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Edited and Published by the Inmates of the Minnesota State Prison. Entered at the post office at Stillwater, Minn., as second-class mail matter. This paper will be forwarded to subscribers until ordered discontinued and all arrears are paid. Should THE MIRROR fall to reach a subscn' .-r each week, notice should be sent to this office and the matter will b*- a (tended to at once. Contributions solicited from all sources. R- looted manuscript will not be returned. THE MIRROR is issued every Thursday at the following rates: One Tear - -- -- -- -- -- - SI.OO Six Months - -- -- -- -- -- -.60 Three Months - -- -- -- -- - - .26 To inmates of penal institutions 50 cts. per year Address all communications, Editor PRISON MIRROR, Stillwater, Minn. THE MIRROR, is a weekly paper published in the Minnesota State Prison. It was founded in 1887 by the prisoners and is edited and man aged by them. Its objects are to be a home newspaper; to encourage moral and intellectual improvement among the prisoners; to acquaint the public with the true status of the prisoner; to disseminate penological Information and to aid in dispelling that prejudice which has ever been the bar sinister to a fallen man’s self-redemption. The paper is entirely dependent on the public for its financial support. If at any time there should accrue a surplus of funds, the money would be expended in the nterests of the prison library. ALIi PERSONS receiving: copies of THE MIRROR who are not on our regular lists will please consider such as sample copies. If, after reading, you conclude that THE MIRROR is worthy of patronage send your name to this office for a trial subscription at rates as published above. The oldest code of laws in the world was re cently discovered by French archaeologists in Susa, the ancient capital of Persia. There are 282 of them, short, sweet and decidedly to the point, framed by King Hammurabi of Babylon about 2,300 years before Christ. Engraved on a block of stone, they have withstood the action of the .elements to be deciphered, translated and commented upon by French and German savants in the twentieth century A. D. The code was received direct by Hammurabi from the sun god. The king explains this. Many of them differ but little from the English laws of two centuries ago and some which are in force today. Mercy is conspicuous by its absence, as is to be expected in a code emanating from such a primitive civilization. But then, even today one can find traces of the “eye for an eye and tooth for a tooth” doctrine if one but looks for it. Among the first provisions of the code is one calculated to uphold the probity of the bench. It says: “If a Judge has charge* of a trial and passes a judgment and this judgment has been put into work ing, and if afterward it turns out that this judgment has, been false and the Judge is then convicted of having given a false decision, then he shall return the tine he has inflicted twelvefold and he shall be deprived of his office as Judge and shall never return to this office.” Another discourages housebreaking in the fol lowing manner: “If anybody breaks a hole into a house he shall be killed in front of this hole and shall be burned there.” Here are some other selections from the code, which, while they were written some five hundred years before the time of Moses, prove that the Jews were not alone in their outspoken desire for ven geance: “If a son strike his own father, his hands shall be hewn off. “If anybody strikes out the eye of another, his own eye shall be forfeited. “If anybody breaks the bone of another, his bone, too, shall be broken. “If anybody destroys the teeth of his equal, his teeth, too, shall be broken.” The anthracite coal strike commission is bring ing to light many facts which must puzzle the average reader, unacquainted with the conditions that prevail in the anthracite region, and the hetero geneous mass which constitutes the miners’ union. The operators and the attorneys for the non-union men are making strenuous efforts to prove that a reign of terror existed during the late strike, and their efforts are being ably seconded by certain newspaper and magazine writers. But they seem to be damaging their own case. Charles H. Schadt of Scranton, sheriff of Lackawanna county, testified before the commission that he appealed to Mr. Mitchell to assist in keeping the peace; that the miners’ president promised to do so, and in several instances was of material help to the sheriff. The Lackawanna county sheriff admitted that the forty or fifty deputies employed by him were paid by the coal companies. Mr. Schadt also admitted that the state of law- lessness was not general, but was restricted to certain localities. He further admitted that, as a rule, crowds dispersed when he ordered them to do so, and that striking miners whom he knew 'obeyed his NOTICE. orders the same as other persons. Some of the non-union miners testified that they had been threatened sud beaten by strikers. While this, no doubt, is true, yet when we consider the make-up of the 140,000 and more strikers the wonder is not that there was some lawlessness, but that there was so little of it. The anthracite coal miners represent all the nations of Europe and some of the nations of Asia. A vast number of them have but little knowledge of the English language, and thousands are unable to understand more of it than “good mornin’,” “how do,” “dammit” and such like expressions. It is no exaggeration to say that at least one-fourth of them are totally unacquainted with the laws and institutions of this country. A strong current of racial prejudice is every where manifest in this conglomerated mass of man kind. A Hungarian and a Russian may work in the same mine, and if the Hungarian strikes and the Russian remains at work, or yields to the blandish ments of the operators and does his best to help break the strike, the Hungarian will see in the con duct of the Russian a confirmation of his precon ceived notions about the Russians in general, to wit: that they are “no good;” that they are his natural enemies, and, as such, not fit to live. It needs no clairvoyant to foretell that whenever their interests clash there will be a fight. The same may be said of other nationalities. The Italian hates the Austrian; the German-Austrian looks with disdain upon the Slavonian-Austrian; the Herzegovinian loves not the Bohemian; the Bohe mian scowls when he sees a Wallachian or a Croat; the Bosnian and the Steyermarcker are not friends; and the Germans, the Welch and the Irish are dis liked by all the others. Great must have been the misery which cemented together these warring fac tions! Great must have been the tact and ability of John Mitchell to control this heterogeneous mass, antagonistic in its parts, and which from the very nature of its components must have strongly resisted integration. To hold in check the jealousies, the prejudices and the hatred of 140,000 men, representing more than twenty nationalities, requires genius of the highest order. Taking into consideration all the difficulties Mr. Mitchell and his lieutenants had to contend with, it must be admitted that the task performed by them was truly Herculean, and they deserve the unstinted praise of all lovers of law and order for conducting one of the greatest strikes on record, and under peculiarly difficult circumstances, in such an able and peaceful manner and with so little attendant lawlessness and bloodshed. Josiah Flynt Willard, whose writings under the name of “Josiah Flynt” are familiar to most news paper and ntagazine readers, is said to be one of the private detectives in the employ of the New York district attorney. Mr. Willard, so the papers say, was the one to get the most important evidence against the notorious Canfield and his associates. This is interesting news. The general impression has been that Mr. Willard sought the “under world,” as Professor Wyckoff sought the world of unskilled labor, in order to study it from a sociolog ical point of view, and not with the ulterior motive of turning his observations to pecuniary advantage. His articles on the “powers that prey” are always extremely interesting, even if they are sometimes on the borderland of the inconceivable, and when he has passed through this new experience he will probably have much more of interest to impart. If Mr. Wil lard is to be taken at his own valuation, be has a wonderful knack of getting strangers to confide in him. This being true, he should make an admirable private detective. Some enterprising Berlin people have managed to get a good deal of free advertising of late by eat ing a meal of horse meat. The banquet, so called, was given under the auspices of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, which hoped thereby to attain the double purpose of educating the public to an appreciation of horse flesh as a viand and also to create a market for old and broken down horses. It is questionable if the desired end will be readily achieved. No one objects to eating horse meat on sanitary grounds, for the horse is certainly no more repulsive than the moose, elk or steer; but there is a sentiment attached to the noble quadruped that would make picking his bones savoriof cannibalism to most people. Hogs and horses are almost like mem bers of the family when it comes to making food of them. And tho you can eat a relative if necessity drives, still you don’t hanker after the experience. However, horse flesh may become a popular dish both in Germany and America. Parisians eat horses, but they also go in strong for cats, so that doesn’t count. In order to attain its object, the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals will have to educate the public to the jtoint where a man can consider horse eating seriously without feeling like an ingrate and an inhuman monster. This will take time. ODDS AND ENDS. Bathing suits seem to be grow ing more abbreviated. An ex change says a yard of cheese cloth is sufficient for half a dozen. This ought to be good oheap summer clothing for poor people. 9 9 9 The debt of the United is sl4 per capita, in England SB7 and in France sll6. 9 9 9 The word Kansas seems to be suggestive of food for ridiculous thought, jest, irony and freakism. Kansas has been the butt-end of so many jokes that most people of the east seem to look upon that state as being a little wild and woolly west set off by itself, and to them everything and anything emanating from Kansas is only regarded figuratively and insin cerely. But in spite of some draw backs, Kansas is a great state. Eastern Kansas is among the rich and beautiful agricultural portions of the United States and its cities and / towns will compare favorably with those of any other portion of the country. That state has pro duced some brainy men and many who are rapidly making their mark in the world. Mr. William Allen White, who for a number of years has been running a news paper at Emporia, Kansas, and who also is a native of that state, is now recognized as one of the ablest writers of the United States. The Curtis Publishing Company, Philadelphia, publishers of the Ladies' Home Journal and the Satur day Evening Post , recently paid the following high compliment to Mr. White’s ability: “There are per haps three or four men in the length and breadth of the oountry who can write on political topics as sanely, shrewdly and clearly as Mr. White; but not one of them possesses in like degree his fine native humor or his ability to wring the last drop of human in terest out of his subject and into his writing. Mr. White has also the rare gift for stripping a com plex theme of its nonessentials and showing it forth in its simplest terms.” 9 9 9 It has been determined by scientists that the highest moun tain in the moon is at least thirty five thousand feet in height. 9 9 9 A little girl in Poland who re ceived a medallion portrait of the emperor of Germany threw it on the floor and stamped it under her feet. The little rebel was sent to prison for two weeks to learn to love the emperor. 9 9 9 On a cold day it may be any where from zero to 40 below, ac cording to the price of the ther mometer. Ten thermometers in the same neighborhood may show ten different degrees of tempera ture. In view of the high prices of fuel this winter, people ought to declare a boycott against cheap thermometers and thus procure warmer weather. 9 9 9 “Smoke your hams with ‘Smok ine’ Imported extract of smoke. It is easy to use, saves time and money as it is brushed on.” Thus runs an advertisement in some of the publications. In southern California an apparatus has been invented, and in operation for some time past, for harnessing and utilizing the heat of the sun. Now we may reasonably expect, in the not distant future,, to be able to purchase most of the ne cessities, comforts, luxuries and pleasures of life in the form of extracts, etc., put up in packages, oompressed and prepared for con- venient and instant use. A winter’s supply of heat may be purchased by the package and as it will al ready be manufactured there will be no necessity of fuel for heating or cooking. Arctio explorers or dwellers of our northern states can put up packages of cold weather in the winter time, for summer use, thus obviating the necessity of ice for ices and ice cream and also to relieve suffering humanity in the oppressive summer heats, sun strokes, etc. When pork is wanted at a meal one may simply open a package of compressed squeals and grunts and partake of the essence of swine. When butter is wanted a package of extract of oleomargarine may be opened, letting out a few whiffs of its perfume and there you’ll have your butter without the butter; and so on ab ovo usque ad mala. 9 9 The editor of an exchange an nounced that he would write an article on “Hell, and Who Will be There.” Since then he has re ceived letters from seventeen news paper men, forty-nine lawyers, ten bankers, thirty barbers, fifty drug gists, sixty-six judges, one hundred policemen, two hundred detectives and four hundred saloonkeepers, threatening to stop their paper and sue him for slander if he should dare to mention any names. 9 9 9 Recent experiments in grafting vegetables show that it is possible to graft together almost any two varities of the same species, or two of widely different families and it is also claimed that entirely new types may be obtained by this process. Maybe a genuine species of greenbacks will eventually be grown. There are too many money grafts. 9 9 9 In the Christmas Century Dr. S. Weir Mitchell has an article on “Heroism in Everyday Life.” The doctor draws a comparison of pres ent day altruism with that of the seventeenth century, not of the sacrifices involved in any form of charity, in giving money, but simply deals with self-risking heroism. He engaged ODe of the clipping agencies to send him for a year the reports of perilous self devotion to be found in American daily papers and from this in complete source 1163 instances were reoorded in ten months. From comparisons, facts and figures gathered by Dr. Mitchell, it is evident that the tendency of the times is a marked improvement in the humanitarian attitude of man to his fellows and even to animals. Tho we sometimes think the world is filled with hard heartedness and selfishness, there are many instances every day in the year in which man plunges into danger to save a fellow-being, and it seems that acts of heroism and other forms of assistance prompted by kindly feelings toward others are con stantly increasing. Brought face to face with danger men very frequently assist one another unconsciously, with no thought of why or how they do it. Torture and extreme punishments for minor offenses no longer exist. The growing regard of mankind, for the needs and rights of others is seen in many ways, in the abolition of slavery and the slave trade, iil the fostering of education, in free dom of modes of worship, in liberty of speeoh, etc. These influences, mould characters which represent the growing altruism of modem, life andjprove its influence. ...8Y... H. J. B. ' I 'p I N " 1