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Dr ,- Of Gambling .. Traced to Primitive Mail In Tiiis Chicago Tlicory. a a ROF. I. W. THOMAS. of the University of Chi cago. Jias a new and inter esting theory on gambling. ____ He looks at the passion from exactly t/ie opposite point ot' view held by most of us, and one of the conclusions he draws is that the prob lem is not so much to account for the gambler in the midst of us "as for the staid and matter-of-fact man of busi ness. All classes of society and the one sex. quite as much as the other. argues* Prof. Thomas, have a deep interest in all forms of contest involving skill and chance and that interest mounts high er and higher as the risk and damage become greater and greater. And this is but natural, for the conflict arouses 111 us the instincts awakened during the'childhood of the race in the strug gle for food and the rivalry for mates. An organism such as man's, dependent on offensive and defensive movements •for food and life, could not hav& been developed without having developed at ihe same time an intei'est in dangerous precarious situations. The fact that our interests and en thusiasms are aroused by situations of the conflict type can be shown by a glance at the situations that arouse ihem^most readily. War. for instance, is simply an organized form of fight, and as such is most attractive—or. to say the least, it arouses the interests powerfully. With the accumulation of property and the growth of intelligence it became apparent that war was a "wasteful and an unsafe process, and jiolitical and personal considerations ded us to avoid it as much as possible. SBut deprecate war as much as we may.' we still are quick to acknowledge that St is the most exciting of games. Recently the Rough Riders in this country and more recently still the young men of the aristocracy of Eng land went to war from motives of pa triotism, no doubt, but there are unmis lakable evidences they also regarded it 's the greatest sport they were likely to have a chance at in a lifetime! And there is unmistakable evidence that the' 1'inotional attitude of women toward var is no less intense. So gladitorial shows, bear baiting, bull fighting, dog fighting, cock fight ing. prize fighting and football may be mentioned as examples of conflict that awaken in us the emotional feelings of the contest and give us by suggestion the emotions similar to those endured by the contestants, without subjecting hs to the danger of injuries that1 they are obliged to undergo. Now, as long as man was in a state of nature, following his instincts, rov ing. fighting, hunting, wooing, contriv ing. he was happy and such tasks as he imposed upon himself he found pleasurable and not irksome. This sort of life continued for an immense rtretch of time, and it was but as yes terday in the history of the white race fhat population became derse or game tsvas exhausted, and man found himself bbliged to adjust himself to changed •conditions or perish. Instead' of slaughtering the ox he fed it. housed it in wintei, bred from it, roared the calf, yoked it to a plow, plowed tne fields, sowed seeds, dug out the weeds and gathered, thrashed and ground the grain. This was a labor, mechanical and irksome, lacking the constant change and the excitement and the nai-vous tension that man ex perienced in the state of nature. it, while this iabor itself was dis agreeable. its prodv.ct. served to sat isfy man's physical wants. The habits of the race adjusted themselves to what the members of it were far from enjoying emotionally. Not all social groups reconciled themselves to a life of labor and many individuals of our* own race failed to conform to it. Many men whose natural opportunities or in telligence might have made them la borers in various industries—hewers of wood, or drawers of water—have drift ed instead into various occupations where there are possibilities of excite ment, or where at least the mechanical i»r routine elements are absent. Police men, firemen, detectives, livery stable men, coachmen, barkeepers and bar bers are more or less valuable to so ciety'and many of them are very hard workers, but their occupations differ from hard labor in affording consider able opportunity for sitting about and an occasional chance to see or join a fight or game, to talk or play the races. Finally, we have the extreme cases of the tramp and the criminal, refusing to accept the social arrangement at all. On the other hand, business of most kinds and industrial pursuits represent artificial habits they are,more or less regular, monotonous and recurrent, the same situation coming up again and again. They present no problems that' throw an exciting strain on the atten tion and they produce no emotions like those of the conflicting interests. We (ire now in a position to "under stand how gambling comes to exist and why it is so fascinating. It is a means of keeping up our interests in conflict and it secures for us the sensations and the excitements of conflict with little effort and no drudgery. In gambling, too, the risk is imminent, the attention is strained, the emotions are strong and even where the element of skill is re moved entirely and the decision is left tos chance. the player has feelings akin •to that of being in a conflict himself. From this point of view it is less dif ficult to account for, the gambler thaii for the man of business. The gaming instinct is born in all normal persons tt was acquired during khe earliest ex 7 lt« Daily News. \c'fl *^\W44 **W% "r* REASON AND FUN IN ANIMALS. Perlorw sinces ot llmlle? Hint at yosaea^iug Vlmunn Traits. The sagacity of ants is so well known that it has fed a few naturalists to sus pect that many are endowed with rea son. In a recent issue of Nature, W. Galloway describes the behavior of some tinj" black beetles which seems to point in the same direction, and even to a sense of fun, also. The insects were about three-eighths of an inch long, and were engaged in rolling on a gentle slope balls of ma terial. half an inch in diameter, which they evidently meant to store for food. Generally they would work in pairs, one beetle in front of the ball, pulling on it. and the other behind, pushing. Occasionally the ball would run away, but the beetles would follow and re cover it, and conduct it to its destina tion. Once a ball that had escaped changed its course abruptly. The pur suing beetles went down the grade to its foot beside a water course. Failing tc find it, they traversed the route up and down several times, but without discovering where it had gone. This behavior was not so very wonderful, perhaps, but an additional incident mentioned by Mr. Galloway is cer tainly a little more so. A solitary beetle rolling a compara tively new ball had reached a distance of nine or ten inches from the heap when a second unoccupied beetle, com ing from the opposite direction, stood up in front of the rolling ball as if with the intention of pulling it forward and assisting the first. Instead of do ing so, however, it brought the ball to a dead stop. In vain the first beetle ^tried to move the ball the second held it fast. The first then got down and peered -round the side of the ball, ap-. parently with the object of ascertain ing the nature of the obstacle. While this examination was proceeding the second, with its forefeet still resting upon the upper part of the ball, neither pushed nor moved in any way. The first then stood up again behind the ball and pushed it as before, but still sthe ball did not move. For the second time the beetle got down, made an examination as before, then, crouch ing with its back well under the lower curve of the ball, heaved with all its might—in- the same way as a workman does in similar circumstances—but the ball remained stationary. The first beetle then 'came out from under the ball, and was proceeding round its right hand side with some new inten tion, when the two seemed to catch sight of each other. The second beetle threw itself on the ground with the quickness of thought, and fled pursued by the other, both running at their ut most speed. Fear, and a sense,of guilt, seemed to spur the flight of the one, resentment and'anger the pursuit of the other. In a chase which was continued for a dis tance of six inches the fleeing beetle, which had started with an advantage of about an inch and a half, increased the distance between its pursuer and it self to more than two inches, when the former, seeing the futility of fur ther pursuit, stopped, returned to the ball, and resumed its occupation of rolling it. The reason why the second beetle stopped the ball, remained absolutely motionless waen the other got down to reconnoitre, and ran away when it saw it was discovered, is not apparent. Mr. Galloway suspects, though, that the performance was inspired by a loVe of amusement. Case of Sad Uisappointuient. The 'phone in the office 'of a down town establishment devoted to dry goods and various articles of feminine apparel rang sharply and the head bookkeeper responded. The voice he heard was a feminine voice. It was somewhat indignant and it began con versation without preliminaries. "Those bones you sent up are alto gether too large/' said- the voice. "I told you I wanted small bones. This i« periences of the human race. The in? stinqt is in itselt right,andandispensa ble, bnt we make a difference in the uses to which it is put. It is valued in war and busines#. It expresses itself in a thousand forms'in the games of children and in college athletics. It1 meets AVith approval in such expres sions of ihe passion as golf, tennis and billiards, but society justly condemns the ins,tinct if it is not used in some way to •:further production or create values. The value may be in the in creased health and vigor which the' business man derives from recreation. or it may be in the creation of wealth by this same man in competitive busi- as his life was worth. Even .brothers uess do not greet- sisters or husbands wives. But the gamester pure and simple is not regarded with favor by society, be- in one of the English towns -which cause he creates no values, and is,' opened' an employment bureau for the therefore, parasitical aud a disorgan- unemployed a month ago, only four izer of the h&bits of others.—Chicago applications have been received, and ijs my little dog's birthday, and I wanted to give her some nice, dainty little bones as a special treat. And here you have sent up some great enormous things, only fit for a St. Bernard, My poor Flossie, with her dainty little teeth, never could manage them in tbp world, and she and. I are both awfully disappointed." j "I beg your pardon, madam*" said the bookkeeper in astonishment, "but' I am afraid you have-rung up tha wrong place. This is not a market, and the only bones we ever send out are the kind that come in corsets."—Providence Journal. Arithmetic Race*. In the recent, great athletic meeting at Canton, China, arithmetic races were a feature. Pupils from i:he schools carried slate and pencil, and in the course of 'the race they encoun tered a blackboard containing a'sum to be solved. The boys were lined up as they reached the goal, and those whose Curious.: For a man to spealc to a Turkish woman on the street would be as much one of these was from an o\it-of-work grave-digger. The Egyptian Exploration ITiincV workers have unearthed in the oldest part of the ruins of Thebes a complete •chapel to the gjoddess Hathor. A life size figure of a cow remarkably well sculptured and with its colors and gild ing still fresh was found in place*— the cow being HathOr's emblem. The oldest woman in the world is said to be one of the inmates of a home for the aged in Madrid. The venerable dame claims to have been born in 1781, and gives every* evidence of being likely to enjoy several more years of solemn wonder-and admira tion. The late Mr. Harrison Weir be queathed the "large silver bowl and black stand that a few lovers of cats presented to me in commemoration 6m my having instituted the first cat show held at the Crystal Palace," to the Mayor and corporation of, Lewes, Eng land, ot which borough he was a na tive. Rats, mice and squirrels unceasingly gnaw at something, not out of pure mischief/ as people generally imagine, but because they are forced to. Ani mals of this class, especially rats, have teeth which continue to grow as long as the owner lives. This being the case, the rodent is obliged to continue his gnawing so as keep his teeth ground off to a proper length. It is interesting to read that the penny-in-the-slot machineVntedates the Christian era. It is a curious fact that this ancient invention had escaped no tice of the Patent Office until long after patents were granted for these automatic selling machines. It is stated that more than 2000 years ago Egyptian priests sold holy water to the faithful by a similar machine. The use of choice roses as rat bait is to be experimented upon by the* Bio logical Bureau of the Department of Agriculture. The bureau has been in formed of a number of c&ses where rodents that spurned tempting cheese and crackers were easily enticed by a rose, and it is believed that the re sult of the experiments proposed by the bureau wrill be to slvw conclusive ly that these flowers surpass^ cheese, crackers, rinds of bacon land other baits that are commonly^ used to entice rats into traps. LINCOLN'S WIT. That and Kldicnle Were His Weapons of Offense and Defense. Wit and ridicule were Lincoln's weapons of offense and defense, and he probably laughed more jury cases out of court than any other man who practiced at the bar. "I once heard Mr. Lincoln defend a man in Bloomington against a charge of passing counterfeit money," Vice President Stevenson told the writer. "There was a pretty clear case against the accused, but when the chief wit ness for the people took the stand he stated that his nanie was J. Parker Green, and Lincoln reverted to this the moment he rose to cross-examine. 'Why J. Parker Green?, What did the J. stand for? John? Well, why didn't the witness call himself John P. Green? Tbat was his name "wasn't it? Well, what was the reason he didn't wish to be known by his right name? Did J. Packer Green haveianything to conceal, and if not, why did ,J. -Parker Green part his name in. that way?' And so on. Ot' course the whole ex amination was farcical." Mr. Steven son continued, "but there was some thing- irresistibly funny in the_ varying tones and inflections ofV 3j[r. Lincoln's voice as he rang the changes upon the man's name and at the recess the very boys in the street took it up as a slogan and shouted 'J. Parker Green!' all over the town.. Moreover, there was something in Lincoln's way of inton ing his questions which made ine sus picious of the witness, iand to this day I have never been able to rid'my mind of the absurd impression that there was something not quite right about Parker Greeif. It: was all. nonsense^ of course but the jury must have beenf affected as I was, for dreeh'was dis credited and the defendant went free —From Frederick Trevor Hill's "Lin coln the Lawyer," in The Century. The-Town Kicker. This bit of philosophy is being passed, around by the country papers The kickers on the farm ate not as hard to get along with as-the kickers injthe towns. On the farm there is the kick ing cow and our long-eared friend, the' mule, while in town there is thWold mossback, who wants all the privileges of municipal living, without paying for them, and blocks so far as' he cf&n ev ery municipal Improvement.? The cow m^y be sold for beef jtind'xthe mule nw mm yo"-" HERE were times when Charlie Bartle could take 0 his straitened circum stances with a light heart. When the sky was blue, and the air of Paris'keen yet balmy, was ^nbre exhilarating thaji wine,, his studio in the Rue Breda lost its shabbi ness. On such days as these he went down into the street and watched gay women make their purchases for lun cheon. Tliej disarray of their costume in the morning contrasted with the splendor with, which he had seen them emerge from their houses the night be fore. They lingered at the door of green grocers bargaining for their veg etables with the strenuousness of mod el housewives. Several had sat for him, and with these he exchafiged the gossip of the quarters. Then, his eyes filled \yith the vivacity of that scene, he returned to his studio, and sought to place on.canvas the dancing sunlight of the Parisian street. He felt in him the courage to paint masterpieces. But when gray clouds and ^ain made the colors on his palette scarcely distin guishable from one another, his mood changed. He could scarcely bear the looked wfth !re?S w, hL unfinished cigar, rubbed the charred end with his finger and lit it. *He smoked this with apparent satisfaction. In his day he had known many painters. Some had succeeded, but most had failed, and he knew that the profes sion, even for tiie fortunate, was very hard. Genius itself starved at times, and recognition often didj not arrive till a man was too embittered to enjoy it. But he liked artists, and found a pecu liar satisfaction in their society. MOLV sieur Leir was a dealer. He had early seen the merit of the impressionists, had bought their pictures systemati cally, thus savipg many of them from disaster and at the same time, benefit ing himself, and finally sold them when the world discovered that Ma net, Monet and Sisley were great painters. His only daughter had mar ried Rudolf Kuhn, a dealer in New York, so Monsieur Leir felt justified in spending the years that remained to ,Jiim in a condition of opulent idleness. But he flattered himself that the .paint ers whose« works he nad bought for a song were his friends as well asvhis customers, and it pleased h|m still to1 potter about the studios .of those who' yet lived. When Charlie Barjtle settled in. the hou^e in which he himsjelf/had an aparanent, Monsieur Leir gladly made his acquaintance. The j'oung tha rioolpr .vieux," said the dealer. "I wish to goodness^ I was a dealei^, like you," laughed Charlie. "At least I shouldn't be worried to death, by tlie fepproacft qf quarter day."1^ "The, picture, trade is no place for ari W. SOMERSET MAUGHAM. |$| studl°- I He a h,im' ",wa® such desPair 6 picture on |did cnaiies Bartle sat, pipe in mouth, jpn-' allow you to marry her?" templating with deep discouragement "They're insane. You see she has the work of his hands. He smoked I five thousand pounds of her own. He gloomily. Presently, with a sigh, he refuses to consent to our marriage un took a palette knife and prepared to less I can produce the same sum or sciape down all that he had done. show that I am earning two hundred lliere was a knock at the door. and fifty a year. And the worst of it Lome in," cried Charlie, looking is that I can't help acknowledging he's round. right. I don't want Rosie to endure It was slowly opened by a little old hardship." man. with a bald head, a hooked nose "You know that my daughter's hus of immense size, and a gray beard.! band' is a dealer in New York," re He was shabbily dressed, but the rings turned Monsieur Leir, presently. "I on his finger, the diamond in his tie, vowed, when I sold off my stock that and his massive watch chain, suggest- I would never deal in pictures again, ed that it was not from poverty. but I'm fond of you, my friend, and 1 "Monsieur Leir!" said,Charlie, with a should like to help you'. Show me smile. "Come in. I'm delighted to see your stuff, and I'll send it to Rudolf "I knew you couldn't paint in this "That wculd be awfully good of weather, so I thought I shouldn't be in you," cried Char'ie. the way." The dealer sat down, while Bartle He came into the room and -looked placed on his easel one after the other at Bartle's unfinished canvas. The his finished pictures. There were, per painter watched him anxiously, but no haps, a dozen, and Monsieur Leir change in the Frenchman's expression looked at them without a word. betrayed his opinion. *, the moment he had gone back trf his "Do you thiiik it's utterly rotten?" Charles Bartle impatiently threw Quietly, pointing to the last canvas, it's aside his palette knife. I m® own hands. We drove hard bargains, but it was all above board. But now the Christians have taken to it there's a good deal too much hocus-pocus." "I simply cant go on this way I have to pay 300 francs for my rent to morrow, and I shan't have a penny left to buy myself»bread and butter for the next month. No one will buy a pic ture." Monsieur Leir looked at him with good-nattired eyes, but he said nothing. Charlie glanced at the portrait of "a very pretty girl which stood in soli tary splendor, magnificently framed on the chimney piece. "I had a letter from Rosie this morn ing. Her people want her to give me up. They say there's not, the least chance of my evjer earning any money." "But will she do that?" asked the dealer. "No, of course not," answered Char-: lie, with decision., "She's a Jbod girl. But it means waiting, waiting, wait ing and our youth is going, and we shall grow sore with hope deferred. When at last we marry we shall be disillusioned and bitter." he it on the future, and the old man not ventur to,disturb him. He working for a watched the painter with compassion, month and saw that it was bad. His At last, however, he spoke. ^Tf6 w0tPPal,ed "What are the exact conditions on .an occasion' that which the father of your fiancee will 7 he may be able to sell it in America." fold asked Charlie. sion to betray his feelings. No one "My dear fellow, you young men^are could have toid from that inscrutable so impatient. YoU buy a canvas, and gaze whether he thought the painting you buy paints, and you think you can good or bad. produce marvels immediately. You won't give time to it, and you won't give patience. The old masters weren't Public will^ seize their opportunity, and in such a hurry. Read Vasari and allow us to marry?" you'll see how they worked." "What is thf*t?" asked thes-dealer, N how dld you not For state, and he allowed no expres-- "That's the lot," said Charlie, at length. "D'you thiuk the American f&ce "I wish I'd ueen a crossing sweeper had nfft Sh^wn him. rather than a painter. It's, a,dog's life Without a word the painter pro that I lead. I do without everything dueed it and fixed it on tne easel. Mon that gives happiness, and I don4 even against the wall, which Bartle sieur Keir douwork that's fit to look1 at." indifference of his exp-ession vanished. Monsieur Leir sat down, took from I "Watieau!" he ciied. "But, my dear his waistcoat pocket the stump of an fellow' gave a slight star., and the s'et badly "done. man was delighted to hear stories of "A copy?" cried Monsieur Leir. the wild life they led in Montmarte in the seventies, and he was taken too, by the kindliness of the retired dealer. There was an unaffected amiability in Monsieur Leir's manner, Avhich led the foreigner quickly to pour into his sym pathetic ear his troubles and his ambi tions. The dealer was a lonely man, and he soon began to feel a certain af fection for the young painter. Now that he was no longer in the trade he could afford to put charms of manner before talent, and the mediocrity of his friend's work touched ibis gentle old heart. tbat? You get that? talk of poverty aud you liave a Wat teau. W*y, I can sell that for' you in America 'for double the sum you want." "Look at it carefully," smiled Char lie. The dealer went up to the picture and peered into it. His eyes glittered with delight. It represented a group of charming persons by the side of a lake. It was plain that the ladies, so decadent and dainty, discussed pre ciously with swains, all gallant in mul ti-colored satins, the verses of Racine or the" letters of Mme. de Sevigne. The placid water reflected white clouds, and the trees were russet already with approaching, autumn. It was a stated ly scene, with it0: green woodland dis tance, and the sober oprlence of oak and elm, and it suggested ease and long tending. Those yellows and greens and reds glowed with mellow light. "It's one of, the few Watteaus I've ever seen wiAh a signature," said the dealer. "You flatter me," said Charlie. "Of course, it's on^y a copy. The original belonged to some ok! ladies in England whom I knew and last summer when it, rained. I spent my days in copy ing it. I suppi se chance guided my hand happily every one agreed it was "A copy? Where is the original?. Would your friends' sell it?" "The ruling instinct is as strong as ever," laughed the painter. "Unfor tunately, a month after I finished this the house was burned down,- and every thing was destroyed." The dealer drew a deep breath, and for a moment meditated.. He looked at Charlie sharply. "Didn't you say .you wanted three hundred francs for your rent?" he asked very quietly. "I'll buy that copy off yop." "Nonsense, I'll give it youi You're' "It's one of your bad days, N mon taking no end of trouble for me, and eux."sairi r' I vnn'ro honn a wfiillT lrinrl 1 you've been awfully .kind. "You're a fool, my friend," an swered Monsieur Leir. "Write me out a receipt for the money." He took from his pocketbook three banknotes .and laid them op thre table Partle hesitated for'an instant,' but he his the receipt. But as he was about to .give it, an idea came to him* and he quickly drew it back. "Look here, -you're not going to try any hanky-panky tricks, are you? 1 won't sell you the copy unless you give me your word that yon won't try and pass it off as an original." A quiet smile passed across the deal er's lips. "Y9U can' easily reassure yourself. Just paint out the signature* and put your Own name on the ,top of it." Without a word, Bartle did as the old man suggested, and presently his own namej was neatly painted in place of the master's. "I don't lUisti-ust you," he said, as he handed'the receipt, "but it's well not to put temptation in the way of wily dealers." Monsieur Leir laughed as he pock e'fed the document and took the Wat teau in his hand. He pointed with a slightly disdained finger at Bartle's pictures. "I'm going to take the copy along with me. and I'll send' my femme de menage for the others," he said. But at the door he stopped. "I like your pictures, my friend, and when Rudolf knows that I take an interest in you, I dare sffy he'll able to sell them. Don't be surprised if in another mon I come and tell you that ?ov can marry your fiancee." Monsieur Leir packed the Watteau with his own hands, and dispatched it without delay. He wrotes a discreet little letter to his won-in-law announc ing its immediate arrival and suggest ing that they should share the profits of its cale. It was growing late, so he went to his cafe and draqk the absinthe with which he invariably pre pared for the evening meal. Then, with a chuckle, he wrote the following note: To the Chief Officer, U. S. A. Customs, New .York. Sir: An attempt will shortly be made to pass through the Customs a copy of a picture by Watteru. It is signed Charles Bartle. If, moreover, you scrape away tli 0 name, you will find the sig nature of a French painter. I leave you to make what inference you choose. Yours faithfully. AN HONEST MAN. Less than this was necessary to ex cite the suspicions of the least trust ing section of mankind. It was scarce ly to be wondered at, therefore, that when Rudolf Kuhn went to the Cus tom House at New York to pass the picture ihat had been cent him, he was received with incredulity. He asserted with conviction that it was only a copy, and produced the receipt which Monsieur Leir had been so cautious as to send him. But the official who saw him .merely laughed in his face. H£ was quite accustomed to the tricks whereby astute dealers in' works of art sought tc evade the tluty. "I suppose you'd be surprised if I told you that the picture was signed by Antoine Watteau," he said, with a dry smil^. "M-ore than that. I should be amazed beyond words," answered Ru dolf Kuhn confidently. Silently the customs officer took a palette knife, scraped away the name of Charles Bartle', and there, sure enough, was the French artist's sig nature. "What have you got to say now?" he asked in triumph. A curious light passed through the dealer's eyes as he stared at the can vas, but he made no other sign that Monsieur Leir's astuteness had sud denly flashed ac/oss him. "Nothing," he replied. With meekness he paid duty on the estimated value of an original Wat teau, and a very heavy fine into the bargain,for his attempt to defraud the customs. He took the picture away. But when he reached home that night he kissed his wife on both cheeks, with unusual warmth. "You father's still the smartest dealer in Europe, Rachel," he said. But when she asked for an explanation of his words, he merely sto.ok his head and smiled. In New York the newspapers learn everything, and perhaps it was not strange mat within twenty-four hours of these events an important journal had an amusing account of how Ru dolf Kuhn, the well-known dealer, had been foiled in his attempt to pass through the customs, as a copy of some obscure painter, a very perfect ex ample of the art of Watteau. It was a triumph for the officials, and the newspaper.- gibed freely because they had got the better of a wily Hebrew. Now Rudolph Kuhn, had a client who chose ii spend much of his vast wealth in the acquisition of Old Masters, and no sooner had he read these entertain ing paragraphs than he hurried to tha dealer's shop. When he saw the pic ture he burst out laughing. "I like your ^impudence, trying to pass that off as a copy." "I showed them the receipt" smiled Rudolf, with av deprecating shrug of the shoulder. "I propose to sell it r.s a copy. It was sold tb my representa tive in Paris as such." The millionaire looked at the dealer and chuckled. "We!i. Uncle Sam's Custoris are good enough guarantee for me. I'll giye rou fifty thousand dollars for, it." "I'll take'sixty," answered the other, quietly. "Not bad) for a copy," smiled the buyer. *T1 have it at that." He carried the picture off, and with it the various documents whic)i the: Custom House had delivered to Rudolf Kuhn in proof that he had paid both duty and fine. In face o. these, it would have been a skeptic indeed who doubted th'e authenticity of so. delight ful a work. f, Some weeks later Monsieur Leir again knocked Charlie Bartle's door. He advanced into the middle of the studio, and without, a1 word counted, out fifty English banknotes of a hun dred pounds each. i"Wh3t the dickens are you doing'.', %^3rfS7^t 4 cried J-arth*, who thought he had sud denly taken leave of his senses. "Five thousand pound?/' said the old man. «"I thought you'd like to see the money actually before you, so I changed it into these notes." "What do you mean'" "It's your share cf the profit on the sale of your pictures, aud you marry your Rosie whenever you choose." Bartle stared at Monsieur Leir, help lessly. He thought it must oe s.ame heartless jest, but the old man's eyes gleamed with their usual kindliness. H® rubbed his hands joyfully e3 he gloat ed ovei' the painter's utter consterna tion. At last he vouchsafed to explain. Bartle understood vaguely that a Cali fornia millionaire had bought his pic ture, all the pictures, and this money was the result. Ke vented tc write to this amiable and discerning patron, but Monsieur Leir hastily told him that was impossible. The Californian had bought the pictures and taken them away without leaving his address. Mon sieur Leir assured him that the Ameri can millionaires were notrriously eccen tric. Bartle drew a long breath and looked at the pile of notes. "Take them to the bank, my boy," said the old dealer, enchanted with the young man's pleasure, "and send a wire to a certain lady." He made the notes into a bundle, and put them in Bartle's pocket,-and led him out of the house. The painter walked as though he were in a dream. But when Monsieur Leir had seen the young man safely on his way to the bank he went to his orn apartment. He took out Charlie's pictures, which had remained in the safe obscurity 01 a well locked cupboard. One by one he ripped them off their stretchers, and one by one he put them in the fire. He laughed as he saw them crackle in the flames. Then he took hatchet and cut up the stretchers eatly. "Here is some excellent firewood," be chuckled, as he gave the bundle to his maid. He rubbed his hands when he thought that thus he saved several coppers. It had slipped his memory completely that he had just made his friend present of £5000.—New York Tribune. The rapidly increasing scarcity of ties in the country constitute oije of the grave problems which the railroads have to face. Indiana University has been offered an endowment for pathological re seai'ch by Dr. Benjamin Taylor Terry, of Columbia University. The oscillating character of light ning flashes has bffen -proved by B. Walter from photographic records, which showed a wave-shaped fluctua tion in luminosity. 'The new Cunarder, the Mauritania, will, according to a special cable des patch, be a perfect palace of light, as she will be fitted with five thousand sixteen-candle power lamps. The tenth International Congress of Geologists has been called to convene in the City of Mexico on September 6, 1906. Sr. Jose G. Aquilera will be the chairman, and Sr. Eziquael Ordony the general secretary. The officiai pro gram announces a number of excur sions in connection with the conven tion. In his revised book of altitudes, the geographer of the Geological Survey gives the height of Mount Hood as 11,225 feet, in place of the old meas urement or 11,932 feet. Shasta is set down as 14,380 feet high, and Rainier at 14,363. California has twelve peaks over 14,000 feet, twenty-three over 13, 000, and fifty-five over 12,000. The Erie Railroad is about to com mence a series of experiments with gasolene cars, with the idea that if they prove practicable they will be used on many of the small and now unprofitable branch lines. It is be lieved that these cars will foe widely adopted because the inroads made up on the passage receipts by trolley com petition make necessary a more rapid and more elastic service than 'is af forded by the steam power. Experiments at Sault Ste. Marie have demonstrated that magnetic as well as hematite ores can be successfully and economically smelted by electricity, says the Boston Transscript. Not only can the electric process be applied to various grades of Canadian ores, but iron ores containing considerable per centages of sulphur and phosphorus, and which up to the present have been regarded as valueless, can be success fully treated by the higher temperature available in an electric furnace. Tlie Average Age of Birds. The doctrine of vegetarianism ap pears to be slightly shaken by the re sult of an investigation that sCn Eng lish newspaper has made into the subject of the longevity of birds. Witlv one notable exception, the carrion or meat feeding birds are the longer lived. The exception is the swan. The aver- age ages of some of the best known birds are given in the following: Black bird lives twelve years blackcap, fif teen canary, twenty-four crane, twenty-four cro.w, 100 eagle, 100 fowl, common, ten goldfinch, fifteen goose, fifteen heron, fifty-nine lark, thirteen linnet, twenty-three nightin gale, eighteen parrot, sixty partridge, fifteen peacock, twenty-four pelican, fifty pheasant, fifteen pigeon, twenty raven, 100 robin, twelve skylark, thirty. sparrow hawk, Vforty swan, 100 thrush, ten, and wren, three years. The average age of the boarding house variety of chicken is still undetermined. —New Orleans Timeg-l}emocrat.