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The Northwestern standard. [volume] (Minneapolis, Minn.) 1885-1886, December 19, 1885, Image 2

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HOtiCill Woil itlltl
Cistern Builder.
Etesian Wells'
A Specialty.
\Y loiesale Denier in I
owinj? A OieMMu:
jew-pirMvg. A-c.^aa
I request .ur special attention to the excellent Suitings I have now on hand.
Having removed to my new quarters, 51 Fourth street south, with a FULL
,INE of Suiting, Overcoatings and Trouserings, I am better prepared to do I
:it-cla,ss work, at prices that will defy competition. Call and investigate for
•urself. In connection, have a department for altering, repairing, cleaning
id pressing, with neatness and dispatch. Respectfully,
:.iip.Es IK
firass Goods aad Hers'
A Handsome Christmas Card!
Will be given all Purchasers of TEA, COFFEE, or
We have several Unique Designs. Any one of them
are beautiful. Come early and avoid the rush for
312 Nicollet Avenue, Mii'in eanolis
an ley, The Tailor.
Steam and Gas Fit
On Application.
Repairs Promptly»
Attended to.
To is institution offers the best educational
•ulvantages as well as flnst-clasa accomodations
for both boarders and flay pupils.
The beauty and healthfulness of the loca
tion are unsurpassed. Visitors taken through
the establishment at any time. For particulars
I ST. PAD!/, Minh.
Mrs. L. J. BtSBBE, PROP.
'4 til Street.
We have opened a fuli and complete stock of
Also, the latest Paterna, and Materials for
Bobbed and Impoverished Through Ex
portation, of All the Produce the
Soil Produces.
Irishmen Deprived of Shelter by
Wholesale Destruction of For
est Growth.
.jle constitu.
We next come to the loss of potash
caused by the continuous exportation
of live stock. A half-fat ox contains in
his whole carcass the following per
centages of various matters: Mineral
matter. 4.66: dry nitrogenous com
pounds. 16.6: fat, 19,1: contents of vis
eera, 8.19: water, 51.5 waste, 9.95. We
may reckon that a carcass weighing 300
pounds will yield 1 pound of potash.
Taking, roughly, 300 pounds as the
average weight of three-fourths of the
I live, stock, of Ireland, which may be said
In a late issue of the Dublin Freeman
the following article appeared showing
how the native soil of Ireland is im
poverished by the taking from it of its
natural elements of life and strength:
We have seen, at least approximately,
how immense has been the robbery
from the soil of Ireland of that im
portant and necessary constituent,
phosphate of lime. Tliere is another
constituent of soils equally important,
viz.. potash, of which the country has
been deprived for even a longer period
in large quantities. Nearly every kind
of rock, and all soils, Contain potash.
It is often the most abiindant mineral
constituent in a large family of plants,
the sclanacese, which includes the po^
tato and tobacco, and it is abundant in
trees and other plants. In the wool of
the sheep it is found in large quantity,
while it forms a portion of the flesh of
all animals. Both granite and trap
rocks contain potash in the mineral,
felspar, common to both but rocks
take a long time to become soils, some
times thousands of years, so that the
supply of potash or any other mineral
from granite and other rocks could not
be depended on. So if the soil is robbed
of certain necessary mineral constitu
ents it may take centuries before its
fertility can be practically restored.
We say practically, because a capitalist
can, by unstinted expense, restore a
piece of land to. a fertile state. But
this is not practical agriculture, which
looks to profit from its operations. Po
tash forms from 20 to 62 per cent, of the
ashes of oil our cultivated crops -that
is, of the ashes of those parts of them
used as food for man. The potato tuber
contains 61.(5 of po'ash pea pods, 4-5.4:
beans, 42.5 oat grain, 37.4S, and so on.
No one can therefore ignore the im
portance of this mineral. And yet there
is scarcely any artificial manure, except
kainit, that contains any potash and
until a few years'ago there was a gen
eral neglect in returning any to the soi1
from which it was contain
hen Ireland was first colonized,and
foi thousands of years .,j $er, by fax the
greater part of it was covered with a
thick growth of wood—in fact, it was,
till about 200 years ago, among the best
wooded countries in the world. Keating,
in the first chapter of his history says:
An cheud ainam tugadh ar Eirinn, inis
na bh-fiiodhbhadh, eadhan, oilean na
g-coillteadh. The first name that was
given to Erin was Inis na bh
fiodhbhadh, that is, "Island of the
Woods." Mention is made frequently
in our early annals of clearances of
woods for the purpose of cultivation.
But notwithstanding these clearances,
it was not till Queen Elizabeth's time
that the wholesale destruction of forest
growth began to be made. This was
continued by the English in the time of
James, Cromwell and William, in order
to deprive their Irish opponents of
shelter during the operations of the
English armies against them. The
Irish poetry of the sixteenth and seven
teenth centuries contains frequent
mournful references to the destruction
of the forests. Now, what was the re
sult of this destruction, which was
mostly consummated by fire? In the
first place, the accumulations of thou
sands of years of valuable organic mat
ter was dissipated into the atmosphere.
But not only did this happen to the vo
latile or organic matter of the trees de
stroyed, but also to the greater portion
of the potash they contained. Potash
differs in this respect from most other
mineral substances, that many of its
compounds volatilize at a high tem
perature, such as is obtained by setting
file to a number of trees cut down and
lying on the ground. This is why in
the production of pearl ash the heat
must be moderated if the ashes left are
to contain any large proportion of po
tash. Accordingly the destruction
wholesale of her magnificent oak. plm,
ash and pine forests by fire was the first
method by which the soil of Ireland
was deprived of its potash. The amount
of this deprivation it is impossible now
to estimate, but it must have been en
ormous. Land was cleared of timber
in quite a different wgy in England and
Scotland, so that the potash was not
dissipated. When it is remembered
that it is to the centuried growth of
heavy timber that the black earth of
Central Russia owes its present great
fertility, that the same may be said of
many parts of America and of other
countries, the loss effected by the rapid
destruction, principally during the last
century, of Ireland's tree-growth can
be better understood.
to be the quantity exported every
fourth year, including horses, mules,
asses, cattle, sheep and pigs, we should
lose yearly by this exportation 6,233
pounds of potash. This in 200 years
would make 1,246,600 pounds loss from
this source alone. But if the wool of
sheep is reckoned, it will be found to
be much greater. About a pound of
potash per acre of fertile land does not
at first sight seem much, and if the loss
was confined to this source it would
not be, indeed, of great consequence.
But there are hundreds of other sources
of loss on a much larger scale, as, for
instance, the practice of pairing and
burning, the exportation of potatoes
and formerly of grain, the dissolving
out of potash compounds by floodings,
and the subsequent drainage neces
sitated thereby, and various other
minor causes. In the fine, heavy loam
at Rothamstead, wheat removed dur
ing twenty years from the soil 360
pounds of potash. Now, wheat was
grown in Kilkenny, Tipperary and
Limerick before 1846 to a very large ex
tent, sometimes two or three years con
tinuously to make up a high rent. But,
taking the ordinary four-course rota
tion, each acre would annually lose
4.4-5 pounds of potash. This is not
much, but when long continued it
would ultimately quite exhaust the
most fertile soil. On the other hand,
the United Kingdom is reckoned to im
port annually in its provisions and ar
tificial manures about half a million
cwts. of potash but it is needless to
mention that nearly all of this goes to
Great Britain. Johnston has calculated,
notwithstanding this, that the total
loss of the United Kingdom in potash
yearly is 112,800,000 pounds, while the
gain is only 13,370,112 pounds. If this
is so for the United Kingdom gener
ally, we may assume that, in proportion
to her extent, Ireland suffers a much
greater loss in potash than either Eng
land or Scotland. As Ireland is about
five-nineteenths the area of Great Brit
ain, her proportion of annual loss of
potash would be, all other things being
equal, over 26,000,000 pounds of potash.
But considering that she is almost
wholly an exporting nation, except in
the matter of cereals, we may set it
down at least at half as much again, or
nearly 40,000,000 pounds, or ten pounds
to every man, woman and child in the
We have now passed in review the
great loss of two of the most necessary
'-Nonces in every fertile soil, viz.,
lime and potash. There
ortionate loss in the
•jstituents of &£*
u-iiable lur plant ^lod'^s*3*^ soda,
magnesia, sulphur, lithia, and other
substances. And although these are
not so important as the former two, it
often takes a long time to supply the
loss from the subsoil, especially where
trees do not exist, and the soils suffers
in consequence.
Christmas Gifts.
'•They are the noblest benefits,
Deepest in the man of which, when he
doth think.
The memory delights him more, from
Than what he hath received."—John
Whatshall I .'{ive him for a Christmas
She will expect something nice for a
present, and what shall it be?
These questions are the source of end
of worry to the lads and lasses just
now. Those who are going to make
presents just for the sake of giving
them are worried more than those who
give them as tokens of esteem or love
These known, or least think, the re
ceivers will accept the gifts for the sake
of the giver rather than for the value
of the article. A book, a pencil, a
handkerchief, a trinket, any thing,
whether it has any intrinsic value or
not, passes current among lovers and
intimate friends.
Those who make presents for the
purpose of being in the fashion or for
appearance sake wiH find no end of
trouble in satisfying themselves, much
less in satisfying those who receive
them. Instead of regarding them as
tokens of esteem or affection they are
looked upon with a critical eye, and
sneered at if not far beyond their ex
To such as these a gift has no value
beyond its worth as a mere ornament,
and such it is always regarded. It
rarely calls to mind the giver, and even
when it does the recollection may not
be pleasant. Such presents are worth
less, and it were better they had never
been given or accepted, because there
was a motive in giving and accepting,
which must have been either pnre or
hypocritical. Therefore it were better
neither to give nor to receive unless it
can be done heartily and honestly
Trial of a Mormon for Polygamy,
Mormon—Judge, I may be able to
give up one of my wives. Will that
satisfy the law?
Judge—No, it won't.
"But I'll only have eleven left."
"That's ten too many.''
ell, it's hard on me, but I'll try to
get along with ten if giving up two will
satisfy you."
"No you will have to give up all but
"Dura me if I will."
"Why, I should think yon would be
glad to get rid of same of them in these
hard times."
"That:s just the reason why I can't
afford to lose one of them. Judge. It
takes twelve to support me as it is and
I am sure I should starve to death with I
only one."—New York Tribune.
Archbishop Oroke Makes a. Patriotic
ply to an Address of Wei
A Clear And Concise Statement
Irish Priests Take Part in Pol
Archbishop Croke of Cashel arrived
at the French College, Blackrock,
county Dublin, on the 17th ult., and, in
answer to an address presented him by
the president, professors and students,
made the following reply: I wish you
to accept my best thanks for the very
beautiful,but far too flattering,address,
which has just been read. I am pretty
well used to receive addresses, though
not from such bodies as yours, and am
fairly puzzled, therefore, as to how, or
in what terms, I had better reply to
the one now presented to me. It liter
ally loads me with commendation.
There is no good, I suppose, in saying
that I do not deserve it,or,at all events,
that I do not deserve it in the measure
in which it was given for, were I to
say this, you are too shrewd not to
perceive at once, that I was only doing
what is usual on similar occassions,
that is, affecting not to. believe myself
something aboye the common, whereas,
in all probability, I would feel grossly
offended with any one who would not
take me to be so. But, seriously gen
tlemen, you have been unduly kind to
me in your address. Amongst a var
iety of other excellencies for which I
get credit, you are pleased to say that
you recognize in me the strenuous advo
cate of Catholic claims in the matter of
education, a laborious bishop and a good
Irishman. In so far you do me but
justice. I was engaged in teaching,
during a great portion of my early life,
and in many lands, and know, there
fore, from personal experience that it is
with states in this respect, as with in
dividuals. in so far, at all events, that
as a well brought up youth will proba
bly be a good and useful citizen, so a
state is likely to be flourishing, respect
ed abroad and happy at home, in pro
portion as education in the strict sense
of the word is prized there or neglected.
Hence I am and always have been, for
the diffusion of useful knowledge, for
the spread of good schools and for the
suitable recognition of them by the state
according to their public form and well
ascertained results. As a bishop, I
.*ank God, been fairl-"
successful:4" «T^knowr
work done by me
where I found azelous priesthood
an excellent Irish flock but I' refer
solely to the time, BOW more than ten
years, since he came to Cashel of the
Kings as head spiritual ruler, and dur
ing that period, it is my proud boast to
be able to say, that thaugh I entered on
my duties there an utter stranger with
out much of a name and absolutely
without a record, I have never since had
one hour's trouble arising out of my
ecclesiastical relations, with my priests
or my varied relations with my pious
and patriotic flock. I can add that
owing no doubt, to the thorough union
that existed and which still exists un
broken between our priests and people
for the promotion of which I have al
ways striven,no outrage of any moment,
like that hideous one that occurred a
few days ago in Kerry, or in an infin
itely less aggravated shape, have taken
place in the archdiocese of Cashel.
What do politics mean? Politics now
simply mean bood and clothes and de
cent houses for Irishmen and women
at home they mean the three great
corporal works of meicy they mean
the protection of the weak against the
strong, and the soil of Ireland for the
Irish raee rather than a select gang of
strangers and spoliators. The preist,
therefore, who shrinks from what is
called political strife, and would suffer
things to remain in Ireland as for cen
turies they have been, by the act de
clares that he cares but little how his
flock is fed, clothed or housed, and he
prefers an attitude of inaction, bring
ing with it the high approval of the
privileged classes, to one of legitimate
contention and anxiety resulting in the
uplifting and social improvement of his
poor suffering flock. Hence, then, the
presenee of priests and bishops in pol
itics, not, indeed, as a matter of choice,
but from necessity. I am, of course,
an Irishman, though I believe my
name is Dutch, and you are pleased to
think I am a good one. The words, a
good Irishman, imply a good deal.
VV hat, for instance, do we mean when
we say of a certain person that he is a
good and faithful friend? We mean
that he has a warm and sympathetic
heart, and that, when there is a ques
tion of his friend, he is generous, relia
ble and prepared to make sacrifice for
his sake. It is the same with the good
Irishman. He loves** the green
fields and mountains, the sparkling
streams, the holy wells, the games the
pastimes, the ancient ruins, and all the
historic and legendary lore- of his na
tive land his heart bleeds and bis hand
is clenched on seeing, as he does, the
best of God's people in bondage, down
in the dust under the heels of their
hereditary oppressors he longs for the
day when the spoiler's hand will be ta
ken from off his people's throat and oat
of his people's pocket and there is no
price he would not pay, even the cost
of his life, to bring back to his country
somewhat of its pristine grandeur, and
pour into her lap ail the chief elements
of plenty. In that sense I am a good
Irishman* Coming over here, as I did,
more than a quarter of a century ago,
from the free lands in which I made my
studies, I felt oy contrast hew ill
treated my countrymen were,and then|r
as I now do, I pledged myself to wage
perpetual war against oppression, and?
to know no rest till our people, accord-1
ing to their respective grades, would be
as well clad, as well fed and as well
lodged as their equals in other lands.
The day is surely dawning for the re
alization of these hopes. Much has
already been done in that direction yet
much also remains to be achieved. But
with men at our head like Parnell and,'
the parliamentary party with priests"
and people now everywhere welded
into one formidable phalanx with seats
of learning such as this—Rockwell, St.
Caiman's, of Fermoy, where I spent
many happy days, and similar institu
tions scattered everywhere over the
face of the land, inspiring the rising
generation with National sentiments
and aspirations—our pilfered rights
cannot much longer be withheld nor
can Ireland continue to be what for
centuries she has been, a byword and
an outcast amongst nations. As for
me, in conclusion, I shall be always at
my post. For a while I was to some
extent comparatively alone amongst,
the higher clergy in the National ranks.
To-day, thank God and the Pope, I am
but one of many, all animated with the
same desire to see old Ireland emanci
pated, and her people prosperous and
contented. Gentlemen, accept again
my thanks for your address, and for
your genuine Irish welcome to the
French College of Blackrock.
Description by One Who Saw Him at
Major General Yakovitch, of the Rus
sian army, is one of the few men now
living who saw the great Napoleon on a
battle-field. The old General saw the
French Emperor at Borodino. At that
battle Yakovitch, then a mere boy,
served with a battery in the grand, re
doubt, which was the center of the
Russian line. He gives a vivid descrip
tion of the battle. When morning
broke a sea of gray mist shut out the
field from view. The voices of the
enemy were heard, the neighing of their
horses and the rumble of artillery
wheels. Then came the thunder of can
non, making the very earth tremble.
Three times all the Russian gunners
were killed, and three times new men
took their places. Bullets flew thick as
idmen dropped dead or mangled
^ui was^eard inlthe dis"
leaves, ft grewfoua&r and louder, u£3*
til it filled the air like the roar of a
stormy sea. All at once a great wave
of bright swords and helmets and
horses' heads came surging up over the
breast-works. It was the Imperial
Guard. Before the shock of that mighty
wave the Russian center crumbled
away, a shattered wreck. When Yako
vitch came to his senses and opened
his eyes, he saw around him the corpses
of his father and his comrades. Sud
denly the tramping of hoofs called his
attention to a group of gayly-dressed
officers, and 2s apoleon's staff came rid
ing over the field. The young Russian
peered anxiously into their faces. In
his graphic language:
"There were the hard faces of Rapp
and Darn and broad-chested Sebastian,
and Nausouty, with the saber scar
across his cheek, and the low, broad
forehead and bull-dog jaw of grim old
Ney, the bravest of them all. There,
too, was Murat, with his white plumes
and his braided jacket,' his long, dark
curls hanging down his neck, and his
riding-whip in his hand, just like a cir
cus rider. And then the group parted
suddenly, and there was the man him
self in the midst of them, with his face
hard and immovable as marble amid all
that blood and agony, and a far-away
kind of look in those cold gray eyes of
his, as if he saw Moscow somewhere
up in the sky, and could see nothing be
tween. 'A glorious victory!' cried
Murat, waving his hand. 'What a stir
there'll be among the good folks in
Paris when the bulletin arrives I'
'We've lost half our army in doing it,
though,' growled Ney. 'Hadn't we
better fall back a little and wait for the
"Then Napoleon turned his head
slowly, just as the statue might do, and
looked him full in the face. 'Thou ad
visiug a retreat, Michael? That is some
thing new, indeed! I must date my
bulletin from Moscow. As for the
army, you can't make an omelette with
out breaking a few eggs.' Yakovitch :,
says that when be beard that, he knew
that God had forsaken Napoleon, foe
no man save one doomed to destruction
could have spoken so lightly of the
slaughter of thousands of brave men.
In three months from that day the
French Emperor was flying for his life 'St
across the border with the Cossacks a%,,
his heels like hungry wolves."
Thursday evening, at a crossing of
the Texas Central railway about a mile
from Byron, Tex., Rev. H. T. Wilson
and two daughters, while returning'
home in a wagon, were struck
The long hanging Gjjretchen braids
are again worn in either one or fcwe
piaits by girls from ten years upward
these are left unplatted at the ends,
azxd are tied with ribbons above the
loose fluffy ends.
engine and all three instantly killed.
The engineer has been arrested.

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