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Paper Read Before ine cnauuiwiua Circle. THE City of Chicago is built on h large plain. Its early historv is similar in many respects to that of numerous other towns. The first white set tler appeared at an early date and was soon followed by others. The Indians were dispossessed of their lands in the usual manner and they retaliated by a massacre. The town grew rapidly—so have others. When the Civil War broke out they were quick to re spond, just as numberless other towns. Some years later with the assistance of a cow and a lantern the town burned up, this being its first historical event of any impor tance. We have seen numerous other towns achieve fame in a sin gle night on the same basis. Then came the World’s Fair. Chicago grew apace, in common with the section of our countrv known as the Middle West, until its inhabitants now number two millions, and in area it spreads over a plain twenty miles north and south by ten miles east and west. Its commerce is vast. This great plain is but slightly elevated above the expanse of water on which it verges and contains scarcely a grade. The distinguish ing features are few, and with the exception of the Masonic Temple and the Auditorium tow er, there is nothing to relieve the monotony. The approach from the lake is best. As you come in that way the long reach of shore lifts itself slightly from the water line, with a low heap in the middle, where you presently begin to make out a dark clustter of buildings. To the north is Lincoln Park with its fine grounds, while Jackson Park lies in a southerly direction. If you approach by rail from the west the first thing to attract yoar attention is the smoke cloud, but presently you lose this by pene trating it. You are carried by charming suburbs followed by some miles of backs of flats. Also there are factories, warehouses, and numerous frame shanties —the latter in all stages of dilapidation. Suddenly the train stops and you find yourself in town. The chances are that you don’t like it. The elevated trains roar over your head. Street car gongs are ringing continually, but the cars never seem to be moving, for you may see a blockade of them half a mile long. Soft coal smoke drifts down over you making you congh and shut your eyes. The buildings are all dingy. If it has rained and your business takes you into the wholesale district you may find the mud ankle deep. Down La Salle St. in the financial re gion great buildings tower, but you don’t see a sprig of green any where. You may see a big dun oolored, gloomy-looking building, with the glimmer of electric lights hardly visible, and large cast iron spittoons standing at convenient intervals in the dark corridors. On inquiry you will be informed that this is the City Hall which began to fall to pieces before the interest came due on the bonds is sued to erect it. In this portion of the city business is congested and the crowd is everywhere, but if you are here to do business you are well pleased. For when it comes down to commercial equip ment and the ability to operate it, this oity is not excelled anywhere in the world. There are no notable public buildings with the exception of the new Post Office recently fin- ished. Neither do you see any statues of famous men, but you see names on windows and over doorways that are deeply signifi cant. There are many houses each first in its field, private concerns whose revenues are immense and their establishments are the best equipped in the country. Many critics claim that the great thing about the city of Chi cago is that it yet remains to be made. Truly the city has not found it self. Mr. John Farson in the cur rent number of the World Today says: “To this center come the herds and flocks of the great western plains, at the rate of fifty thousand animals every day of the year, and thus Chicago becomes the greatest packing center of- the world, handling three-fourths of the meat produots of the country. In Chicago are grain elevators so many and so large that the vast grain product of the W est never gluts them, altho it flows in un ceasingly, by every rail and water way, in such volume that figures seem futile in trying to tell the tale of the bushels. In Chicago harbors is floated a greater ton nage than in any other port of the entire world, with a water com merce surpassing that of New York, Boston, Philadelphia and Baltimore combined. The mail order business of the entire coun try revolves about Chicago, and especially about two great houses whose thousand-page catalogues are found in almost every farm house in the west. One of these houses is now about to build, with in the heart of Chicago, a veritable city of its own —a city made nec essary for its gigantic plant and the homes of its vast army of em ployees. “As a financial center, Chicago ranks next to New York. Three of its banking houses are veritable palaces. Two of Chicago’s banks have at this time deposits of al most one hundred millions each. The great deposits in Chioago banks indicate the rapid increase of prosperity in the West and mark a better condition of the middle and poorer classes.” The Lake Shore Drive boasts the finest residences in the city and in truth they are as fine as need be anywhere. The South Side, on Drexel Boulevard, Mich igan Boulevard and Prairie Ave nue also has many fine and attractive homes. There is an ex cellent system of public parks and boulevards for which money has been liberally provided and spent to good advantage. Chicago is confined on one side only, the east. In three other di rections it has the wide area of the Mississippi Valley to spread over. So there are numberless localities within thirty or forty minutes of down town where one who is by no means a millionaire can and does have a good house with a modest expanse of lawn. He even may have an occasional onion, rad ish, or pint of peas from his own garden. Mr. Will Payne says that Chi cago has more Swedes than Stock holm, more Germans than Berlin, more Jews than Jerusalem and more Irish than New York. This tremendous mixture has hardly begun to blend. But one signifi cant point must not be overlooked —namely, it has gone further in the direction of municipal govern ment than any other great Amer ican oity. The campaign for an honest oity council, taken up in dependently by certain leading men and the best part of the local press, has for some years found a public response. And that cer tainly is worthy of commendation. Chioago is above all the town of the West, of the great new em pire. F. Art and Life. Few men can paint great pictures That speak through eye to soul; Few men can write true poems, A nation’s thought control; Few men compose grand music That speaks tnrough ear to heart For God ne’er grants to many To give their days to art. But lives may be so holy That he who sees them, reads Such lines as make great poems, The greatness of high deeds, And they may be so lovely That they like pictures shine, And pulsate with the concord Of harmony divine. —Ex A STEP FURTHER. From present indications it is reasonable to presume that the freight rates of the various rail roads and transportation compa nies of the country will be, in the near future, regulated by national legislation. This seems to be quite right as many transportation companies arc now earning a greater income than their cost justly warrants, and rates should be reduced when they are burden some to a degree detrimental to the prosperity of the country. These companies are the natural opponents to this proposed legis lation and will, so far as they can, secure the assistance of their em ployees to make demonstrations against it by declaring that a re duction of rates will result in a decrease in wages. It is not the intention to reduce the freight rates so that the wage scale need be cut, and no one fears any such results; yet, if they cannot defeat this measure they may use it as a pretext and cause the labor unions trouble. Now if it is equitable and just to regulate the freight rates by legis lation, why not go a step further and regulate wages by the same metho l? The one appears as fea sible as the other. The unions by strenuous efforts and no little ex pense, have partly succeeded in maintaining a fairly respeotable standard of wages. And it is no cause for wonder that they are unable to attain the full ends to which they so justly aspire, since they are compelled to battle alone with powerful corporations — whose inflated revenues are not used to pay higher wages to em ployees, but are disposed of in other directions and on different objects —without aid or recognition of any consequence from legislatures and are often handicapped by court injunctions. Labor, in fost ering unions, which are created for the protection of wage earners, is put, necessarily, to a consider able expense that could be greatly reduced if national legislation would perform the same or a simi lar office that is proposed for other interests. The general public al so would be greatly benefited for this policy would effectually elim inate boycotts, lockouts, strikes and many other grievances that are, from time to time, trust upon the people. It is also reasonable to suppose that a moral benefit would accrue; for the laboring man, as a voter, would select for his representative men of sterling worth and undoubted integrity, knowing that his own welfare de pended, in a great measure, on the election to office of just such men, and perhaps we would be near the time of the “federation of man —the parliament of the world.” Paul. Throwing millstones at men is not the same thing as giving them flour. —Ex. Cove’s fleeting Dream. One night I lay tossing and moaning In sorrow and anguish and pain; Weird phantoms, near reason dethroning, Were peopling my feverish brain. No light In my dungeon was burning— In my heart—the darkness of night. Witli pain lay I tossing and turning. And yearning for freedom and light. Then a calmness of peace came o’er me; And my room was flooded witli light, t, ) And behold! there stood bending o'er me A maiden in garments white. Her hair was like gold in the sunshine, Her cheek like the snow and the rose; Teeth like pearls and lips like the grapevine, ( 05 In her smile lay the sweetest repose. In her look there was love and kindness— Her eyes were a heavenly blue. t In my heart, where before was blindness, ( Came a light and gladness all new. My wild, throbbing heart near breaking. Was stilled by her presence, and now My much-tortured brain ceased its aching $ When she laid her hand oiv my brow. t > “Who art thou?” I asked in my wonder; “An angel sent here from above. Or a fairy from over yonder?’’ But she whispered: “Nay, I am love.” “Then Angel of love do not leave me, Remain here forever, I pray; My life is a barren without thee— Thou hast turned my night into day.” Site gazed at me smiling so sadly; Then suddenly turned and was gone. While I—O may kind heaven help me! Was left in my misery, alone. Tiieu I stretched forth my hands imploring, , From my heart came a smothered scream. And awoke, perspiring and trembling; For Lo! it was only a dream. Ehkritus. pL I to The ZemstYOS. Daring the last year much has been written about the interior disorders in Russia. Among var ious dissatisfied humanity the Zemstvos take a prominent part and it would be of interest to know something about that insti tution. The word Zemstvos means land class, what we would simply call farmers’ party. Those residing in the remote districts had little opportunity to be heard, and it became their desire to ob tain certain privileges, which were generally denied by a despot ic monarch. The Zemstvos were formed in 1864. The law, which created them read, that with the initiation of this reform a founda tion for a perfect self-government was to be laid; also, to eventpally put into force their hopes for lib erty and bring to a fruitful end their endeavors for independence of speech and constitutional rights. The last clause was point ed towards a move to obtain a con stitution, which clause became the topic of lively discussion in the early sixties. A correspondent of a German paper states, that the Russian government only intended to grant certain rights; among them the regulation of county tax es, county schools and the care taking of the poor in their respective districts only. But as no' agreement whatever was sufficient to satisfy both par ties, serious clashes were the im mediate outcome. The aristocracy, of course, had the greater power. It fared badly with the Zemstvos, who grew more discontented day by day. Besides the nobles, other opposition arrayed themselves against the country class, even dur ing elections the powerful force of the emperor’s hand was felt. Everything was done to break the given promises and nothing was left undone to break the spirit of liberty. Most of the grants were withdrawn. In 1890 the Russian govern ment inaugurated a general olean up among the Zemstvos delegates. Rich men, nobles and heartless hirelings bought up votes; instead of eleoting their own kind, the farmer party cast their ballots in favor of false friends, who proved to be members of the aristocracy and, of course, opposition. When delegates met for roll call, only thirteen per cent were Zemstvos. It is next to the impossible to ex pect any favors from the present government, and it seems that Nicholas is doomed, unless he or ders more liberty and less red tape among the lower classes. The accounts of misery in our daily press are not too severe; no body can picture the ignorance of Russian peasants. Finlanders are not even allowed to use their own language, and education is not permitted, less they learn too much. Anyone who ever watched the flow of people coming into Ellis Island, can picture the appalling condition under which they labor in their home country. The land of liber ty is open to them. They can find peace and comfort only in emi gration. They are welcome to try their fortune in America. (Trans lated from the German) by 1268. Untrodden Paths. Yr LL the way adown life’s journey. LA May untrodden paths be found. / 1 O’er its heights and through Its valleys. And the wilderness, around. Stories of knowledge lies secreted Deep within the paths untrod, Willing hands are dally striving To uproot, and turn the sod. Genius daily Is now treading Paths that man ne’er trod before. And revealing hidden treasures; Offering the world its store. Do not think the gateway fastened. Opened only unto few, Touch the spring and it may open With a flood of light, to you. Paths there are that all may open, Still untrodden, nigh at hand^ It will take faith to unfold them With ambition’s embers fanned. Those who grope fore’er in darkness, And pass by with blinded sight, Never can attain their object. And succeed without the light. Mines of wisdomjlte unopened, Overlooked and long passed by, Courage venture and go forward And their mysteries decry. Oft the path may look too arduous, Rugged, steep, and hard to climb; If undaunted perseverance Will unfold the prize in time. —Annette Hankinson Rowe. A certain Benedict was in tbe habit of troubling his father-in law with complaints about his wife’s behavior. “Really, this is too bad,” cried the irascible old gentleman one day, on hearing of some of his daughter’s delinquen cies. “If I hear any more com plaints I will disinherit her.”- London Telegraph. You never know how much re ligion you have until some one treads on your best corn.—Ex. Worry never made anything— but wrinkles.—Ex.