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THE PUBLIC WEAL
VOL. XI. The “Organization” Defeats the People. Secretary Calderwood, an Observer at Close Range, Describes the Working of the Machine at the Capitol—The People Should Vote for What they Want— The Prohibition Party Their Only Hope. De-light-ed! This is the way the whiskey interests, steel trust and im moral agencies of this state express themselves concerning the session of the Legislature recently adjourned. The whiskey business triumphed over the county option bill; sandbag ged the attempt to validate the saloon keeper’s bond; put to sleep the pro hibition amendment proposition; chloroformed the innocent bill making better provision for scientific temper ance instruction in the schools, and, in fact, gave the quietus to every move that was intended to in any way bring the liquor business under better con trol. They are hugging themselves with satisfaction and chuckling with glee. Nor was this because the Legisla ture was a whiskey crowd. The major ity of its members were decent men. It was because the Speaker of the House, who had promised the com bined temperance forces to appoint a temperance committee who would give temperance legislation a “square deal” was either so false or so foolish as to stack that committee into a whiskey lobby with a majority of twelve to three. It was because, as a leading Repub lican said, “Every appointive employee of this House is a member of the whiskey lobby.” It was because, as our detective learned direct from brewery head quarters, that the head of the legis lative whiskey lobby was clerk to the Speaker. It was because in the Senate a Christian Lieutenant-Governor who had given his word of honor to ap point a temperance committee that would deal fairly with temperance legislation selected a crowd who with one exception served the liquor in terests as faithfully as could Senator W. W. Dunn, the attorney for the Hamm Brewing Co., had he been re appointed chairman of the temperance committee. It was because the whiskey lobby (being composed on Republican au thority as above stated) was an of ficial lobby, and therefore had the rights of the floor at all times. It was because good temperance men, absolute total abstainers, ene mies of the liquor traffic at home and who would vote and work for local option, were there as representatives of a political party that is committed by more than thirty years of unbroken history to the protection of the whiskey interests and, after all, this is the explanation of every other rea son above given. No man who knows Lieutenant-Governor Eberhart would accuse him of personally favoring the liquor traffic, but no man with a grain of sense would believe that the ap pointment of the temperance com mittee in the Senate was an'accident. Lieutenant-Governor Eberhart did not appoint the committee and had no moral right to appoint it —it was the Republican party, composed mostly of good men controlled mostly by bad men. And it was not alone Mankato, where Lieutenant-Governor Eberhart lives, that controlled him; nor was it alone St. Paul where Lieutenant-Gov ernor’s Eberhart’s political labors took him. It was essentially Washington and the Republican interests that must keep in line the beer interests of Wisconsin, the saloons and slums of Chicago, the distilling interests of Rochester, New York, and Peoria or If this item is marked with a blue pencil your subscription has been paid for one year by yourself or a friend. It will be marked but once. If you desire that your paper shall stop at the expiration of the time paid for, advise us to that ef fect and your direction will be entered upon our mailing list. MINNEAPOLIS and ST. PAUL, MINN., MAY, 1907. lose in the presidential election the states of Wisconsin, Illinois and New York and thereby lose the presidency. But the people are waking up to the fact that after all the greatest trusts of all the trusts are those that have been formed to control the dominant political parties of the nation. The steel corporation owns the most profitable corner of this state, and is taking out of it every year millions upon millions of dollars, and is devel oping property the value of which is past all human comprehension. Every attempt to make that gigantic cor poration pay its reasonable proportion of taxes, as the farmer is required to do, as the village and city merchant is required to do, as the honest mechanic is required to do, was head ed off by the ever watchful servants of the steel trusts both in and out of the Legislature. Most of the legislators were not steel trust men, but there was an ’organization.” That organization was there for a purpose. The appropriations this year were beyond all precedent, and undoubtedly they ought to have been, but the bur den of taxation to meet those ap propriations will fall upon individual enterprise most largely. Corporate greed, especially the steel trust, will evade anything approximating its just proportion of the expenses of the government whose protection it en joys. Because of bloated opulence, they are bold to take advantage of the richest virgin resources of the state, and now are allowed to enjoy them by the grace of unequal taxation, free from those burdens which would just ly fall upon them. Certainly those people who profit by advice have every reason to offer thanksgiving (not to heaven) for the tender mercies of the recent session. Of all the vast amount of legisla tion that was brought before the body, no measures were given such scant courtesy as those having to do with the good morals of the people. It seemed that not only the whisky lobby, but the railroad lobby, and the steel lobby, and the food lobby, and the book lobby, all recognized that any thing which would tend to foster cleanliness of life would tend to raise up legislative barriers to their chican ery, plunder and graft. The teaching of the whole proposi tion is as clear as the noon-day sun— that no decent legislation can be had simply by electing decent legislators. It is probably true that the majority of every House for past years has been composed of clean, high-minded, decent men, but the organization of every House has been in the hands of the “organization,” and that organiza tion has dictated the morals of the legislation that should be enacted in to law. It has turned back the clock; it has violated the rules; it has stack ed the committees. The Legislature has been the engine, but the “organiza tion” has held the lever. A single illustration: Illinois, four years ago, elected a legislature over whelmingly for municipal traction re form legislation. The traction inter ests captured the “organization,” and in spite of the overwhelming majority of capable, energetic and experienced legislators, not a line of traction legis lation in the interests of the people was passed until the majority of the House with chairs and clubs actually and physically drove the Speaker of the House down from the chair and out of the door, reorganized the House with a new Speaker after breaking up a good share of the furniture, and se cured to the people their liberties (Continued on page 3.) The National Liquor Bill. Fewer Salsons Sell More Liguer—Beer Leads Whiskey—Comparison Between Prohibition and License States. . The annual report of the Commission er of Internal Revenue for the fiscal year ending June 30,1906 shows that the consumption of liquors for the year has increased to a marked extent over the previous year. The receipts from the taxation of spirits, which include the “retail liq uor dealers” special tax amounted to: For 1905 $135,953,513.12 For 1906 143,394,055.12 Increase 8,333,542.00 The spirits withdrawn from bond for consumption were as follows: 117,738,753 gallons 124,513,465 gallons For 1905 For 1906 Decrease in Liquor Dealers. It is a curious fact that while the consumption of spirits has largely in creased, the number of saloons has considerably decreased. This is shown by the returns of the collections from, special tax payers. The collections from the special tax on “Retail liquor dealers” for the two years was: For 1905 For 1906 Decrease As these tax payers pay $25 each, it appears that the decrease in the number of saloons in the country has been approximately 3,377. Beer Sales Advance. The report shows, also, that the in crease in the consumption of beer has been even more marked than the in crease in the consumption of spirits. The collections from the taxes on fer mented liquors for the two years was as follws: For 1905 $50,360,553.18 For 1906 55,641,858.56 Increase .. From a detail of these figures, an interesting fact develops in connec tion with the special taxpayers classi fied as “retail dealers in malt liquor". The collections from this source for the two years were: For 1905 For 1906 Increase 51,268.28 As this class of special tax payers pay each S2O per year, this increase means that the number of “retail dealers in malt liquor” have increased approximately 2,563 during the year. Outside of two or three states like Texas where state law levies a tax! on sellers of beer distinct from full saloon keepers, the holders of this class of special tax receipts are almost wholly keepers of brothels. Uncle Sam’s brothels have, therefore, in-; creased about 2,500 during the year.! And as institutions of this class are almost wholly confined to cities and license cities at that, the fact counts thg,t much against the license policy. Prohibition vs. License States. 1 Another fact developed is the ef fect of prohibition upon the liquor business. The aggregate collections from Kansas as compared with the surrounding license states was: State Collections Kansas $ 320,147.48 Nebraska 2,555,492.29 Missouri 8,752,729.58 And the figures from Kansas in clude the collections from the Indian Territory and also from Oklahoma. A similar showing is made in com paring the collections from Massa- peifcif&u?' lubAip«sfSplS?*with ffiS chusetts with those of the district Of number. Please favor us with a prompt New Hampshire which include also renewal. One and two-cent postage the collections from Vermont and stamps accepted. If you paid your own ine collections irom Vermont ana subscript j oni yoU r paper will be con- Maine. They were: tinued until arrearages, if any, are paid State Collections and an order to stop is received by ua. Massachusetts *3,704,324.92 »,f- r Maine, N. H. and Vt 479,137.63 newed. Saloon a Public Nuisance. So Declares an Indiana Jurist—The Whale Question on Its Way to the U. S. Supreme Court. Judge Ira W. Christian, in the Hamilton county circuit court, In diana, has decided that the saloon is per se a public nuisance and that therefore the statute legalizing it is unconstitutional. He goes one step father than does the now famous de cision of .judge Artman of the same state in his decision rendered in Feb ruary. He also takes advance ground over the decision by the Supreme Court of the state, which has previous ly held that any saloon in a residence neighborhood is a nuisance. Some premises and conclusions are: The question squarely before the court is whether saloon liquor selling is a public nuisance at law. From definitions given by Wood on Nuisance, any occupation (whether or not as yet declared such by the courts) which tampers with the public morals or, tends to idleness and the promotion of evil manners is a nuisance per se at the common law. After citing various authorities, he says: “I am drawn to the inevitable conclusion that the business of selling liquors at retail to be drunk on the premises where sold is dangerous to the public morals, the public safety and the public health, and that therefore the place where such business is conducted is per se a nuisance and needs no proof as to its injurious effects upon the pub lic.” 84,426.23 License is permissive, in its character, and not restrictive. There is no inherent right to sell liquor. License to sell liquor is a grant where no right previously existed. Saloon license is therefore unconstitu tional. And now Acting Judge Frank E. Hutchinson, of the Boone county cir cuit court, Indiana, renders the third Indiana decision handed down in 90 days, to the effect that license is un constitutional. He notes that the de cisions of the higher courts, almost without number, describe the saloon as the fruitful cause of misery, want, pauperism and crime. Indiana law quires the saloonkeepers to give a bond conditioned on “keeping an order ly house” and “for the payment of all judgments for damages growing out of unlawful sales,” thus practically as suming that there will be violations of the criminal law and unlawful sales. Can the state legalize such a business? Judge Hutchinson holds that it can not. 5,281,305.38 $260,431.76 311,698.04 A respectable skunk one evening met A young chap puffing a cigarette. One sniff of the odor forced him to flee. “Great Scott!” said the skunk; “that beats me.” Collier’s Weekly, in its issue for April 13, frankly asserts: “The saloon, as the center and in spiration of bad politics, bad govern ment, disorder, poverty and sin, has now been scheduled for extermina tion; not by fanatics and theorists alone, but by practical and clear headed workers along lines of public welfare, who will hardly cease before that evil institution, as it is known to day, shall have been laid to rest” WILL YOU “COUNT ONE"? If you are not a subscriber to The Public Weal, we greatly desire to receive your name on the first day practicable, so that It will “COUNT ONE” toward the 5,000 new self-paying subscriptions which we are after between Nov. 1, 1906 and Nov. 1. 1907. You need the news of the Prohibition fight, which is getting hotter every day...We need your quarter to help us to carry on the fight—your fight—the fight for your home and coun try. Five beautiful Twin City Souvenir Post Cards (or two or three packages of Seeds) FREE. Of the 5,000 new sub scriptions desired we have, as we go to press 1,685. Will you be number 1,686? NO. 5. AND YET ANOTHER.