat was absolutely the same. Commissioner J. H. Sherburne •fH that New England people refused to buy good fresh fish caught bat two days before off the New England coast at eight cents a pound, bat that there was a big demand for halfbatr In the Realm of Justice and Right What Facts and Figures Show rT^-r Vol XXXV. No. 11 Minneapolis, Minn., Saturday, January 24, 1920 Charlemange emperor, down to the end of the reign of Boniface VIII (1303) is the epoch of the greatest in fluence of the church on the political life of the nations. Again and again, during that period, emperors and kings laid their quarrels at the feet of the Pope and accepted his judg ment as arbiter and innumerable cases are recorded of their coming to Rome for a settlement of controver sies regarding the investiture of pre lates and rulers, in matters of prop erty, regarding the Crusades, in cases of insubordination of spiritual rulers, in the granting of fiefs, when questions of supremacy were involved, and in many other instances, not to mention those concerning the validity of mar riages, etc. One may form whatever judgment of the Papacy one will the epoch from 800 to 1303 marks a period of history during which the church putlsinto practice what is now being attempted. Preservation of Freedom. A Supreme Judge of the type rep resented by the Popes of those ages, who set bounds to the ambitions and caprices even of kings and emperors, would likewise be the safest guardian of the liberty of nations. Freedom, liberty—frequently the watchwords of those who seek to overthrow public order—are precious, priceless gifts, and must be safeguarded at all costs. But liberty is not license, or freedom from all restraint. Order is a child of liberty, and its helpmate is wise restraint. Such restraint must never by tyranny, whether it be the tyranny of the autocrat ruling by force, or that of the Jacobin mob. History teaches us that occidental Europe enjoyed an unparalled meas ure of liberty, while in the East Roman Empire and later in Russia arbitrary absolutism reigned. The chief reason for this difference in de velopment lies in the fact that the West had the Pope, and the East did not. The logic of this contention rests on the fact proven by history that (Continued on page 4) caught six weeks previous in the Pacific, carried across the country and sold at 40 cents a pound. Meat men report there is an unprecedented demand for the most expensive cuts and little demand for cuts for stew. Although the price of hogs in Chicago fell off 50 per cent, there was no de crease in the retail price obtained for hogs in New England because of the demand at high prices for choice loins. General Sherburne said that there was a tremendous demand for $4 silk stockings, which were Inferior in quality to those which formerly sold at |1. Here is what London says of the buying habit in America. "America continues to be the world's great trea sure chest into .which is being poured millions of dollars worth of precious stones and art treasures." For the first nine months of 1919 $27,568,128 worth of precious stones passed through London for American buyers as against $12,000,000 for the same period of 1918. The value of art ob jects sent to America through London alone for the same time exceeded $4,000,000. America has paid a huge price In Europe for furs in* the last nine months, the total amount being declared as $10,354,582, or double the amount of last year. The last of the $7,000,000 worth of furs recently sold in New Tork have just been removed from the warehouses for manufacture. These figures do not take Into account the sums paid at the auction sale of furs in St. Louis and other wholesale markets. The jeweler, the pawnbroker and the furrier have no hesitancy In say ing that these luxuries are not des tined' for old millionaires or the new rich. They are demanded by salaried people and wage earners who are squandering on them the savings piled •a 4) Rev. Father Bernard Vaughan of Lon don, England, Says the Working Class Needs Club Rooms—Films Are Lauded. Rev. Father Vaughan is one of the best known critics in the world, who gives his views on present day- so cial problems. He is especially well known in the United States and Can ada, where he has traveled exten sively. London—We must humanize persons first before we can civilize and Chris tianize them, says Father Vaughan. Any one who, looks around him at the life of today can see that we are fast becomipg a pagan people. Little is thought of Christianity. If you talk to the ordinary man about religion, he looks at you as if you were speak ing about some strange thing in a strange language. He does not.un derstand. The feverish, riotous life that is being lived gives little time for high thinking. People seem to have no time for long sermons or plays. They want swift words and swifter impres sions. That is why I think there is a great chance for the motion pic ture. It is quick in movement and intensely direct in its appeal. Moving Pictures Praised. I'd love to run a motion picturo theatre myself—but I'd take care to elevate my people to see that they would rise from sphere to sphere, not spiritually, hut humanly, to the high est character. I saw a film the other day called "Damaged Goods." It i3 a great film, I hope it will teach every boy an£ girl to keep clear of vice. But I would go further and say that the motion picture ought to have God in it. I don't mean that there should be no brightness or merriment and fun in the pictures—we want plenty of that always—but that where it can be done, they should put Him in. Films Are Anti-Saloon. Another thing about the cinema and its power for good. It keeps men and Head of Carmelite Order and Presi dent of Friends of Irish Freedom, Warns Workers in Cause Against Errors That Have Led to Defeat in the Past—Unity Compatible With Diversity of Opinion—Leaders Must Not Be Regarded as Greater Than Cause-^Chlefs Today Preach Doc trine That All Individuals Are Sub ordinate to National Cause. By Very Rev. Peter E. Magennis. Superior General of the Carmelite Or der and President of the Friends of Irish Freedom. Rome, January 1, 1920.—At festive times the mind wanders back to old times and to old places as if in search of friends that were truest and places that .were dearest. Friends of the present need not blame us, places that are. now ours need not grow jealouB for, all considered, it may be only an instinct. The New Year is not only a time for festive rejoicings but it bids us think of periods past and periods to begin, of an old life, a past life, and a new life, a life that is beginning. Those with whom we have battled In the past those at whose side we have stood at critical times those whose battle Is our battle, at such times as this we wish them new force, new courage, as it were, a new life. Few causes have begotten more fer vent friendships than the cause of Ire land. Because the material success of the cause has been, thus far, by no means encouraging, the good God seems to have lavished on the spiritual side a far more than counterbalancing compensation. Men and .women who have fought, honestly and straightfor wardly, In the sacred cause .of Ireland have been blessed with a great big en during love for all who have loved as they dared. This lore Is, Indeed, sacred sad spiritual. Cleaner Fun Advo cated for Toilers The Message of Father Magennis women out of saloons, and that is much in its favor. My pet aversion is the typical saloon or public house as we see it in England today. Men and women are, I suppose, driven to it in seeking relief from the sordid slums in which they are forced to live. God knows, they have little enough hap pine8B. It is a bold thing to say, but I de clare frankly that the only pleasures we in England have to offer the peo ple in the slums are immorality and drink, and until we do something bet ter for them we cannot hope for a speedy regeneration. Take the ordinary public house or saloon of today, with its bar, jug en trance and woman's rooms. It is bad enough to have to pass these places when the doors are swinging on their hinges. But what must it be to be driven into them. Better Pleasures Needed. All I can say is that men must have so-called homes utterly unworthy of humanity when they arc forced even from a slum attic to find pleasure in a bar where the atmosphere is. reeking from the fumes of drink and the smoke of shag tobacco. It is high time we provided pleasure houses and refreshments less unworthy of Chris tian civilization. I want to see trysting halls so splendidly lighted that in the summer they may be open to trap the sun beams. I- want a room with palms and shrubs in it, and fountains play ing and marble tables galore, where a father may take his wife and chil dren. Let there be some song and music, bright and diverting and let the family parly [ctroui&'-ibSiiii 'for work after rest and play. Clubs for Workers Favored. Let us give the workingmen and working women a club in which they can lounge, read, feed and smoke as the leisured classes do in Pall Mall or Fifth avenue. We are brothers and sisters all, and all sections of the community, according to the meas- (Continued on page 4) Privilege to Be in the Fight. It has been my privilege to have been in the turmoil of fight for the land of my birth. It is my privilege to possess the love that is gifted to one who has striven to do his best in a holy cause. Hence what wonder if at this New Year's time the mind travels back to friends and places sa cred to the memories of the days that were and alaB! shall never be again. Who dares blame me if I wish the old warriors a new life, if I pray that the present soldiers may gain new vigor in the coming years? If I must needs stand aside who will blame me if I raise my heart to the God of battles and pray his tenderest care on those who still stand where once I stood, who are better able to do and dare than ever I was? If from the quiet cell of the monk, a few feeble words go forth borne on the wings of love, what true friend of the cause will shut his ears to the feeble sounds or mock their feeble echoes? Times would he changed, hearts would be changed, aye, and even the cause it self should be changed If the men and women whom I have known in the'past do not listen for a few moments and weigh the words, at least, for the love of him who utters them. There is no place in the world where one can see such an objective lesson in the power of unity as in the city of Rome. Here are the headquarters of the one church. Against this church are burled all the powers of earth and hell. Princes conspire against it, kings plot against it, emperors issue edicts against it, and all this has been going on for centuries. Serene and majestic that church stands, although he, who Is the head of It is practically a prisoner in a few acres of ground around his so-called palace. Although the head of the church Is a prisoner, (Continued on page 4) v-Tyrr SOc/^ A Uniform Desire to Make the Drive Both Thorough and Efficient—Prot estant Friends of Ireland Swamped With Demands-For Speakers. The American Commission on Irish Independence are now able to give the assurance that the bond certificate campaign is actively in progress all over the country. The work of organization is farther ad vanced in some States than in others, but in all there are city committees actively engaged in the preparation of lists and the recruiting of workers. As might have been expected, the most rapid progress has been made in those States where there have been numerous meetings during the past year, where there has been plentiful publicity, and where the various so cieties friendly to the Irish cause have been active. In such places it was only necessary to name a campaign period and the campaign organization required produced itself with surpris ing speed. It did not take long to learn, however, that this desirable condition does not exist in the same degree of perfection in every State, with the result that the work of prep aration has had to bo undertaken from the beginning, and those in charge have asked for the delays they feel to be necessary to enable them to perfect their machinery. The uniform desire is to make the campaign very thorough and efficient once it is un dertaken. Probably the most forward in the matter of preparation are the terri tories around New York and Phila delphia. The active boroughs of Greater New York, as Is well known, contain more people of Irish descent than are to be found in many South ern or Western States combined. In these "five boroughs every election dis trict now has its chosen leader, and most of them have their precinct lead ers chosen and at work. The same is true in the New Jersey cities near by, and also in the cities and towns of Connecticut. Based upon Phila Plain. People of England Are Ashamed of Attempts to Crush Republic Ar ticle in Labor Paper Shows. A recent issue of the London Dally Herald proves that the plain people of England are ashamed of the brutal treatment of Ireland, under British rule. One of the questions asked in the British House of Commons also bears out this fact. The Attorney General was asked whether his at tention had been called to the fact "that hand grenades have been served out to Irish policemen, who are being instructed how to use them against unarmed crowds." An article in a recent issue of the London Daily Herald, entitled ^''French's Tragic Irish Failure," comes from that paper's special correspond ent in Dublin and declares that "bri bery and terror" are the sole policy of Lord French in Ireland. The article states: "Ireland is on the brink. While there is still time it is essential that the desperate condition of affairs should be made known in England. "Lord French and his chief secre tary, Mr. Ian Macpherson (the gentle man who acted as apologist for the broken promises of the War office during the latter part of the War), have long since lost all control of the Irish population. It is charitable to believe that they have lost con trol over their staffs. They have cer tainly lost all self-control. Take Last 8emblance of Freedom. "It is the bare fact that from now onward even the semblance of free dom is to be taken from the Irish people. Habeas corpus disappeared long ago, owing to the operations of defense of the realm act. Now comes the well-informed report that trial by Jury Is to be suppressed. "This coarse, It Is explained, has Bond Certificate Campaign Now On Bribery and Terror Britain's Policy ¥r^ff/ 5c the Copy delphia, where organisation has also been perfected down to the smallest electoral unit, the cities and towns oC Pennsylvania are rapidly completing their plans. In other States, av for example New Hampshire, Vermont, Nebraska, Idaho, New Mexico, word has been received that they were all ready to Btart. In other 8tates the State and local chairmen were debat ing orhether they would he able to begin the canvass on January 17 or whether, because of various deterrent influences, not least of which is the cold weather, it might not be better to defer the effort until a slightly later date. In several States the campaign period will probably be in one of the early weeks of February. Perhaps the most formidable of the difUculties to be faced ariseB from the fact that it is physically impos sible to supply the demands that are made for particular speakers. It President DeValera could in some way contrive to multiply his physical ex istence about fifty (old it would be possible, in the course of a month or two, for hiin to appear in person at all the places where his presence is earnestly desired. Frank P. Walsh, Harry Boland, Rev. Dr. Mythen, Rev. Mr. Lovejoy, Lindsay Crawford, Liam Mellows and others whoso services as speakers are tremendously in demand, would also find life much easier if they could be in a score or so of places at once. The Protestant Friends of Ireland have been swamped with demands ro*-^ speakers ever since the campaign opened, and especially since the ar rival of the delegation from the north ennier. One difficulty about this J, is that Coote and the Ulster clergy men move rather slowly, and there is natural reluctance, with the spirit of fair play at the base of it, to discuss that phase of the subject until they have had a chance to appear if it is known that they are scheduled for any city. Their presence in the country is well known, however, and their ar (Continued on page 4) been adopted because the Government is convinced that it is no longer pos sible to secure a conviction against any person brought to trial for polit ical offenses. A fine testimony, truly, to Mr. Macpherson's regime! "Much is made of the deplorable attacks—happily very few in number —which have been made on the lives of policemen and soldiers. But there is an extraordinary silence as to the provocation under which these at tacks have been made—an extraordin ary glossing over of the military des potism that is being maintained In Ireland. "I have in my possession statistics of the various legal outrages which have been committed on the Irish people during the first nine months of the year (1919). They speak for themselves. In this period seven per sons have lost their lives at the hands of the military or police 12 persons have been deported 332 civilians have been assaulted by soldiers or police 5,588 raids have been made on private houses 712 persons have been ar rested, of whom 698 have been sen-. tenced 268 proclamations suppress ing freedom of speech and liberty of the press have been Issued 23 news papers have been forbidden publica tion 227 Oourts-martlal have been held. Why Excuse Terrorism? "The Irish leaders do hot excuse political crime. They do not excuse It on the part of their followers: why, they say, should they excuse terror Ism more calculated, more sustained: and more crael en the part of Mr., Macpherson? They ask that the factiil connected with Irish affairs shall fairly considered by the British peop|*,| "How Is It, they say, that who are law-abiding In every country! bat their own are now np In'i (Continue? oo p*ge 4) i'i.