Traced to Primitive Mail In
Tiiis Chicago Tlicory.
ROF. I. W. THOMAS.
of the University of Chi
cago. Jias a new and inter
esting theory on gambling.
____ He looks at the passion
from exactly t/ie opposite point ot'
view held by most of us, and one of the
conclusions he draws is that the prob
lem is not so much to account for the
gambler in the midst of us "as for the
staid and matter-of-fact man of busi
All classes of society and the one
sex. quite as much as the other. argues*
Prof. Thomas, have a deep interest in
all forms of contest involving skill and
chance and that interest mounts high
er and higher as the risk and damage
become greater and greater. And this
is but natural, for the conflict arouses
111 us the instincts awakened during
the'childhood of the race in the strug
gle for food and the rivalry for mates.
An organism such as man's, dependent
on offensive and defensive movements
•for food and life, could not hav& been
developed without having developed at
ihe same time an intei'est in dangerous
The fact that our interests and en
thusiasms are aroused by situations of
the conflict type can be shown by a
glance at the situations that arouse
ihem^most readily. War. for instance,
is simply an organized form of fight,
and as such is most attractive—or. to
say the least, it arouses the interests
powerfully. With the accumulation of
property and the growth of intelligence
it became apparent that war was a
"wasteful and an unsafe process, and
jiolitical and personal considerations
ded us to avoid it as much as possible.
SBut deprecate war as much as we may.'
we still are quick to acknowledge that
St is the most exciting of games.
Recently the Rough Riders in this
country and more recently still the
young men of the aristocracy of Eng
land went to war from motives of pa
triotism, no doubt, but there are unmis
lakable evidences they also regarded it
's the greatest sport they were likely
to have a chance at in a lifetime! And
there is unmistakable evidence that the'
1'inotional attitude of women toward
var is no less intense.
So gladitorial shows, bear baiting,
bull fighting, dog fighting, cock fight
ing. prize fighting and football may be
mentioned as examples of conflict that
awaken in us the emotional feelings of
the contest and give us by suggestion
the emotions similar to those endured
by the contestants, without subjecting
hs to the danger of injuries that1 they
are obliged to undergo.
Now, as long as man was in a state
of nature, following his instincts, rov
ing. fighting, hunting, wooing, contriv
ing. he was happy and such tasks as
he imposed upon himself he found
pleasurable and not irksome. This
sort of life continued for an immense
rtretch of time, and it was but as yes
terday in the history of the white race
fhat population became derse or game
tsvas exhausted, and man found himself
bbliged to adjust himself to changed
•conditions or perish.
Instead' of slaughtering the ox he fed
it. housed it in wintei, bred from it,
roared the calf, yoked it to a plow,
plowed tne fields, sowed seeds, dug out
the weeds and gathered, thrashed and
ground the grain. This was a labor,
mechanical and irksome, lacking the
constant change and the excitement
and the nai-vous tension that man ex
perienced in the state of nature.
it, while this iabor itself was dis
agreeable. its prodv.ct. served to sat
isfy man's physical wants. The habits
of the race adjusted themselves to
what the members of it were far from
enjoying emotionally. Not all social
groups reconciled themselves to a life
of labor and many individuals of our*
own race failed to conform to it. Many
men whose natural opportunities or in
telligence might have made them la
borers in various industries—hewers of
wood, or drawers of water—have drift
ed instead into various occupations
where there are possibilities of excite
ment, or where at least the mechanical
i»r routine elements are absent. Police
men, firemen, detectives, livery stable
men, coachmen, barkeepers and bar
bers are more or less valuable to so
ciety'and many of them are very hard
workers, but their occupations differ
from hard labor in affording consider
able opportunity for sitting about and
an occasional chance to see or join a
fight or game, to talk or play the races.
Finally, we have the extreme cases of
the tramp and the criminal, refusing to
accept the social arrangement at all.
On the other hand, business of most
kinds and industrial pursuits represent
artificial habits they are,more or less
regular, monotonous and recurrent, the
same situation coming up again and
again. They present no problems that'
throw an exciting strain on the atten
tion and they produce no emotions like
those of the conflicting interests.
We (ire now in a position to "under
stand how gambling comes to exist and
why it is so fascinating. It is a means
of keeping up our interests in conflict
and it secures for us the sensations and
the excitements of conflict with little
effort and no drudgery. In gambling,
too, the risk is imminent, the attention
is strained, the emotions are strong and
even where the element of skill is re
moved entirely and the decision is left
tos chance. the player has feelings akin
•to that of being in a conflict himself.
From this point of view it is less dif
ficult to account for, the gambler thaii
for the man of business. The gaming
instinct is born in all normal persons
tt was acquired during khe earliest ex
REASON AND FUN IN ANIMALS.
Perlorw sinces ot llmlle? Hint at
yosaea^iug Vlmunn Traits.
The sagacity of ants is so well known
that it has fed a few naturalists to sus
pect that many are endowed with rea
son. In a recent issue of Nature, W.
Galloway describes the behavior of
some tinj" black beetles which seems
to point in the same direction, and
even to a sense of fun, also.
The insects were about three-eighths
of an inch long, and were engaged in
rolling on a gentle slope balls of ma
terial. half an inch in diameter, which
they evidently meant to store for food.
Generally they would work in pairs,
one beetle in front of the ball, pulling
on it. and the other behind, pushing.
Occasionally the ball would run away,
but the beetles would follow and re
cover it, and conduct it to its destina
tion. Once a ball that had escaped
changed its course abruptly. The pur
suing beetles went down the grade to
its foot beside a water course. Failing
tc find it, they traversed the route up
and down several times, but without
discovering where it had gone. This
behavior was not so very wonderful,
perhaps, but an additional incident
mentioned by Mr. Galloway is cer
tainly a little more so.
A solitary beetle rolling a compara
tively new ball had reached a distance
of nine or ten inches from the heap
when a second unoccupied beetle, com
ing from the opposite direction, stood
up in front of the rolling ball as if
with the intention of pulling it forward
and assisting the first. Instead of do
ing so, however, it brought the ball to
a dead stop. In vain the first beetle
^tried to move the ball the second held
it fast. The first then got down and
peered -round the side of the ball, ap-.
parently with the object of ascertain
ing the nature of the obstacle. While
this examination was proceeding the
second, with its forefeet still resting
upon the upper part of the ball, neither
pushed nor moved in any way.
The first then stood up again behind
the ball and pushed it as before, but
ball did not move. For the
second time the beetle got down, made
an examination as before, then, crouch
ing with its back well under the lower
curve of the ball, heaved with all its
might—in- the same way as a workman
does in similar circumstances—but the
ball remained stationary. The first
beetle then 'came out from under the
ball, and was proceeding round its
right hand side with some new inten
tion, when the two seemed to catch
sight of each other. The second beetle
threw itself on the ground with the
quickness of thought, and fled pursued
by the other, both running at their ut
Fear, and a sense,of guilt, seemed
to spur the flight of the one, resentment
and'anger the pursuit of the other. In
a chase which was continued for a dis
tance of six inches the fleeing beetle,
which had started with an advantage
of about an inch and a half, increased
the distance between its pursuer and it
self to more than two inches, when
the former, seeing the futility of fur
ther pursuit, stopped, returned to the
ball, and resumed its occupation of
The reason why the second beetle
stopped the ball, remained absolutely
motionless waen the other got down
to reconnoitre, and ran away when it
saw it was discovered, is not apparent.
Mr. Galloway suspects, though, that
the performance was inspired by a loVe
Case of Sad Uisappointuient.
The 'phone in the office 'of a down
town establishment devoted to dry
goods and various articles of feminine
apparel rang sharply and the head
bookkeeper responded. The voice he
heard was a feminine voice. It was
somewhat indignant and it began con
versation without preliminaries.
"Those bones you sent up are alto
gether too large/' said- the voice. "I
told you I wanted small bones. This
periences of the human race. The in?
stinqt is in itselt right,andandispensa
ble, bnt we make a difference in the
uses to which it is put. It is valued in
war and busines#. It expresses itself
in a thousand forms'in the games of
children and in college athletics. It1
meets AVith approval in such expres
sions of ihe passion as golf, tennis and
billiards, but society justly condemns
the ins,tinct if it is not used in some
way to •:further production or create
values. The value may be in the in
creased health and vigor which the'
business man derives from recreation.
or it may be in the creation of wealth
by this same man in competitive busi- as his life was worth. Even .brothers
uess do not greet- sisters or husbands wives.
But the gamester pure and simple is
not regarded with favor by society, be- in one of the English towns -which
cause he creates no values, and is,' opened' an employment bureau for the
therefore, parasitical aud a disorgan- unemployed a month ago, only four
izer of the h&bits of others.—Chicago applications have been received, and
my little dog's birthday, and I wanted
to give her some nice, dainty little
bones as a special treat. And here
you have sent up some great enormous
things, only fit for a St. Bernard, My
poor Flossie, with her dainty little
teeth, never could manage them in tbp
world, and she and. I are both awfully
"I beg your pardon, madam*" said
the bookkeeper in astonishment, "but' I
am afraid you have-rung up tha wrong
place. This is not a market, and the
only bones we ever send out are the
kind that come in corsets."—Providence
In the recent, great athletic meeting
at Canton, China, arithmetic races
were a feature. Pupils from i:he
schools carried slate and pencil, and in
the course of 'the race they encoun
tered a blackboard containing a'sum to
be solved. The boys were lined up as
they reached the goal, and those whose
For a man to spealc to a Turkish
woman on the street would be as much
one of these was from an o\it-of-work
The Egyptian Exploration ITiincV
workers have unearthed in the oldest
part of the ruins of Thebes a complete
•chapel to the gjoddess Hathor. A life
size figure of a cow remarkably well
sculptured and with its colors and gild
ing still fresh was found in place*—
the cow being HathOr's emblem.
The oldest woman in the world is
said to be one of the inmates of a
home for the aged in Madrid. The
venerable dame claims to have been
born in 1781, and gives every* evidence
of being likely to enjoy several more
years of solemn wonder-and admira
The late Mr. Harrison Weir be
queathed the "large silver bowl and
black stand that a few lovers of cats
presented to me in commemoration 6m
my having instituted the first cat show
held at the Crystal Palace," to the
Mayor and corporation of, Lewes, Eng
land, ot which borough he was a na
Rats, mice and squirrels unceasingly
gnaw at something, not out of pure
mischief/ as people generally imagine,
but because they are forced to. Ani
mals of this class, especially rats, have
teeth which continue to grow as long
as the owner lives. This being the
case, the rodent is obliged to continue
his gnawing so as keep his teeth
ground off to a proper length.
It is interesting to read that the
penny-in-the-slot machineVntedates the
Christian era. It is a curious fact that
this ancient invention had escaped no
tice of the Patent Office until long
after patents were granted for these
automatic selling machines. It is
stated that more than 2000 years ago
Egyptian priests sold holy water to
the faithful by a similar machine.
The use of choice roses as rat bait is
to be experimented upon by the* Bio
logical Bureau of the Department of
Agriculture. The bureau has been in
formed of a number of c&ses where
rodents that spurned tempting cheese
and crackers were easily enticed by a
rose, and it is believed that the re
sult of the experiments proposed by
the bureau wrill be to slvw conclusive
ly that these flowers surpass^ cheese,
crackers, rinds of bacon land other
baits that are commonly^ used to entice
rats into traps.
That and Kldicnle Were His Weapons of
Offense and Defense.
Wit and ridicule were Lincoln's
weapons of offense and defense, and
he probably laughed more jury cases
out of court than any other man who
practiced at the bar.
"I once heard Mr. Lincoln defend a
man in Bloomington against a charge
of passing counterfeit money," Vice
President Stevenson told the writer.
"There was a pretty clear case against
the accused, but when the chief wit
ness for the people took the stand he
stated that his nanie was J. Parker
Green, and Lincoln reverted to this the
moment he rose to cross-examine.
'Why J. Parker Green?, What did the
J. stand for? John? Well, why didn't
the witness call himself John P.
Green? Tbat was his name "wasn't it?
Well, what was the reason he didn't
wish to be known by his right name?
Did J. Packer Green haveianything to
conceal, and if not, why did ,J. -Parker
Green part his name in. that way?'
And so on. Ot' course the whole ex
amination was farcical." Mr. Steven
son continued, "but there was some
thing- irresistibly funny in the_ varying
tones and inflections ofV 3j[r. Lincoln's
voice as he rang the changes upon the
man's name and at the recess the very
boys in the street took it up as a slogan
and shouted 'J. Parker Green!' all
over the town.. Moreover, there was
something in Lincoln's way of inton
ing his questions which made ine sus
picious of the witness, iand to this day
I have never been able to rid'my mind
of the absurd impression that there
was something not quite right about
Parker Greeif. It: was all. nonsense^
of course but the jury must have beenf
affected as I was, for dreeh'was dis
credited and the defendant went free
—From Frederick Trevor Hill's "Lin
coln the Lawyer," in The Century.
This bit of philosophy is being passed,
around by the country papers The
kickers on the farm ate not as hard
to get along with as-the kickers injthe
towns. On the farm there is the kick
ing cow and our long-eared friend, the'
mule, while in town there is thWold
mossback, who wants all the privileges
of municipal living, without paying for
them, and blocks so far as' he cf&n ev
ery municipal Improvement.? The cow
m^y be sold for beef jtind'xthe mule
HERE were times when
Charlie Bartle could take
0 his straitened circum
stances with a light heart.
When the sky was blue,
and the air of Paris'keen yet balmy,
was ^nbre exhilarating thaji wine,, his
studio in the Rue Breda lost its shabbi
ness. On such days as these he went
down into the street and watched gay
women make their purchases for lun
cheon. Tliej disarray of their costume
in the morning contrasted with the
splendor with, which he had seen them
emerge from their houses the night be
fore. They lingered at the door of
green grocers bargaining for their veg
etables with the strenuousness of mod
el housewives. Several had sat for
him, and with these he exchafiged the
gossip of the quarters. Then, his eyes
filled \yith the vivacity of that scene,
he returned to his studio, and sought
to place on.canvas the dancing sunlight
of the Parisian street. He felt in him
the courage to paint masterpieces. But
when gray clouds and ^ain made the
colors on his palette scarcely distin
guishable from one another, his mood
changed. He could scarcely bear the
looked wfth !re?S w,
unfinished cigar, rubbed the charred end
with his finger and lit it. *He smoked
this with apparent satisfaction. In
his day he had known many painters.
Some had succeeded, but most had
failed, and he knew that the profes
sion, even for tiie fortunate, was very
hard. Genius itself starved at times,
and recognition often didj not arrive till
a man was too embittered to enjoy it.
But he liked artists, and found a pecu
liar satisfaction in their society. MOLV
sieur Leir was a dealer. He had early
seen the merit of the impressionists,
had bought their pictures systemati
cally, thus savipg many of them from
disaster and at the same time, benefit
ing himself, and finally sold them
when the world discovered that Ma
net, Monet and Sisley were great
painters. His only daughter had mar
ried Rudolf Kuhn, a dealer in New
York, so Monsieur Leir felt justified
in spending the years that remained to
,Jiim in a condition of opulent idleness.
But he flattered himself that the .paint
ers whose« works he nad bought for a
song were his friends as well asvhis
customers, and it pleased h|m still to1
potter about the studios .of those who'
yet lived. When Charlie Barjtle settled
in. the hou^e in which he himsjelf/had
an aparanent, Monsieur Leir gladly
made his acquaintance. The j'oung
.vieux," said the dealer.
"I wish to goodness^ I was a dealei^,
like you," laughed Charlie. "At least
I shouldn't be worried to death, by tlie
fepproacft qf quarter day."1^
"The, picture, trade is no place for ari
W. SOMERSET MAUGHAM. |$|
6 picture on
cnaiies Bartle sat, pipe in mouth, jpn-' allow you to marry her?"
templating with deep discouragement "They're insane. You see she has
the work of his hands. He smoked I five thousand pounds of her own. He
gloomily. Presently, with a sigh, he refuses to consent to our marriage un
took a palette knife and prepared to less I can produce the same sum or
sciape down all that he had done. show that I am earning two hundred
lliere was a knock at the door. and fifty a year. And the worst of it
Lome in," cried Charlie, looking is that I can't help acknowledging he's
round. right. I don't want Rosie to endure
It was slowly opened by a little old hardship."
man. with a bald head, a hooked nose "You know that my daughter's hus
of immense size, and a gray beard.! band' is a dealer in New York," re
He was shabbily dressed, but the rings turned Monsieur Leir, presently. "I
on his finger, the diamond in his tie, vowed, when I sold off my stock that
and his massive watch chain, suggest- I would never deal in pictures again,
ed that it was not from poverty. but I'm fond of you, my friend, and 1
"Monsieur Leir!" said,Charlie, with a should like to help you'. Show me
smile. "Come in. I'm delighted to see your stuff, and I'll send it to Rudolf
"I knew you couldn't paint in this "That wculd be awfully good of
weather, so I thought I shouldn't be in you," cried Char'ie.
the way." The dealer sat down, while Bartle
He came into the room and -looked placed on his easel one after the other
at Bartle's unfinished canvas. The his finished pictures. There were, per
painter watched him anxiously, but no haps, a dozen, and Monsieur Leir
change in the Frenchman's expression looked at them without a word.
betrayed his opinion. *, the moment he had gone back trf his
"Do you thiiik it's utterly rotten?"
Charles Bartle impatiently threw Quietly, pointing to the last canvas, it's
aside his palette knife. I
own hands. We drove hard bargains,
but it was all above board. But now
the Christians have taken to it there's
a good deal too much hocus-pocus."
"I simply cant go on this way I
have to pay 300 francs for my rent to
morrow, and I shan't have a penny left
to buy myself»bread and butter for the
next month. No one will buy a pic
Monsieur Leir looked at him with
good-nattired eyes, but he said nothing.
Charlie glanced at the portrait of "a
very pretty girl which stood in soli
tary splendor, magnificently framed on
the chimney piece.
"I had a letter from Rosie this morn
ing. Her people want her to give me
up. They say there's not, the least
chance of my evjer earning any money."
"But will she do that?" asked the
"No, of course not," answered Char-:
lie, with decision., "She's a Jbod girl.
But it means waiting, waiting, wait
ing and our youth is going, and we
shall grow sore with hope deferred.
When at last we marry we shall be
disillusioned and bitter."
on the future, and the old man
ventur to,disturb him. He
working for a watched the painter with compassion,
month and saw that it was bad. His At last, however, he spoke.
"What are the exact conditions on
.an occasion' that which the father of your fiancee will
he may be able to sell it in America."
asked Charlie. sion to betray his feelings. No one
"My dear fellow, you young men^are could have toid from that inscrutable
so impatient. YoU buy a canvas, and gaze whether he thought the painting
you buy paints, and you think you can good or bad.
produce marvels immediately. You
won't give time to it, and you won't
give patience. The old masters weren't Public will^ seize their opportunity, and
in such a hurry. Read Vasari and allow us to marry?"
you'll see how they worked." "What is thf*t?" asked thes-dealer,
how dld you
state, and he allowed no expres--
"That's the lot," said Charlie, at
length. "D'you thiuk the American
"I wish I'd ueen a crossing sweeper had nfft Sh^wn him.
rather than a painter. It's, a,dog's life Without a word the painter pro
that I lead. I do without everything dueed it and fixed it on tne easel. Mon
that gives happiness, and I don4 even
against the wall, which Bartle
douwork that's fit to look1 at." indifference of his exp-ession vanished.
Monsieur Leir sat down, took from I "Watieau!" he ciied. "But, my dear
his waistcoat pocket the stump of an
gave a slight star., and the
man was delighted to hear stories of "A copy?" cried Monsieur Leir.
the wild life they led in Montmarte in
the seventies, and he was taken too,
by the kindliness of the retired dealer.
There was an unaffected amiability in
Monsieur Leir's manner, Avhich led the
foreigner quickly to pour into his sym
pathetic ear his troubles and his ambi
tions. The dealer was a lonely man,
and he soon began to feel a certain af
fection for the young painter. Now
that he was no longer in the trade he
could afford to put charms of manner
before talent, and the mediocrity of
his friend's work touched ibis gentle
talk of poverty aud you liave a Wat
teau. W*y, I can sell that for' you in
America 'for double the sum you
"Look at it carefully," smiled Char
The dealer went up to the picture
and peered into it. His eyes glittered
with delight. It represented a group
of charming persons by the side of a
lake. It was plain that the ladies,
so decadent and dainty, discussed pre
ciously with swains, all gallant in mul
ti-colored satins, the verses of Racine
or the" letters of Mme. de Sevigne. The
placid water reflected white clouds,
and the trees were russet already with
approaching, autumn. It was a stated
ly scene, with it0: green woodland dis
tance, and the sober oprlence of oak
and elm, and it suggested ease and
long tending. Those yellows and
greens and reds glowed with mellow
"It's one of, the few Watteaus I've
ever seen wiAh a signature," said the
"You flatter me," said Charlie. "Of
course, it's on^y a copy. The original
belonged to some ok! ladies in England
whom I knew and last summer when
it, rained. I spent my days in copy
ing it. I suppi se chance guided my
hand happily every one agreed it was
copy? Where is the original?. Would
your friends' sell it?"
"The ruling instinct is as strong as
ever," laughed the painter. "Unfor
tunately, a month after I finished this
the house was burned down,- and every
thing was destroyed."
The dealer drew a deep breath, and
for a moment meditated.. He looked
at Charlie sharply.
"Didn't you say .you wanted three
hundred francs for your rent?" he
asked very quietly. "I'll buy that copy
"Nonsense, I'll give it youi You're'
"It's one of your bad days, N mon taking no end of trouble for me, and
r' I vnn'ro honn a wfiillT lrinrl
you've been awfully .kind.
"You're a fool, my friend," an
swered Monsieur Leir. "Write me out
a receipt for the money."
He took from his pocketbook three
banknotes .and laid them op thre table
Partle hesitated for'an instant,' but he
the receipt. But as he was about to
.give it, an idea came to him* and he
quickly drew it back.
"Look here, -you're not going to try
any hanky-panky tricks, are you? 1
won't sell you the copy unless you give
me your word that yon won't try and
pass it off as an original."
A quiet smile passed across the deal
"Y9U can' easily reassure yourself.
Just paint out the signature* and put
your Own name on the ,top of it."
Without a word, Bartle did as the
old man suggested, and presently his
own namej was neatly painted in place
of the master's.
"I don't lUisti-ust you," he said, as
he handed'the receipt, "but it's well
not to put temptation in the way of
Monsieur Leir laughed as he pock
e'fed the document and took the Wat
teau in his hand. He pointed with a
slightly disdained finger at Bartle's
"I'm going to take the copy along
with me. and I'll send' my femme de
menage for the others," he said. But
at the door he stopped. "I like your
pictures, my friend, and when Rudolf
knows that I take an interest in you,
I dare sffy he'll able to sell them.
Don't be surprised if in another mon
I come and tell you that ?ov can marry
Monsieur Leir packed the Watteau
with his own hands, and dispatched it
without delay. He wrotes a discreet
little letter to his won-in-law announc
ing its immediate arrival and suggest
ing that they should share the profits
of its cale. It was growing late, so
he went to his cafe and draqk the
absinthe with which he invariably pre
pared for the evening meal. Then,
with a chuckle, he wrote the following
To the Chief Officer, U. S. A. Customs,
Sir: An attempt will shortly be made
to pass through the Customs a copy
of a picture by Watteru. It is signed
Charles Bartle. If, moreover, you scrape
away tli 0 name, you will find the sig
nature of a French painter. I leave
you to make what inference you
choose. Yours faithfully.
AN HONEST MAN.
Less than this was necessary to ex
cite the suspicions of the least trust
ing section of mankind. It was scarce
ly to be wondered at, therefore, that
when Rudolf Kuhn went to the Cus
tom House at New York to pass the
picture ihat had been cent him, he was
received with incredulity. He asserted
with conviction that it was only a
copy, and produced the receipt which
Monsieur Leir had been so cautious as
to send him. But the official who saw
him .merely laughed in his face. H£
was quite accustomed to the tricks
whereby astute dealers in' works of
art sought tc evade the tluty.
"I suppose you'd be surprised if I
told you that the picture was signed by
Antoine Watteau," he said, with a dry
"M-ore than that. I should be
amazed beyond words," answered Ru
dolf Kuhn confidently.
Silently the customs officer took a
palette knife, scraped away the name
of Charles Bartle', and there, sure
enough, was the French artist's sig
"What have you got to say now?" he
asked in triumph.
A curious light passed through the
dealer's eyes as he stared at the can
vas, but he made no other sign that
Monsieur Leir's astuteness had sud
denly flashed ac/oss him.
"Nothing," he replied.
With meekness he paid duty on the
estimated value of an original Wat
teau, and a very heavy fine into the
bargain,for his attempt to defraud the
customs. He took the picture away.
But when he reached home that night
he kissed his wife on both cheeks,
with unusual warmth.
"You father's still the smartest
dealer in Europe, Rachel," he said. But
when she asked for an explanation
of his words, he merely sto.ok his head
In New York the newspapers learn
everything, and perhaps it was not
strange mat within twenty-four hours
of these events an important journal
had an amusing account of how Ru
dolf Kuhn, the well-known dealer, had
been foiled in his attempt to pass
through the customs, as a copy of some
obscure painter, a very perfect ex
ample of the art of Watteau. It was
a triumph for the officials, and the
newspaper.- gibed freely because they
had got the better of a wily Hebrew.
Now Rudolph Kuhn, had a client who
chose ii spend much of his vast wealth
in the acquisition of Old Masters, and
no sooner had he read these entertain
ing paragraphs than he hurried to tha
dealer's shop. When he saw the pic
ture he burst out laughing.
"I like your ^impudence, trying to
pass that off as a copy."
"I showed them the receipt" smiled
Rudolf, with av deprecating shrug of
the shoulder. "I propose to sell it r.s
a copy. It was sold tb my representa
tive in Paris as such."
The millionaire looked at the dealer
and chuckled. "We!i. Uncle Sam's
Custoris are good enough guarantee
for me. I'll giye rou fifty thousand
dollars for, it."
"I'll take'sixty," answered the other,
"Not bad) for a copy," smiled the
buyer. *T1 have it at that."
He carried the picture off, and with
it the various documents whic)i the:
Custom House had delivered to Rudolf
Kuhn in proof that he had paid both
duty and fine. In face o. these, it
would have been a skeptic indeed who
doubted th'e authenticity of so. delight
ful a work.
Some weeks later Monsieur Leir
again knocked Charlie Bartle's door.
He advanced into the middle of the
studio, and without, a1 word counted,
out fifty English banknotes of a hun
dred pounds each.
i"Wh3t the dickens are you doing'.',
cried J-arth*, who thought he had sud
denly taken leave of his senses.
"Five thousand pound?/' said the old
man. «"I thought you'd like to see the
money actually before you, so I
changed it into these notes."
"What do you mean'"
"It's your share cf the profit on the
sale of your pictures, aud you marry
your Rosie whenever you choose."
Bartle stared at Monsieur Leir, help
lessly. He thought it must oe s.ame
heartless jest, but the old man's eyes
gleamed with their usual kindliness. H®
rubbed his hands joyfully e3 he gloat
ed ovei' the painter's utter consterna
tion. At last he vouchsafed to explain.
Bartle understood vaguely that a Cali
fornia millionaire had bought his pic
ture, all the pictures, and this money
was the result. Ke vented tc write
to this amiable and discerning patron,
but Monsieur Leir hastily told him that
was impossible. The Californian had
bought the pictures and taken them
away without leaving his address. Mon
sieur Leir assured him that the Ameri
can millionaires were notrriously eccen
tric. Bartle drew a long breath and
looked at the pile of notes.
"Take them to the bank, my boy,"
said the old dealer, enchanted with the
young man's pleasure, "and send a
wire to a certain lady."
He made the notes into a bundle,
and put them in Bartle's pocket,-and
led him out of the house. The painter
walked as though he were in a dream.
But when Monsieur Leir had seen the
young man safely on his way to the
bank he went to his orn apartment.
He took out Charlie's pictures, which
had remained in the safe obscurity
a well locked cupboard. One by one
he ripped them off their stretchers, and
one by one he put them in the fire. He
laughed as he saw them crackle in the
flames. Then he took hatchet and
cut up the stretchers eatly.
"Here is some excellent firewood,"
be chuckled, as he gave the bundle to
He rubbed his hands when he
thought that thus he saved several
coppers. It had slipped his memory
completely that he had just made his
friend present of £5000.—New York
The rapidly increasing scarcity of
ties in the country constitute oije of
the grave problems which the railroads
have to face.
Indiana University has been offered
an endowment for pathological re
seai'ch by Dr. Benjamin Taylor Terry,
of Columbia University.
The oscillating character of light
ning flashes has bffen -proved by B.
Walter from photographic records,
which showed a wave-shaped fluctua
tion in luminosity.
'The new Cunarder, the Mauritania,
will, according to a special cable des
patch, be a perfect palace of light, as
she will be fitted with five thousand
sixteen-candle power lamps.
The tenth International Congress of
Geologists has been called to convene
in the City of Mexico on September 6,
1906. Sr. Jose G. Aquilera will be the
chairman, and Sr. Eziquael Ordony the
general secretary. The officiai pro
gram announces a number of excur
sions in connection with the conven
In his revised book of altitudes, the
geographer of the Geological Survey
gives the height of Mount Hood as
11,225 feet, in place of the old meas
urement or 11,932 feet. Shasta is set
down as 14,380 feet high, and Rainier
at 14,363. California has twelve peaks
over 14,000 feet, twenty-three over 13,
000, and fifty-five over 12,000.
The Erie Railroad is about to com
mence a series of experiments with
gasolene cars, with the idea that if
they prove practicable they will be
used on many of the small and now
unprofitable branch lines. It is be
lieved that these cars will foe widely
adopted because the inroads made up
on the passage receipts by trolley com
petition make necessary a more rapid
and more elastic service than 'is af
forded by the steam power.
Experiments at Sault Ste. Marie have
demonstrated that magnetic as well as
hematite ores can be successfully and
economically smelted by electricity,
says the Boston Transscript. Not only
can the electric process be applied to
various grades of Canadian ores, but
iron ores containing considerable per
centages of sulphur and phosphorus,
and which up to the present have been
regarded as valueless, can be success
fully treated by the higher temperature
available in an electric furnace.
Tlie Average Age of Birds.
The doctrine of vegetarianism ap
pears to be slightly shaken by the re
sult of an investigation that sCn Eng
lish newspaper has made into the
subject of the longevity of birds. Witlv
one notable exception, the carrion or
meat feeding birds are the longer lived.
The exception is the swan. The aver-
age ages of some of the best known
birds are given in the following: Black
bird lives twelve years blackcap, fif
teen canary, twenty-four crane,
twenty-four cro.w, 100 eagle, 100
fowl, common, ten goldfinch, fifteen
goose, fifteen heron, fifty-nine lark,
thirteen linnet, twenty-three nightin
gale, eighteen parrot, sixty partridge,
fifteen peacock, twenty-four pelican,
fifty pheasant, fifteen pigeon, twenty
raven, 100 robin, twelve skylark,
thirty. sparrow hawk, Vforty swan,
100 thrush, ten, and wren, three years.
The average age of the boarding house
variety of chicken is still undetermined.
—New Orleans Timeg-l}emocrat.
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