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What, is often asked, is to become of
Japan when her elder statesmen pass a speaking broadly, the affairs of this uiitry are still in the hands of the r: ii who began the great work of na tional reformation at the time of the overthrow of the Shogunate and the restoration of real imperial power to the mikado. In the intervening forty years the great majority of the men who took active part in Japan's great revolution have passed away, but those who to-day stand as the representa tives of those statesmen and warriors exercise ust as great an inuence as when the young emperor first turned to tlu'in and their fellows for the guid ance which he voluntarily pledged himself to follow. Indeed, instead of diminishing with the inissing years, which have brought in ::)y developments and changes in the externals of government, the in fluence of these elder statesmen -has grown steadily greater as every crisis has demonstrated the wisdom of their council and as their association with the emperor has grown more and more personal. Under the constitutional form of government full opportunity is given for the play of politics, for party strife and personal aspirations, but above and beyond this strife, on a higher plane, the emperor and his clios?n counselors of the Genro, sit, calm and serene, to render final decision in any issue involving grave national poijcy, whether this be internal or interna tional in character. Japan knows no such office as elder statesmen, yet all Japan reveres these elder statesmen and bows to the wis dom of their decisions, which find ex pression in the imperial will. The na tional veneration of the emperor as di rect descendant of deified ancestors does not prevent universal tribute to the elder statesmen as the embodi ment of all that is wise and good. it is perhaps natural that, viewing i. record of the last forty years, and recognizing the part these men have played in the creation of the new Jap an. foreign observers should give to these eljier statesmen the entire cred it for the transformation. But the tendency of such generalization is to lose sight of one to whom, it seems to me, first credit should be given. This is the emperor himself. It is not at all remarkable that the boy prince who at fifteen found him self not the mere figurehead which so many of his ancestors had been, but Markings of the Palate. Dr. Paul Prager, teeth change with time, ings of the through life. JAPAN'S FAMOUS ELDER STATESMEN Wise Old "Pilots" Who Steer the Ship of State Five Servants of the Genro. In searching for the causes of the re- intrusted with the full powers and re mark a bie progress Japan has made— especially her uplift from the mediae val past to the front rank of modern nations, and all within the short period of forty years—it is impossible to over estimate the great services rendered by the handful of really great men who have throughout the entire period of development ruled this nation from Jin top. EMPEROR OF JAPAN. an army surgeon in Vienna, recommends that prisoners should be identified by the shape of their palates. He says that the sys tem would be much more exact than that of finger prints. He has taken thousands of molds of the interior of the human mouth, but has so far failed to find two which even slightly resem ble each other. He says that though the the mark palate remain unchanged The sponsibilities of absolutism, should have turned to others for advice and (counsel but to have retained these counselors during all the years of his rule, to have been guided by their wis dom, is in itself an evidence of real greatness in a man around whom have been thrown all the temptations to which monarchs fall heir. Of the personality and mental at tainments of His Imperial Majesty Mutsu-Hito, few Japanese are gualified to speak, and these do not. No son of Japan looks upon the emperor as a mere man. In this democratic age the /peculiarly reverential attitude of all Japanese toward the head of their na tion may be sneered at and condemned as a relic of the past, but there is no gainsaying the existence of this rever ence. As all the old court formalities are still preserved in their medieval strictness, it is doubtful'is ever mem bers of the imperial family know very much about the personality of him to FIELD MARSHAL YAMAGATA. To Observe Sea Gardens. A glass tower resting on the bot tom of the ocean thirty feet below the surface and extending up into the open air is to be built at Long Beach, Cat. The shaft will be constructed al most entirely of heavy plate glass with a glass, room twelve feet square at the bottom reached by an elevator. This will give visitors an opportunity to.ob serve the MARQUIS ITO. wonderful sea gardens. Chasing dirty linen up washboard and down a is hard on wedding rings. whose will they all bow. Probably of all the people of this nation only the eldes statesmen have had the real op portunity to judge his capacity as a man. First and foremost of these stands Marquis Ito. If to one man there be longs greater credit for creation of New Japan than to any of the others, it is to this truly great statesman. Cer tainly to him, more than to any other is the institution of a constitutional form of government due. He founded the present Seiyukai or constitutional party, and although now out of active politics is still the most influential of all politicians, the only man who can fairly claim a division of his honor with him being Marshal Mar quis Yamagata. If Ito is first of the elder statesmen in the eyes of the world, Yamagata is a very close second in the eyes of Jap an. As Ito may in a sense be regarded Japan's Jefferson, so Yamagata may be pictured a combination of von Moltke and Bismarck. Yamagata is both soldier and statesman. Inouye, Mutsukata, Oyama—these three, with Ito and Yamagata, make up the Genro. These five men, with the emperor at their head, form the real directing force of this empire. They are getting old now—all of them. When these have gone there will be no elder statesmen. What, then, of Japan? The question can be asked without necessarily joining with the pessimists who predict that when the present em peror and his old associates pass away things will go to smash. As a matter of fact, there are so many able men among the younger statesmen safe men as well as brilliant. But will a new emperor have the wisdom to rely upon his councilors, and will it be pos sible for him to find such advisors as those who helped Mutsu-Hito keep the right path? Just a Tip. "To-night will be the night of my life, old man, I am going to propose to Katharine." "That so? Parlor going to be dark?" "Oh, yes." "Better strike a light." "Why?" "Because negatives are always d» veloped in a dark room." Wants Snakes Protected. At a meeting of the Melon Growers' Association it was decided to adopt resolutions for the preservation of all snakes of the chicken and spreadh'ead variety in the melon belt, and the sense of the meeting was that the crease of the reptiles should In be wel comed. The chicken and the spreadhead snakes are the natural enemies of the. field mice, and destroy scores of them each flay. Herewith are shown the houses of Mr. Tillinghest's plant in Connecticut Each house is 10 by 20 feet, 4 feet high at the eaves, and 6% feet at the center. The whole construction, in cluding the roof, is of 1-inch cypress boards, matched. The floors consist A A "New Hampshire" Form of Poultry House. winter and summer. In winter a lit tle cracked corn is added to the wheat screenings, and beef scraps are ac cessible to the fowls at all times. Our second large Illustration shows one of the winter laying houses at H. J. Blanchard's farm, in New York state. This building- is ^0 feet long and 16 feet wide, the distance from the floors to the eaves being seven feet. The walls are double, with a four-inch space filled with straw. On the south are six double-glazed sashes, which make a warm house for the eold' northern portions of the United States. There is a loft with slatted calling filled with straw, which ab sorbs the moisture from below. At each end of the loft is a door whieh ts_open«£ on warm days t© allow the TYPES OF HOUSES USED BY BIG POULTRY FARMS Success of the Business Depends Much on the System of Hous ing Employed—By G. Arthur Bell, Ass't. Animal Husbandry, Bureau of Animal Industry. Colony House. of earth, and are not found damp, ow ing, no doubt, to the excellent natural drainage. The only fixture in each of these houses is a hopper having a ca acity of about 1% bushels for wheat screenings, a small hopper for beef Connecticut Poultry Ranch. Note Which Does Away Wi scraps, and four or five soap boxes for nests. In the rear of the house are placed three or four perches about three feet from the ground. No board for droppings is used. The great point at this plant is the simplicity and economy of labor in caring for the birds. Nature has great ly aided the owner by providing not only excellent drainage, but also a fine stream, which furnishes plenty of water and serves as a natural fence. The elevated ground abounds with wild berries, and insects are usually plentiful during the summer. The supply of grain in summer con sists of wheat screenings fed from self-feeding hoppers, which are usual ly filled but once a week. A small quantity of beef scraps is fed in the afternoon, when the eggs are gath ered. The fowls get their supply of water by going to the creek In both straw to dry out. Below the floor is a basement, which furnishes an ideal scratching shed for winter use. To the rear of this house is a small grove, which furnishes plenty of shade, and about 20 feet from the front of the house is a stream of water. The first of the smaller illustrations shows one of the colony houses for chickens in use at the poultry farm of White & Rice, in New York state. This house is about eight feet long and seven feet high in front and 2^ feet in rear. The walls are built of one thickness of matched boards. The floor is of wood. A hover is placed in this house, and the chicks are placed here when first hatched. When the chicks are from six to ten weeks old (depending largely on weather condi tions and the development of the chicks), the heater is removed and perches are placed in the rear of the house about 10 or 18 inches above the floor. We also show a "New Hampshire" house, one of njp.ny such houses in use on Mr. Hick's poultry farm in Massa chusetts. This building is about nine feet long and seven feet wide, and Arrangement of Colony Houses, th Necessity of Fences. Laying House and Open Range. about six feet high at the center and 18 inches at the eaves. The door is cov ered with fine wire netting, so as to provide for light and ventilation. If desired, the door can be covered with a muslin curtain, which can be swung open during the day and on warm nights. Such a house will accommo date 10 to 15 fowls according to amount of yard room, breed, etc. This house is portable, and can be readily moved from place to place. The chief recommendation of a house of this shape is the economy of labor and ma terial needed to build it. SUCCESSFUL GRASSES By- Prof. A. M. Soule, Virginia Experiment Station. One of the great problems of the farmer is to obtain grass on his land In sections where the bluegrass grows the problem is not of serious moment, but there are vast areas where blue grass cannot be cultivated. What shall be done? Thousands of farmers have given up in despair. They'do not understand, for example, that by combining Texas blue and Bermuda grass an all-year-round pasture may be had in many sections of the south. They do not understand that a mix ture of grass is vastly superior to one grass. They do not realize that where timothy %ill not grow, orchard grass and tall oat grass may be used and as large yields of bay, of just as fine qual ity, obtained. They have not studied the composition and relative merit ol the various grasses, and therefore they lay more stress on the virtues of othy than it was ever entitled to. DRY LAND tim Don't Take Chances.—Don't take any chances with newly broken colts. Even'though they are acting like old horses some little unforeseen thing may frighten them and make runaway horses out of them. The first few months after breaking is the .time when good habits or bad habits are formed. Colic Remedy for Horse!—Is there any colic medicine in the housft? Colic usually occurs at night* and a handy remedy. often saves a $150 horse, r* The important problem in. dry land farming is ta conserve the moisture in the soil—distributing it through out the season of growth. The total annual precipitation is usually suffi cient to grow'a large crop, but some of it comes when not needed and in larger quantities than can be used and often fails to come when most needed by the crop. The soil may be used as a vast reservoir for storing the water until it is used by the plant. By keeping the soil loose on top, we stop evaporation from the soil so that all the water may be used by the plant. In this way we save the water in the soil until it is needed by the crop. Surface tillage is a means of trap ping the rainfall. The surface soil is made loose and the capillary con nection between the loose surface and the firmer and moister soil below is broken, making it more difficult for the water in the soil to reach the sur face, where it is lost by evaporation. The depth of cultivation desirable in the formation of the soil mulch well depend on the frequency of cultivation and the amount of rainfall. During a long dry period a mulch three or four inches thick is not too much. If a crust forms on the surface, water is lost rapidly by evaporation. If a crust forms under the mulch, it prevents THE PRODUCING OF CLEAN MILK By W. J. Fraser, Illinois Experi ment Station. Keep the cows clean and do not compel allow them to wade and live in filth. This means clean yards and clean well bedded stalls. Every thing short of this is positively re pulsive and should not be tolerated any longer in a civilized community. Stop the filthy practice known as "wetting the teats," by which is meant the drawing of a little milk into the hands with which to wet the teats before and during milking, leaving the excess of filthy milk to drop from the hands and teats into the pail. Wash all utensils clean by firsjr using lukewarm water, afterwards washing in warm water, and rinsing in an abundance of boiling water, then exposing until the next using in direct sunlight, which is a good sterilizer. Use milk pails, cans, etc., for no other purposes but to hold milk. Keep out of these utensils all sour or tainted milk. Look for Lice.—If the plumage of the fowls of chicks looks rough and the birds are continually dusting them selves in the earth or running their bills about the plumage, it is time to look for lice. Examine each specimen carefully and even if no vermin is found, It is safe to thoroughly dust each bird with some like killing pow der. If the growing chicks are free from lice, have plenty of good food, yet don't seem to thrive and grow TESTS IN NEBRASKA State Experiment Station Proves What Can he Done on Semi Arid l^ands—By W. P. Snyder, Superintendent. Stacking Alfalfa on High Table Land, Nebraska Experiment Farm. the circulation of air In the soil and also favors the escape of the water. This crust must be broken by deeper cultivation. Land is summer tilled to store the moisture of one sgaspn in order that a crop may be grown the next. The more thorough the tillage, the better this moisture is conserved. When a small grain crop is being harvested, the disk should follow the binder. The ground may be plowed later in the fall and packed with a harrow and a soil packer. As soon as the frost is gone in the spring the ground should be made loose on top. It should be kept in this condition all summer or until the next crop is needed. The disk and harrow should be used as often as necessary to keep. the surface loose. When the ground is not plowed in the fall, it will be necessary to disk it ear ly in the spring and plow before July 15. Deep plowing increases the ca pacity of the soil to hold water. If as they should, it Is pretty' likely that they are crowding at night, or perhaps are sleeping in a coop which Is not sufficiently ventilated. Attention to this part of the business will better and more profitable weeds are allowed to grow, the effects of summer tilling are lost. The sur face should never be allowed to be come hard, for this gives the same conditions as leaving a hole in the bot tom .of a water tank: it permits the escape of the water. To properly summer-till land requires as much or more labor and attention than raising a corn crop. Subsurface packing is' the firming of the soil beneath the mulch. This is not done to hold the moisture but to allow the moisture to come up with in reach of the plant roots—to make a road for the water to climb up, for water cannot go upward without a connected line along which to travel. When the soil is very loose and full of air spaces the line is unjointed, but when the soil has been packed, the air spaces are squeezed out, the soil grains brought together, and a fine roadbed is made for the upward movement of the water. However, the tilling of the soil Is not the sum total of dry-land farm ing. Drought-resistant varieties, ro tations, and fertility are also very important factors. The durum varie ties of winter wheat are in turn out yielding the durum. Kherson and oth er early varieties of oats are fast re placing the common varieties. Alfal fa is destined to produce a wonderful change in the west, both in its effect upon the soil and as a forage crop. Ro tations often give as great increase in yield as tillage or varieties. All these factors should be given equal atten tion in a^ comprehensive system ol crop production for western Nebraska. There are several ways in which plants may "resist drought." Some plants, such as durum wheat, seem to have the faculty of maturing grain with the use of less water than the common varieties. Other grains, as Kherson oats, evade in part rather than resist drought by maturing be fore the drought comes. Some crops withstand drought because of an ex« tensive root system that collects mois ture from a large area of soil, and still others, as the Kafir corn, have the power of retarding their growth and waiting over until moisture comes. Plants having such characteristics will prove valuable where the supply of moisture is uncertain. Concrete Smoke House Concrete is an excellent material with which to build smokehouses, since the walls are cool and have a tendency to prevent the heating of the meat by means of the smoke arising. Cross Section of Concrete Smokehouse. Where it is possible the smoke pit should be a little distance away and the smoke allowed to enter through a little tunnel, which may be made of an eight or ten-inch tile. The concrete walls need not be more than six inches thick, and if de&tred the top may be formed cheaply ol one slab of concrete, laid with a very littjp slant to carry off the drip. In this slab should be imbedded wires six inches apart, run&ng in both directions, which willprevent its cracking. The hooks tp harig th§ meat should then be inserted in t$ concrete Vhen it 14 formed. The meat- bench should be of concrete also. ..