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Edited and Published by the Inmates of the Minnesota State Prison. Entered at the Post Office at Stillwater. Minn., as Second Class Mail Matter. This paper will be forwarded to subscribers until ordered discontinued and all arrears are paid. Should THE MIRROR fail to reach a subscriber eacli week, notice should be sent to this office, when the matter will be attended to at once. Contributions solicited from any and all sour ces. Rejected manuscript will not be returned. THE MIRROR is issued every Thursday at the following rates: One Year ------ SI.OO Six Months - - - - 50 Three Months ------ .25 Address all communications. Editor, The MIRROR. Stillwater, Minn. THE MIRROR is a weekly paper published in the Minnesota State Prison. It was founded ill 1887 by the prisoners and is edited and man aged by them. Its objects are to be a home newspaper; to encourage moral and intellectual improvement among the prisoners; to acquaint the public with the true status of the prisoner; to disseminate penological information and to aid in dispelling that prejudice which has ever been the bar sinister to a fallen man’s self-redemption. The paper is entirely dependent on the public for its financial support. If at any time there should accrue a surplus of funds, the money would be expended in the interests of the prison library. TO THE PEIIEIC. Having been appointed editor and manager of The Prison Mirror, the former editor having resigned, we would say to the contributors, fellow inmates, and the very gener ous public who have done so much to bring The Mirror up to its present standard of excellence, that we feel our inability in everyway, to give our paper that practical and eliicient service our predecessor has shown in placing The Mirror in the position it occupies in journalism of this kind. Our experience has been conlined to an occasional contribution, and with practically little knowledge of the requirements of an editor we fully realize the task before us, and the many obstacles that will confront us in our endeavors to conscienciously keep The Mirror in its present high standing, and make it what it was in tended to be, a medium that will re flect to the ■ world our best and pur est thoughts; to convince the thinking world that although our bodies are imprisoned, we are human, with the souls of men; that our hearts and minds look to better lives; that we wish to tear down that cold and re pellant, feeling that ever existed to ward the ex convict; that we are cap able of, and anxious to be, good men, good citizens; and what God intended we should be, free in all that word implies. We cannot do this without the continued co operation of all who have so abundantly favored our pre decessor. And we beg that you will give us this co-operation, assuring you, that we shall ever strive to keep in touch with all. We shall ever remem ber that we here are one common family, one brotherhood, and will strive to do our duty with equal justice to all. We trust that each and every in mate in this institution will give us his support and assist us in our efforts to convince the public that behind the walls at Stillwater there are hearts that are true, and souls that love God and humanity; and although stern fate has clouded our lives for a short period, our resolutions are to fight down the evils of our natures while here, and take our place as men in the world when again at liberty. To the gener ous public we beg that same encour agement so heartily given in the past, and more of it; and nothing shall be left undone to make The Mirror ever a welcome visitor to the home and fireside. Editor Mirror. FREEDOM. How often do we misapply the above term. There is no other subject so much talked about, and yet I believe it the least understood: we seem to have no well delined opinions as to that in which it really consists, and man has not only misapplied it, but has, and is ever using it as a means or pretence for advanceing his own interests, or the interest of some set of men. Crimes are committed in the name of freedom or liberty every day, that scarcely a man in this institution, or the greatest tyrant the world ever produced would be capable of doing. The essential principles of freedom are the same no matter how we speak or apply it. We have personal liberty, where a man con trols his own body and mind with all their power, always respecting the law, society, and the rights of his fellow man. Then there is religious liberty, where a man is allowed to choose how he shall worship God. And yet, under the pretence of American freedom followers of certain religious demon inations are assailed and scoffed at, called traitors to the very flag that so many of them gave their very life’s blood to perpetuate. Then there is civil liberty, where a man is allowed to do as a citizen, that is, in a corporate body, as he is permitted to do as an individual. Yet while we may enjoy all these under the name of liberty, or freedom, while no restraint may be placed upon our speech or actions; no prison walls surround us, no humilating garb to brand us as having forfeited these rights; yet we may have long since parted with all freedom, we may be bound with fetters and chains of the most degrading bondage, held in the slavery of our own depraved de sires bad habits and hardness of heart, or a crime unpunished. The bondage of the Russian Serf; the oppression that unhappy Ireland has endured for the past five or six centuries; the oppres sion of the working man of the present day in our own so called free country, are freedom compared with a man who is a slave to his passions, his greed. His body may be as free as the birds, yet his soul, his conscience is held in slavery; while we whose bodies are held in chains, where we show all the outward signs of bondage, can be men tally, morally, spiritually free. I remember a story told me while a boy of a prisoner who had just been released from prison after serving a fifteen year term; walking along the country road after his release, he was heard singing that beautiful song ‘‘Home Again” and appeared as happy as possible for man to be. (I don't won der at this, a release after fifteen years in prison ought to make one happy.) A clergyman accosting him, asked “Why is it you are so happy ? I should think after being so long imprisoned you would be hard and cruelly inclined; steeled against the law and society.” He replied: “No sir.” I am happy because I am entirely free, I have done wrong but I have paid the debt to God and man. God has forgiven my sins, through my faith in his s< >n Jesus Christ, and I owe man nothing; fifteen years of my precious life have I given man in payment of my transgression; I have sinned and suffered; contracted and paid the debt, and I am free before God and man, consequently happy.” Surely we can all become as free as this man when leaving here, by freeing our con science, by living down the past, bury ing it with the garb that covers us to day, and taking to the outside world not only free bodies, but free hearts and minds. Many men in the world today are greater slaves than we, for if they possess the souls of men, they must at times suffer to see the suffer ing they, by their oppression, their great greed impose upon their fellow man. Therefore, let us be free of con science, and while the shackles and fet ters hold us today we can, by crushing wrong impulses, when we step outside these walls say to our fellow man: I have sinned, and suffered; I have paid the debt; and what though the convict garb has covered my body, my con cience is free and my greatest aim is to ever keep it clean and command the respect of all those whose respect we most need. VAGARIES OF THE EAW. Sometimes the law is ap amusing thing as recording the inconsistencies and contradictions of that thing called judgment in men. If in any kind of railroad accident a man lose his life the law gives the limit of damages for which the railroad company may be held liable at $5,000. If, however, he only has an arm or a leg cut off or gets a twist put into his spine, or some such trilling loss, he may recover anywhere from SIO,OOO to $50,000, according to his ability to make things lively in court. The old geometrical proposition that a whole is greater than any of its parts is most contemptuously reversed by the singularly discriminating laws of our blessed country. For example, a Chicago woman has secured judg ment in the sum of SIO,OOO against a Xew York storekeeper for an injury to her eye that caused the loss of her sight. The verdict of the original court has been aflirmed by the Court of Common Pleas, so we may assume that the value of a healthy eye is legally fixed at SIO,OOO. Another principle was afiirmed in this case that storekeepers and employ ers in general would do well to note for their future protection. The eye of Miss Swinarton was put out by a cash boy, who, pursuing the sport of snap ping pins with a rubber, drove one of the missiles into the unsuspecting eye of the shopper. Suit was brought, not against the boy, his parents, or his guardians, but against the storekeeper, whom the courts held to be responsible for“having a mischievous boy on the premises.” Now, any establishment that has in its employ a boy given to prankish sports may take warning. If employ ers are thus liable for the misdeeds of their employes it is advisable that they give a little attention to ascertaining the conduct and manners of those who come into contact with the public. If a boy snap a pin and damage his employer to the extent of SIO,OOO what shall be done with the boy? What recourse has the employer ? If the pin snapper were his own son the law would permit him the consolation of a wood shed interview, but there is no gram of comfort of that sort in the case under consideration. The employer takes all the risks, and if there are many more suits for damages the pinsnapping boy will be banished from business circles.—Ex. HABITS. It is so difficult to break up estab lished modes of action, and turn the channels of one's activities in new di rections, that it is not surprising that the mature in life, who have suffered from not being started right in the tirst place, should lay, as they are inclined to, great stress on the importance of making in all things a good beginning. There are a few habits which form a pretty good foundation for success in life and ensure the friendship of the discerning and virtuous. First among these we would place the habit of self help. This may and should be formed in a child before it can walk or talk by providing resources for its amusement and leaving it, within due bounds, to depend upon those resources. Then, as it grows older, it should be taught, and gently compelled to perform in its own behalf all that it can do. Few of us but know young men and young women who are perfectly helpless. If they alone were the sufferers it wouldn’t matter much, but they are social leeches, always demanding service and never rendering it. Good husbands, good wives, good parents rarely if ever, are found in this class of people. They are so dependent upon others -so per fectly unused to the graver uses of existence —that no reliance can be placed upon them —they are of little use in the world. Parents, no moral is needed; look to your children—enable them to be of use; for, unless they possess this faculty, humanity is no better for having known them. —St. Peter Herald. ( Itnill AM) CRIRIAALS. Rev. Frederick 11. Wines of Spring field, 111. addressed the meeting of young men at the Central Branch, Y.M. C. A., on the subject, “Crime and Criminals.” The speaker, while dwelling somewhat on the nature of men who commit crimes, confined himself largely to stories of prison life which he had gathered as chaplain of penitentiaries. He said that it was the fashion once to regard this class of men as beyond hope of reformation. “All wardens,” he said, “used to speak of criminals as lost, and contended that the efforts made in their behalf were wasted.” It is only in the past few years that any organized efforts have been made to save the souls of this fallen class. Here tofore it was supposed that the extir pation of crime meant the extirpation of the criminals; either to get the criminal out of the world, the country or the community. But the idea has lately taken hold of legislatures and the courts that by getting the disposi tion to commit crime out of the crimi nal, the convict is also gotten rid of. “Reformation is the cheapest way of dealing with the class. It is cheaper to reform than to hang men or to shut them up for years.” “Some societies claim that criminals belong to a type of the insane, and the best thing to do is to get rid of them. I disagree with them. The teaching is false and misleading. Xo man is born a criminal any more than one is born a doctor or a lawyer. It is the environ ment that makes the man what he is. “The work of reformation is extreme ly difficult with the ignorant, those of coarse fiber, and those who lack ability to gain a living other than by manual labor. Few in the prisons are above the grade of the day laborers, and if, while in the penitentiary, they are taught the habit of regular labor, great good will have been done.” —St. Louis, (M 0.,) Republic. JURY REFORM. A new jury law has just gone into operation in Massachusetts, and some of its provisions are manifestly so good that they might well be embodied in the code of other states. For instance, one section reads, “The board of aider men of any city shall not strike any name from the jury list as prepared, ex cept of a person who has been convicted of a crime and has not been pardoned on the ground of his innocence of said crime, or of a person who is not quali fied by law for service as a juror.” The intention here was to do away with the favoritism by which men of influence were in the habit of ridding themselves of the duty of serving on juries. The penalty for a violation of the section quoted is severe, it being pro vided that if any person is guilty of fraud in the drawing of jurors either by practicing on the jury box previ ously to a draft, or in drawing a juror, or in returning into the box the name of a juror which has been lawfully drawn out and drawing or substituting another in his stead, or in striking a name from the jury list, he shall be punished by a tine not exceeding SSOO. An additional official safeguard is thrown around the selection of jurors by the requirements that the mayor of any city shall be present at the drawing and verify by personal inspection the result of the ballots announced by the alderman appointed for the purpose. The law was framed to counteract the corrupt influence that had previously prevailed in the making up of juries in the cities of the state. A Texas jury has been reprimanded for bringing in a verdict of guilty too quickly. The lawyers for the defense wanted their services to have the bene fit of a doubt. Kate Virginia Darling has a striking little sketch in the San Francisco Argo naut of September 10th. It is entitled “The Passing of Arizona .Toe," and tie tails with real power the experience of a w oman in the early days when Tomb stone w r as a rough mining-camp and lynchings in the public street were not unheard of. The following wail is from a poor cuss out in the drouthy country: Back ward, turn backward O time in your (light; give us a rip-snorting rain storm tonight. Open the heavenly Hood gates, 1 pray; let the rain pour for a night and a day; I am so w T eary of skies that are fair—w r eary of breath ing the dirt in the air; weary of sowing to harvest no grain, give us a rain, Mis ter give us a rain. A man recently sent SI.OO to a firm who advertised to tell you how' to make SIO.OO a day, for that amount. This is the answer he received: “Put an ad. like ours in the paper and get ten suck ers to answer it. Now by placing an advertisement in The Mirror you will avoid anything of this kind —suck- ers don’t read The Mirror, and adver tisements of this nature we never pub lish. A well-known lawyer on circuit in the north of England, curious to know how a certain juryman arrived at his verdict, meeting him one day, ventured to ask. “Well,” replied he, “I'm a plain man, and I like to be fair to everyone. I don't go by what the witnesses say, and I don't go by what the judges say; but I looks at the man in the dock, and I says: ‘He must have done something or he wouldn’t be there,’ so I bring ’em all in guilty."— Ex. “Can a man fly ?” Is the query which heads a lengthy editorial in last w r eek’s Chicago Times. As our knowledge and experience in the science af a*ro natics has been somewhat limited, we shall not endeavor to vouchsafe a positive reply to the above query. However, we are prepared to assure our able and esteemed contemporary, that we are somewhat acquainted with a number of men in our immediate neighborhood who would Hv if they got a chance. Jesse James, Jr. son of the famous bandit chief, who was killed by Bob. Ford in St. Joseph, Mo., some years ago, is foreman in the extensive packing house of Phil. Armour, at Kansas City. Jesse Jr. is a handsome young fellow, 18 years of age, steady, sober and in dustrious. His superior intelligence, gentlemanly demeanor, and watchful regard of the interests of his employer have earned him every respect and con fidence. Among Mr. Armour’s thou sands of employes, there is none whom he respects more highly nor trusts more implicitly than Jesse James, Jr. There is a queer suit before the courts at Augusta, Me., which turns on the question whether a guessing con test is gambling. There was a hand some crazy quilt at the church fair, and it w r as to belong to the person who correctly guessed the number of pieces in the quilt—H2s. Miss Pettingill guessed it, and so did five others. While it was debating how to satisfy the claims of the rival guessers Miss Pettingill sued out a writ of replevin and got possession of the quilt from the ladies who gave the fair. The others have asked the court to appoint a re ceiver and have the quilt sold and the proceeds equitably divided among the successful guessers. Miss Pettingill sets up the defense that the contest was a lottery, and therefore illegal, and that, having got possession of the quilt, the others have no lawful claim upon it to disturb her rights. We believe that in some cases crime might often be prevented and blasted hopes renewed by a smile or a hand shake, but the hand of friendship is seldom extended to those in distress.— St. Peter Journal. If a few of the kind words which are often spoken at the grave of a friend had been spoken while that friend w r as alive, they might have eased many a heartache and lightened many a burden. It is one of the peculiarities of our frail natures that we do not appreciate the virtues of our friends until they are dead and gone.—Montevideo Commer cial. Benjamin Murphy, the sensible and efficient Chief of Police of Jersey City, has written to the commander of the Salvation Army forces in that city that the members of the Army need no per mit from him or any one else to march where they will in that city. That the good work its members are constantly doing is a great help to those w T ho have the care of the city in their hands. Correct. —Pomeroy's Advance Thought. Home and freedom sweeten existence outside the prison walls, but the con ditions of success are routine labor and discipline. Will and desire must be governed. Inside these walls the same conditions prevail. The essential dif ference between these two spheres of life is that in the one the system is self imposed, in the other it is involuntary. Outside we must choose this yoke; in side we must submit to it. O. P. News. Noted daughters of society of New York have raised a subscription of several thousand dollars for the relief of the suffering Pullman employes and sent the list of donors to the duke him self, but have not received any reply. The doors that in the past have always been open to Geo. Pullman’s family are now closed and he cannot open them again even with his millions unless he does something to help the ones he has ruined.—Swift Co., Monitor. Sing the praises of heroic James Boot who stood by the throttle of his engine, never wavering, never faltering, w'hile a hell of smoke and flame lapped at the engine cab. Two hundred passengers depended upon James Boot's unflinch ing nerve. Two hundred people came through the Valley of the Shadow of Death because the engineer kept his post. Had he been less a hero 200 in stead of a dozen passengers would have perished. Let us not forget the man who beneath the plainest of wmrking man’s garb has such a neroic nature. — Toledo Blade. It is a remarkable fact, though not easily accounted for that imprisonment at Yuma for any term not less than five years of an Apache or any moun tain Indian is equivalent to imprison ment for life, and the cause of death is invariably consumption. This is a dis ease almost unknown among the Apaches under normal conditions of climate and habit. The change, how T ever. from the high altitudes of the mountains and the bracing mountain air to the lower level of Yuma, with its more than semi-tropical heat, wears away what mountain storms and ex posure cannot even indent. San Fran cisco Examiner. The mayor of Peru, 111., got drunk the other day and abused the law r and order league of the town. A policeman tried to make him go home quietly, but he would neither go home quietly nor otherwise, so the policeman “ran him in’’ as the commoners say, and he spent the night in the lock-up. With the mayor of Minneapolis giving orders to the police to arrest aldermen found drunk around the city hall, and the mayor of the Illinois town in the cala boose for being drunk, there is some encouragement for those w r ho believe in the decadence of the political pull and the advancement of civilization across the woolly wilds of the corn and wheat belt. —Minneapolis Times. There w r as a deacon in a certain church, says an American paper, into w'hose pews, one Sunday, a drunken man stag gered and sat down. The preacher was discoursing about prevalent pop ular vices. Soon he exclaimed: “Where is the drunkard?” The drunken man was just far enough gone to think the call personal, so rising heavily, replied, “Here I am,” and remained standing while the drunkard’s character and fate were eloquently portrayed. A few r minutes later the preacher reacned another head of his discourse, and asked ,“Where is the hypocrite ?” Gent ly nudging his neighbor, the drunk ard said, in an audible whisper, “Stand up, deacon, he means you this time. Stand up and take it like a man, just as I stand! It will do you good!” North and West.