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Vol. XL—No. 20
yOETft: OUR HEROES Here's a hand to the boy who has courage To do what he knows to be right. 'When lie falls in the way of temptation. He lias a hard battle to fight. "Who strives against self and his comrades Will find a most powerful foe. All honor to him if lie conquers. A cheer for the boy who says “No: - ’ There's many a l»attle fought daily The world knows nothing about. There's many a brave little soldier Whose strength puts a legion to rout And he who fights sin single handed Ts more of a hero. 1 say. Than he who leads soldiers to battle And conquers by arms in the fray. Jse steadfast, my boy. when you're tempted To do what you know to be right.. Stand firm by the colors of manhood And you will o’ercome in the fight. "The right." be your battle cry ever In waging the warfare of life. And God. who knows who are heroes. Will give you the strength for the strife. —Phoebe Cary. id Written for Tin Prison Mirror A READING EDUCATION It is said that a man is known by his associates, by the company he keeps; so it can also be said of a man what idea he has for an education, for the betterment of himself, by the books he may be found reading. It matters not how rich or how humble a position a man may lind himself in. education is beyond doubt, his most highly cher ished interest. You will conceive, however, that the education referred to in this sense is not contined to the school room, academy or college, but it includes all the occupations, diver sions. and influences of daily life. If the writer was to be questioned as to what are the two greatest organized educational forces through which the ideals of the present shall become the realities of the future, the answer would be, the school and library; each the compliment of the other. If a canvass were to be taken of our inhab itants. it would very likely be found that a majority had left their school room before they had reached the age of twelve, to complete their education in the forty or fifty years of active life which follow by the use of that leading instrument of the all-impor tant out-of-schoo! education, the book and library. But this opportunity has not been taken advantage of by all. If the majority had, there is no doubt but the population of the various penal institutions would be much smaller todav. The question arises then, to those who are intelligent, and ever ready to r ake hold of a good thing, how shall we prepare ourselves for this book education? We must submit ourselves to a training the same as in the school room, and the discovery will soon be made, through the determination of his interest, what he loves, and it will be found that what a person loves to read discloses more clearly and more surely than anything else, his natural tastes, temperament and intellectual and moral possibilities. And what a person may be led to read during his own training, determines more certainly than any other teaching what shall be the trend, and the character of his personality in these busy years that are still pouring out an abundance of opportunities. There are numberless instances which show that with the reading habit once established and properly directed the work of education and culture goes on entirely independent of school or college. It is known that Lincoln's great language culture was largely due to his reading the Pilgrims' Progress. Many persons have acquired a masterly knowledge of English by the study of Shakespeare and the biole. Burk and Pitt cultivated their wonder ful powers of oratory by committing to memory orations of Demosthenes. It is said that an officer of the German army was rescued from suicide, by the accidental reading of Longfellow’s Psalm of Life. The best writers and poets in all ages obtained both the in spiration and power of expression by reading well written, interesting books. Much of the hidden beauty of nature is often unveiled by the touch of the poet mind. T.J. Sfw Written for Tlic Prison Mirror (>ne of the most difficult, and at the same time, interesting, problems to physiologists and psychologists has ever been the subject of insanity. Opinions have differed and the most learned have evolved theories diamet rical to each other, both as to the cause of the derangement, and to its proper treatment. Some believe insanity to result from a disorganization or degeneration of the nervous system; others believe it to be a disorder existing only in the organs of reason. Many other theories have been advanced which are not worthy of serious consideration; nota ble among which is that of ancient writers attributing it to be the work of evil spirits; and their treatment was vivisection—they cut an opening in the patient to let ths “devil” out! For my part I believe that insanity may result from causes having their origin in the soul, that is, the intellec tuality; or in the physical body, or in both combined. As an example I will compare the soul to a musician and the physical body to a musical instru ment: the musician may be perfect, but the instrument be in such a condi tion that it is impossible to produce harmonious tones: on the other hand the instrument may be perfect and the musician imperfect and consequently the music will be inharmonious. If the instrument and the musician are both imperfect the music will be in ac cordance. In other words, insanity is an inharmonious action either of soul or body, or both. We may divide insanity into two classes: First, those persons whose in tellectual faculties are so deranged that they become dangerous to them selves and their fellowmen: second, persons who are deranged to a lesser degree, and not dangerous in any way. Insanity is by some physiologists classified as follows: perceptional, in tellectual, emotional, volitional ma nia: general paralysis, idiocy and de mentia. The interpretation of the term insanity, has been widened to a great extent from what it was 2000 years ago. and at the present time even monomania is considered insanity. Monomania is the term used when one single faculty of the mind is deranged; as fright, superstition, suspicion, van ity, klepto, dipso, religio, homicidal, melancholic, etc. These faculties may again be affected to a greater or lesser degree. Actions which formerly were regarded as crime are now viewed as symptoms of mental disease. If this view is correct, where shall we draw the line between a sane and insane person ? Close observation proves that every person is more or less affected from one or more kinds of mania, and is still considered sane. I will here give an example of a friend of mine, a doc tor: He was by everybody considered a sane and intelligent man. He had an “it is too LATE to me\d.” STILLAVATER, MINNESOTA, THURSDAY, DECEMBER 9, 1897 INSANITAS. extensive practice and was in good pecuniary circumstances. He had a nice home, a charming wife, and four beautiful children. lie was a strong, healthy person, free from care, and scruples. He enjoyed out-door life which met all the wishes of his heart, gratified all his desires; in brief he lived in continual joy and happiness. He would say; “I am the happiest and most contented man on earth.’’ Hut he was affected with two kinds of mania: One was pride, to such extent that he believed himself independent of God and man; the other was a mania for hunting rare game—and the peculiarity with him in that line was that in place of hunting at home he went to other territories where even the game was more scarce, and of a poorer quality. Finally these rambling trips led him to ruin; he was arrested and sent to prison for the term of four years. In the mean time his wife ob tained a divorce. This left him with out a home or family and in a destitute condition. Then his pride was humili ated; then he first realized that he had been partly insane. The last time I saw him, he said, to use his own words: “I have been the biggest fool on God's earth,” and who can dispute that this man was partly insane when we take his roving mania into consideration? This man migjxt be compared to Thompson's colt that swam the river to get a drink. If 1 understand the word logic right, and use it as a judge in insanity, the decision will be the same as Lord Brougham of England gave in IS4B. He ruled that it was erroneous to suppose that a mind shown to be partially insane could not be really sound upon any subject. If his decision was correct, I will not hesitate to say, there is not one single person in the whole world who is wholly sane. Show me one person with a perfect soul and body combined, which is the requirement to be really sane,- and I will show you a personal, living God. J. F. J. EVOLUTION OF THE MILLIONAIRE. The millionaire has come, and he has probably come to stay. But a million can t make a man happy, un less he would be happy without it, for it's only a bagatelle in these days of 20- story buildings, elevated railways, and multi millionaires. The man with a competency for life, with enough to educate his children and to travel modestly, and not enough to burden him with cares, is richer than all the boodleaires on earth. He is rich in contentment, in honors that smell not of pelf, in the years spent in the com panionship of those he loves, and in the hours of thoughtful leisure which fertilize the heart and afford this world's only beauty culture for the soul. Indeed millionaires are already striv ing to free themselves from the bur dens if not the disgrace of their wealth, and we are fast approaching the time when no man will be satisfied to rest his name and fame on his riches. A certain degree of contempt is felt by all classes for the man who is merely rich, having accomplished noth ing in the world of thought or shown an affectionate care for his fellow creatures. So the rich have come to learn that money alone can not give them joy nor secure regard, and that the highest happiness must be attained by them, if attained at all, through the practice of the love-born truth that they are their brother’s keeper. We are just now passing through a commercial era in which greed is dom inant, but we are laying the founda tion for better things, and the future will lind our nation stronger and our people happier than today. Very soon the important question will not be, how much has he got? but, what is he doing with his fortune? With doubt and hate and greed in our hearts we are standing on the threshold of the new century, but before its hundred years have joined the stately procession of the past the toilers of earth will be working on some profit-sharing plan, and we shall point with shame at the man who has accumulated millions from the public and hasn't the honor to return the borrowed goods. Even now rich men want to be governors and senators, and are anxious for a niche in the world that money cannot buy.. But they are barred from the presidency as much as if they were foreign born, and that highest office in the world is now reserved especially for the poor. A hundred years are but a day in the history of a chosen race, but the cup of bitterness is passing from us, nor have we suffered this travail for naught.— Bede's Budget. WHO ARE CRIMINALS? The old fashioned division of man kind into two sharply marked classes, the good and the bad, was very con venient. We are still compelled to use it, so far as to distinguish two op posite tendencies. There are those who, on the whole, stand mightily for virtue. In every community there are men and women who, if they were taken out, would leave their neighbors morally weaker and poorer. It re mains true to this day that “ten right eous men”—that is, men altogether devoted to righteousness—will save any city. There are also, at the oppo site end of the moral scale, a few men who seem to be wholly enemies to mankind. We think, in this connec tion, of the Pomeroy boy and the Borgias—cases that may almost be classed under the head of moral in sanity. In other typical instances of crime—as, for instance, in the case of Judas and Benedict Arnold—we at once find good in them mingled with the evil. May we not say that men are mor ally like the trees in an orchard? Most of the trees bear only passable fruit. They nearly all suffer from pest, dis ease, and occasional blight. They show the marks of inadequate care and tend ing. Some are crowded badly or over shadowed by others. Only a few, thor oughly healthy and sound, offer yon really excellent fruit. On the other hand, only a few are so worthless as not to bear, at least, a few cider apples. All, if you would spend the necessary time in cultivating them, are improv able. The tree is extremely rare that can not take a graft. This parable is more ancient than Calvinism. If we allow it to stand as the symbol of the moral facts about men, shall we have place for any crim inal class? Perhaps some one reminds us of the sneak thief, the professional burglar, the murderer. These stand for the survival of the old-time sav agery. As the board of health will not let lepers walk the streets, so the courts will not tolerate the more barbarous forms of immorality. But this legal division of a little por tion of the people into a criminal class is merely on the surface. The real moral offense is to do what is socially hurtful. The laws only reach the lowest stratum of acts that are thus socially hurtful. The burglar falls below, and infringes against, tlie con ventional standard that the whole community has set up. And we catch him, if we can, and shut him up in jail. But what shall we say of the man high up in the ranks of the respectable, the educated, and the virtuous, who also falls wholly below r and infringes against clearly seen and recognized standards of justice and purity, or does violence to the public good? * * * Let us, then, give up altogether our old ideas of a criminal class. Let us, T E R M <?.j $1.0(1 per year, inailvauc Slx Months 50cents. go over consistently to the idea of our parable of the orchard. There is, doubtless, disease in the orchard. The worst disease is not in the scraggy trees on the rough ground; it is as likely to be in the fair trees in the well-watered places. Our most serious problem is not with the few sickly trees that may die before we can save them, so much as it is with the whole orchard, with the average tree, with the good tree that has been struck with a blight. We begin already to see what to do with such as 1 Irani or the Pomeroy boy. I>y and by we shall be wise enough to establish suitable hospitals for the surviving victims of the savage state. We will not even call them prisons. We will tend our patients till they are well, with suitable diet and exercise. We will no more let the sneak-thief or the burglar come out to practise his barbarism than we would let the maniac escape. Will it not strike the imagination of the “hood lum” and “tough,” when society pro poses to take his wildness in hand, as the kind but firm surgeon takes ac count of a sore V Do you not see that it will strike a new and wholesome fear into the mind of the burglar, when society stops altogether trying to punish him, and undertakes to cure him instead, if it requires his life time? The great problem, however, is not what to do with the surviving savages among us. The problem that deserves most attention is how to improve the moral health of the whole community. The life of society depends upon its average men and women. The average moral health in America is as yet far below par. The remnants of the old savage rivalries, prejudices, bitter* ness, are not only in the slums of big cities. The health of society depends even more upon the tone of its leaders in business, in politics, in society, in edu cation, in religion. Give ns plenty of leaders, sound and true to the heart, reverent, fearless, obedient to every heavenly vision—give us, in place of time-servers and cowards, men for our leaders who believe really in God -and the whole nation will feel the rising glow of moral health.—Christian Reg ister. A SACRED HOUR To man of the higher type there comes a s.acred hour when his heart, wrenched but a short while ago by convulsive agony, turns in sudden exultation of spirit to virtue. The transition is as strange as that by which a man passes from one system of belief to another, or from a high pitch of anger to a melting forgive ness of all offenses. This solemn hour, in which virtue is born into life, is the sweetest ever known to man. He feels as though the body, with all its weight of ills, were lifted away from him, and enjoys the mysterious bliss of having no contradictions within him. His chains fall off from him. Nothing m the wide world can affright him now, though but a short time since all things filled him with a shivering aw r e. That is a great night when the angel is born in a man, when a new world ap pears on his horizon, when all obstruct ing clouds are swept away, and virtue, like a very sun, pours light and warmth in upon his heart. London Echo. So far as possible the evening should not only be spent at home by the vari ous members of the family, but they should spend it together. Simply to be at home does not answer the home requirement. To be thoughtlessly or selfishly absorbed in one’s own special pursuit, absent or apart from the home circle, is not discharging the duty. To be in the house is not to be in the home—J. F. W. Ware.