Newspaper Page Text
Vol. IX.— No. I'l
eternal, justice The mail is thought a knave or foal Or bigot, plotting crime. Who. t'oi the advancement of his kind Is wiser than liis time. For him the hemlock shall distill. For him the ax lie bared; For him the gibbet shall he built: For him the stake prepared. Him shall the wrath and scorn of men Pursue with deadly aim. Vnd malice, envy, spite and lies Shall desecrate his name. lint truth shall conquer at the last. For round and round we run. And ever the right comes uppermost, And e.\er is justice done. Pace through thy cell, old Socrates, Cheerily to and fro. Trust to the impulse of thy soul. And let the p lisou flow. They may shatter to earth the lump u day That holds a light divine, I>,ut they cannot <pa udt the lire of thought By any such deadly wine. They cannot blot thy spoken words From the memory of man By all the poison ever was brewed Since time its course began. Today abhorred, tomorrow adored. Mo round and round we run, Vnd ever the truth comes uppermost And ever is justice done. Plod in thy cave, gray anchorite. Be wiser than thy peers. Augment the range of human power Vnd trust to coming years. They may call tliec wizard ami monk a<- cursed. And load thee with dispraise. Thou wert horn livehuudred years too sooi For the comfort of thy days. But not too soon for humankind. Time hath reward in store. And tlie demons of our sires become The saints whom we adore, the blind can see, the slave is lortf So round and round we run. And ever the wrong is proved to be wrong. And ever is justice done. Aud live there now such meu as these. With thoughts like the great of old? Many have died in their misery And left their thought untold. Vnd manv live and are ranked as mad And placed in the cold world’s ban For sending their bright, farseeing souls Three centuries in the van. They toil in penury and grief. Unknown if not maligned. Forlorn, forlorn, bearing the scorn Of the meanest of mankind! But yet the world goes round and round. Vnd the genial seasons run. And ever the truth comes uppermost. And ever is justice done. REFORMATORY AND CONTRACT LABOR SYSTEMS since the adoption of the reformatory system in a great many penal institu tions. another system, that of contract labor, has been abandoned to an extent hardly realized. The agitation carried on by various labor unions against this; system was, no doubt, the primary; cause of its relinquishment in some of the states where the unions were a factor that politicians had to deal with; still this would not account for its abolishment in states where the unions were not a power. The cause thereof must be sought in another di rection, and it is the belief of the writer , that the true reason of its renounce ment is to be found in the fact of its in compatibility with reference to reform atory methods. The object and prin ciple of the two systems are so radically different that it has been impossible to j reconcile them, and as the former has j come to stay the latter must succumb. The object of the one is the reforma- i tion of the prisoner, the aim of the j other is to make money. The reform j system endeavors to train the mind, j heart and hand; to regenerate the man and strenghten him. The contract system, on the other hand, however lib eral the contractor may be, regards the prisoner solely from a labor standpoint. The sole object of the contractor is to derive a profit from the prisoner’s ser vices for so many hours per day, and he is not interested in any manner in his physical, mental or moral welfare. At the expiration of his sentence the con vict is less fit to cope with the outside world than before; as, no matter how long he may have labored at any ma chine or beneh, it cannot be said that he has mastered even the rudiments of !to brood over their position in life, but ment from time to time and. on these a trade He has. perhaps, learned one !to mankind in general. Environment ! occasions, be less plentitu Iv supplied or two details, but the monotony there-1 and the frustration of cherished hopes j with food than usual. In of day in and dav out has simply added j have much to do with the shaping of jority ot cases, ho\ve\er.no mstiuc to the mental ami physical deterioration ! mans destiny and the temperament of ot this kmd are giNen: the «mne which all imprisonment causes. The the human mind, but, as disappoint-; simply handed me, to the keep. g< reformatory System, carried oat to it. ! men, in life ;to conceded to he the ,1m superior of he corned. ,01.. <teaH logical conelusioa. will adopt such in-1 heritage of mankind, we should strive with as she thinks hest. > it<>««« dustries for the employment of the con- to accept it as the inevitable, and not! them <eens the,., clothes then , and victstha, will enable it to advance a j permit it to crush out one of the trims ' pmv.des them with ,nstruct 1 prisoner step hy step until a trade is I which aids in making our sojourn here ; eupatiou; and the g.iverimient t,t s mastered It will establish schools to I below pleasant and one that endears her for what she does.t. kreut/.ersaday : supply aov deficiency in education.thus man to man. It concentrates the mind ,about 7 pence, tor awakening the ambition of the inmates on the present and the future, and as- her care, so hmk. as t e,e a■ jmen " ! and e, ml, tin - them upon their release sists materially in obliterating Hie jin the content the full respons bility ito encounter the world on a tinner I past with its unpleasant events. The for their sate-keeping and general well basis than before. It concedes the fact! recalling of the unprofitable, and in being rests on the «!**• «*'»«• ! that every interest reipiires that the in- many instants disagreeable past, is urn she ts allowe pac ally a tree mates should become good citizens, and time wasted, as such retrospection is apt. |' ; j nu ■" tj on s I that linaneial considerations are of |to cast a shadow of gloom over those I here are, it is tine t ■_ - i secondary importance. Astlie contract; indulging therein, causing a sourness in tnree with regaid lotlie am i system has never yet made an institu-! of temper to he exhibited that partly work liey may ,e leqi ire, ' . j i tion self-supporting, the ditference ostracizes then, from tlie conn,a,lion- the punishments that may be mflKttd the yearly expenditure cannot he so ship of their fellow man and iiisiiringa ;on tliein; hut these aie not ot a nati i very great, and the result produced isso I miserable existence. strong minded to interfere seriousy with <>«««*>» much superior that there can be noqiies- persons seldom it ever give wav lo oat inn. ■ 1 -- ,i ()II |i iiiaiid I tion but what the reformatory system ! melancholy, because they have cult,- autoerat « ith.n he, ■ , „ , a, . is the cheapest in the end. Although vated a spirit of optimism that enables: there are not hat a . 1 causing, at the beginning, a larger out- i them to encounter mishaps without j Kurope today who haveso much power I lay, it has come to stay, and hy so doing letting them alteet their demeanor to tor the wea in «oe *'‘ l '“ ' h<>d th ; ' has sounded the death knell of the con- any marked degree. I hey ma\ be *>!>*-' ldh - J . ...... itrac System Id:, u>.v,st. found at almost ail times enjoying place a government inspector sutUe i tract systen. themselves and in a cheerful mood,, more than her aid de camp: and as tor while their weak-minded brethren are i the great officials who pay her thing getting the worst of the battle of life visits from time to time, they are more on account of their foolishness in per -inclined to seek advice than to give it. mitting the uv-st trivial drawbacks to ; The convent itself is a fine old build run away witii their judgment anil to ; mg which once upon a time nas a eav rutile their manner of deportment, tie, and seems to have been strongly Cheerfulness and moroseness cannot!l fortified. The religious community to exist in the same atmosphere at one and ; which it now belongs received it as a the same time, for the former is con- j present from its owner, who cared more tagious and inevitably overcomes the j for the church than for his heir. There latter as has been demonstrated fre- 1 is nothing in the appearance of the quentlv when a cheerful and dejected j place to show that it is a prison; the spirit have been forced into close com- j courtyard stands open the whole day panionslnp. Cheerfulness never fails j long, and there is never a guard within to triumph over moroseness because it i sight. The doorkeeper is a pretty little assists weak-minded persons to over-1 nun whom a strong woman could easily come the trials and tribulations with j seize up in her arms and run away with, which they will surely be harassed as; She welcomes all comers with the they journey through life, consequent-1 brightest of smiles, and leads them into ly it stands for the welfare of humanity, I the parlor without making a single in making it grow better and helping to j quiry. Although we went provided eliminate man’s inhumanity to man. j with all sorts of introductions, official It creates friends without which lite is and otherwise, it was only after much indeed dreary as many of us here can heart searching that the superior al testify; it aids in the accomplishment lowed us to pass through the great iron of any honorable undertaking because door which separates the part of the to it, mankind is drawn, thereby open- convent where the prisoners live from ing the avenues of approach in the di- i the rest of the building, rection desired. To those cast down j Even here there is nothing gloomy or in spirit it is recommended as a remedy ; p r j SO n like about the place; and, beyond for their ailment. The cultivation of | the f ac t of the door being kept locked, the subject of this article, with the as- j nothing to indicate that they who live sistanee of old Father Time the regu- j therearesubject to any special restraint, lator of all things in his slow but sure xhe beautiful old stone stairease was way. will bring about the desired hooded with sunshine that morning result. M. A. an( j there was a smile on the faces of half the women we passed there. The superior led the way into a large, cheer i ful looking room in which some fifty I women were sitting working. Perhaps half a dozen of them were making match boxes or buttons; and the others were doing line needlework, beautiful embroidery, lace and woolwork, under the guidance of a sister, who looked for all the world as if she had stepped straight out of one of Fra Angelico’s pictures. She passes her life going about among these women distributing to each in turn directions, encourage ment, or reproof, as the case may be, always with a smile on her lips—one, though, in which there is more patient endurance than gladness. Another sister, a woman with a strong sphinx like face, was sitting at the further end of the room on a raised platform. She is there to maintain discipline and guard against those outbursts of temper which from time to time, disturb the harmony of life in this convent. As we entered the room all the women rose and greeted us, in the most cheery fashion, with what sounded like a couplet from an old chant. They speedily took up their work again, how ever, at a sign from the superior. It would be hard to find a more Freedom and liberty are not synon ymous terms, although frequently used as equivalents of each other. Freedom denotes a right, liberty supposes a pre vious restraint. Freedom is a subject that is often discussed by people who possess the least knowledge thereof. It is a matter of importance that all persons should have a clear idea of, and a well-defined opinion as to what in reality constitutes freedom. Through the ignorance of the majority of the people the few have often been able to use the word as a pretense to advance theirown selfish objects, and to commit acts in its name that would not have been tolerated for a moment if the greater number had known the true meaning of the term. Liberty may he divided into three classes: Religious. Personal and Civil. Religious liberty is that in which there is no prohibition of the free exercise thereof, and men are permitted to “worship Rod accord ing to the dictates of their own con science." Personal liberty means the right to come and go without restraint, the right to choose a vocation and to change it; in short, a person has perfect control of mind and body, always with a due regard for the laws of the coun try, the just claims of society and the rights of his fellow man. Civil liberty gives men the power to perform acts in their corporate capacity as citizens, which they are allowed to do as indi viduals. Yet man* may possess all of —Chari.es Mack.vy FREEDOM AND LIBERTY these and still be a most abject slave. It is not neeassarv that man should be ‘deprived of liberty in order to be in a state of bondage. No restraint may have been placed on his speech or ac tions, nevertheless, he is held in the thraldom of his own evil habits or passions. The bondmen of Israel in Egypt, the serfs in Russia, the slaves in our own country possessed liberty compared to the man who surrenders himself to his passions. There may be, on the other hand, all the outward signs of bondage, yet the one so bound may enjoy the highest kind of mental and moral freedom. K. 4115 CHEERFULNESS. Cheerfulness is something that should be cultivated and displayed to such an extent as to completely exclude its op posite, moroseness. The latter is any thing but pleasant to encounter in an individual, or elevating in the estima tion of man. Continual endeavor towards cheerfulness is productive of much good, not only to those isolated from the world and left to themselves “IT IS \EVER TOO LATE TO MEMD.” STILLWATER, MINNESOTA, JANUARY 2. 1896, In Austria, a woman; no matter what she may do, is never regarded or treated quite as a criminal. She may rob, burn, kill set every law at defiance, in fact, break all the commandments in turn without a fear of ever being called upon to face a gallows. She is not even sent to an ordinary prison to do penance for her sins; the hardest fate that can befall her, indeed, is to be compelled to take up her abode for a time in a convent. There the treat ment meted out to her is not so much justice seasoned with mercy, as mercy seasoned, and none too well, with jus tice. Even in official reports she is an i “erring' sister” —one who has, it is true, ! strayed from the narrow path, but quite ! involuntarily. The convent to which Vienna sends its erring sis’ers is at Neudorf, only a few miles away from the city. There any woman who is convicted of either crime or misdemeanor is at once trans ported. The judge before whom she is tried decides, of course, how long she shall remain. He may, too, if he deems it right, give orders that while there she shall pass a day in solitary confine- A CONVENT PRISON. ** V -/Zee, Tcdmc . ) si.im per year, in advance i ekivio. - Months ~*i cents. prosperous looking set of women than these convent prisoners; to see them one would never dream they were sup posed to be undergoing punishment, They are perfect models of cleanliness and order, their hair is carefully dressed their cotton gowns are quite spotless and so are the bright colored lichus they all wear. Physically, they seem to he just about up to the average; hut intellectually, so far as an outsider can j judge, they are considerably either : above or below the great mass ol their j fellows, some of the luces are almost | idiotic in their stupidity; others are quite startlingly clever keen, sharp and sagacious. Although a few of the prisoners looked depressed or sullen, | the great majority seemed not only i contented, but happy, happier by tar J than half the working women one iconics across in the outside world. | There was a touch of something quite j pathetic in the expression of more than | one who was there; it was as if they i had at length found rest and peace ! after much sore tossing, and were j grateful. Pornhiil Magazine. PRISON REFORM Doctor A A'. Pettijohn.of orooktield, contributes to the "State s 1 Ktty, a St. Louis publication, an article on prison reforms, and shows a familiarity with the subject treated which entitles his suggestions to more thau a passing cora mci.i. Doctor Pcttijohr; is the author of a bill introduced at the last session of the Legislature which sought to remedy defects which tie discusses in the more recent article. He insists that there should he a difference in the treat ment and associations of those enemies of society who belong to the habitual criminal class and those who are com pelled to suffer for their first offense. His idea, as embodied in the bill con sidered last winter, was to enlarge the Reform School and to reclaim those who were young arid had been sentenced to the penitentiary for a first offense, by transferring them to another insti tution where the associations were less contaminating and the methods pur sued were educational rather than punitive. There is nothing in the universe 1 fear except that I may not know all my duty, or may not be able to perform it.- M.ary Lyon. The wonderful success of the reform schools throughout the country has forced the consideration of the treat ment of criminals along new lines. It is a subject worthy the best thought of statesmen, as well as humanitarians, and one with which the Missouri law makers must soon deal. The Missouri Penitentiary contains nearly 2,500 convicts. As the State ad vances in population the number will be correspondingly increased. No other State has so large a number of crimi nals under one management, and Miss ouri enjoys the questionable distinction of having the largest penal institution in the world. Older States have found it advisable if not absolutely necessary to build separate penitentiaries, and they have introduced penal methods more in keeping with the progress of science than are in vogue in this State. This is particularly true of Ohio and other States in which the parole system has been tried and found to produce satisfactory results. One of the reasons, perhaps,why Miss ouri has been backward in this matter, is because our penitentiary has been exceptionally successful along the old lines. But this can no longer be urged as an excuse for a continuance of out of-date methods. The only progress made in Missouri in the treatment of criminals has been in the establishment of reform schools for boys and girls. These institutions have clearly demon strated the feasibility of an extension of the methods there employed.