Newspaper Page Text
- - HISTORICAL
6/)e MIRROtk A I Published WeeKly 1 A Vol. XIX.—No. 16 Statesmanship as a profession. THE other evening The Mirror ' editor called at my cel!, asking me to contribute to this paper. 1 shall do so with pleasure. He suggested that 1 write something about John Hay Everything pertain ing to the life and deeds of this la mented personage, was thoroughly ventilated in the public press only a few months ago. I would, therefore, be giving to myself a testimonial-©! in tellectual poverty if I started my debut with a recapitulation of well-known facts. Hut I shall try to approach the editor’s idea by writing something about statecraft and diplomacy that may be news to most readers. The two appellations are not synony mous. Daniel Webster, Wm. Evarts and James G. Blaine were statesmen. The former two had no equals, the latter little opportunity to distinguish himself as a diplomat in the proper sense of its meaning. And I may mention right here that “the proper sense” of the word received a slight rectification within the last half cen tury. Diplomacy was first brought into prominence by the three great cardi nals: Wolsey of England, and Riche lieu and Mazarin of France. These men, as well as Talleyrand, Metternich and other famous diplomats, were shrewd and highly intelligent states men; but they frequently subordinated the interests of their country to the interests of partisanship and selfish motives. They were by no means choice in the means they employed. Intrigue, deceit and falsehood were often resorted to. They employed and took shelter behind female petty coats. They made tools, not only of queens, princesses and influential ladies, but also, and even more so, of royal favorites. In those days another pow erful factor in the field of diplomacy had to be reckoned with. This was the Church of Rome which, for many cen turies, wielded an influence in Eur - pean state affairs far superior to that of any earthly potentate, or even com binations of potentates. It was prin cipally the profoundly learned, polished, and highly cultured disciples of Igna tius of Loyola who executed the mandates issued from Rome, or from the general of their own order. But in no case did these emissaries force their individual personality into the foreground, and that is the reason why history does not record them as diplo mats, tho they were, in reality, the greatest and most powerful of them all. As space does not permit me to en ter into too close details, I shall come at once to that period when diplomacy had reached the very apex of perfec tion, as far as skill and statecraft in Europe are concerned. That was only forty years ago. Then England had Lord Beaconsfield (Disraeli), Prussia had Bismarck, Russia had Gortchakof, Austria had Beust, Italy had Cavour, and France had Napoleon HI. It may surprise many that I class this last personage among the greatest of states men; but l insist that he properly be longs there. In spite of his tragic ate, Napoleon 111. was an unusually skillful diplomat, who for over two decades was the leading figure in the politics of the world. He bad re-established the empire of his great uncle and namesake; had brought about the coa lition against Russia (Crimean war, 18534); had set Victor Emanuel on the Italian,and Maximilian on the Mexican throne; had made Egypt a quasi-de pendency of France; had constituted himself protector of the papal domin ion, and, in fact, had “had his finger in every pie” Only a few months before his empire was shattered to the winds by the German conquerors, Napoleon, by a national plebiscite, had managed to strengthen his hold on a throne that STILLWATER, MINNESOTA, THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 2, 1905. was already tottering under his very feet. While Napoleon, Gortchakof, Beust and Cavour were diplomats of the old school, that is intriguers who did not hesitate to resort to deceit and subterfuges as long as they thought it would further their object, Disraeli and Bismarck successfully established the modern school of diplomacy. These two eminent statesmen invari ably followed the path they had con templated to take, and scorned to gain their ends by the adoption of deceit and other contemptible means. If the old proverb that “nothing suc ceeds like success” holds good in di plomacy as well as in most other matters, Bismarck was undoubtedly the greatest diplomat of all times. Within the short space of seven years, (1864-1871) and with the help of three successful wars, Bismarck managed to free a conglomeration of small inde pendent states from outward interfer ence and from internal disorders, to strengthen his native kingdom of Prussia, to re-establish the German Empire, and to make himself the most prominent factor in European politics. The fact that he was greatly assisted in his endeavors by Moltke and the splendid Prussian army organization, does not detract from his merit, for it was the genius of Bismarck that made these and the general condition of Europe subservient to his wishes. Bismarck lived fully twenty-five years after his greatest coup, the creation of the German Empire, had become an accomplished fact, and, tho his last seven years were spent in involun tary retirement from office, yet at the time of his death, and even up to this day, his great achievements have lost none of their luster. In connection with the above named six great statesmeh, I desire to make mention of an English contemporary celebrity, Gladstone, who was apprecia ted and honored in this as much as in his own country. Gladstone was a great and good man, sincerely desirous for the welfare of his fellow citiz ens. Nevertheless history will hardly place him amqng the great statesmen because his efforts were devoid of good results, for his internal policy, particu larly his home rule ideas proved vacil- lating and untenable, and his foreign policy brought nothing but failure — to use a very mild expression. Statecraft and diplomacy, always of the most vital importance, are gaining i in prominence from year to year, and bid fair to supersede, at least in many respects, the importance that was hitherto attached to military and naval supremacy. In recognition of this fact, most European nations have made diplomacy a regular profession. About fifty years ago, many of their larger universities created an extra faculty for diplomacy under the name of “cameraria,” which comprise the study of international law, treaties and prec edents, ancient and modern history and geography in their minutest details, a study of general international econ omy, of the financial and other re sources of every individual nation, and of many other things too multi farious to find mention in this article. After the student has suc cessfully absolved all those branches, he is given a minor position in the foreign office of his country. If there he proves himself talented and adapted to the purpose, he will be attached to some consulate, mission or embassy, and will be left to work his way up wards, just like an officer has to work his way up, from cadet and midship man to that of lieutenant and up to general and admiral—if he ever gets that far. The higher positions, such as secretary in the home cabinet, or minister plenipotentiary, or ambas sador, require specific adaptability, tal- “IT IS NEVER TOO LATE TO MEND.” ent and tact. For instance, a man destined for a foreign mission must speak fluently the language of the country he is sent to; must be thor oughly familiar with the resources and customs of that country; must have studied the particularities, talents and weaknesses of the head of that country and his ministers, and the legislative bodies; must be an adept in.negotiat ing with secret and other agents; and must possess many other qualities of which an ordinary person does not even have an idea. Let us now turn from these Euro pean conditions to those in the United States. As far as I know only three of our prominent men, George Bancroft, the historian, Andrew White and John Hay, have studied diplomacy theoret ically. In spite of that, we have man aged exceedingly well, and we have had very smooth sailing—so far. Our country has produced a large number of talented and gifted men who might have become a great credit to any dip lomatic corps, if it had been advisable and necessary for them to acquaint themselves with all the details of di plomacy. Even as it is, what little had to be done before the Spanish war, has been done in a mutually satisfactory manner. This is due principally to our isolation from all foreign entan glements, to the enormous richness of our national resources, and to our geographical position. The interna tional questions that confronted us in former years, even those during and m consequence of the wars of the revo lution, 1812, 1848 and of the rebellion, have been settled with comparative ease. There is nothing in all those years that will be recorded in history as a great diplomatic achievement, ex cept the now famous doctrine of President Monroe. At Monroe’s time the United States had a population of less than 25,000,000 and played a very minor part in the international firma ment. But all subsequent administra tions have adhered strictly to this doctrine, till!it has become, figuratively, a part of ourselves and of the consti tution, and the world has learned to understand that she will have to reckon with this doctrine as long as the United States retains her present pres tige. Matters have changed considerably since the Spanish war. The acquisi tion of distant possessions, and our entering into the arena of the great powers, have made it imperative on us to show a strong front, and to partici pate in all great international ques tions. This does not necessarily mean that we must go to war, but only that we must be prepared for all emergen cies, and, in consequence, we have already trebled our army and doubled our naval strength. But it is not so much our military strength that we rely on in solving arising questions; on the contrary, we hope that all such questions may be solved either by di plomacy, or, failing that, by arbitra tion. Two important achievements have already been placed to our credit. The first was the victory which fell to John Hay, when his attitude in the Chinese question, resulting from the Boxer troubles, met with the unanimous approval of all great powers. The second was the epoch-making inter cession for peace between Bussia and Japan made by our strenuous president, which for centuries to come will be looked upon by historians as a diplo matic victory of the first magnitude, one which required an unusual amount of tact, patience and perseverance. But other matters have come up which we cannot contemplate with equanim ity. The Bowen-Loomis controversy, and several others of similar nature, have shown as to the diplomatic world in a not very enviable light. Besides, three-fifths of our consular service is absolutely worthless, and a large number of our consuls do not even un derstand the language of the country to which they are accredited. 411 this is fully understood and ap preciated in Washington; but it is not easy to find a remedy. We have al ready established a war college for the | DO YOU WISH? | I 1 WW ( » |! 0 YOU wish the world were better? ' > I I t/MOTI Let me tell you what to do: 1 1 1 1 a watch upon your actions; 1 j ] 1 Keep them always straight and true. \ 1 ]» Rid your mind of selfish motives, i 1 1 Let your thoughts be clean and high; j! 1 1 You can make a little Bden > j !' Of the sphere you occupy. < j 1 1 Do you wish the world were wiser? j> 1 1 Well, suppose you make a start, 1 \ i' By accumulating wisdom 1 j i, In the scrap-book of your heart. ! 1 i' Do not waste one page on folly, 1 1 \ > Live to learn and learn to live; \ < '1 If you would give others knowledge, j! 1 1 You must get before you give. 1 J 1 1 Do you wish the world were happy? ! 1 1 [ Then remember, day by day, \ < i[ Just to scatter seeds of kindness j! , 1 As you pass along the way. < | ]i For the pleasure of the many ! j I \ May be ofttimes traced to one, ! 1 I I As the hand that plants the acorn \ > \' Shelters armies from the sun. 1 1 ;! - -Ex. ![ purpose of training specially adapted officers for staff positions. We wonl I much like also to train aspiring diplo mats for therir positions, srrd Ydie, Harvard, Columbia and other great universities would be only too willing to establish a chair for cameraria if— there were only aspirants for the dip lomatic service. There lies the trouble. We have no professional statesmen, and can have none under existing cir cumstances. Why? Because every administration appoints its own secre taries, ministers, envoys and consuls, who may be thrown out of office by a change of administration. It is differ ent in our army and navy. There democrats like Miles and Dewey could attain the highest possitde rank under a republican administration. Just at the present time we are fair ly well off in this respect. Roosevelt had many good men to choose from who had acquired more or less practical diplomatic experience under the ad ministrations of Harrison and Mc- Kinley. Such conditions will not prevail all the time; besides, as stated before, not one of our present envoys has received a theoretical training in diplomacy. And the greater and more prominent we become as a nation, the greater will be our need to send to foreigu countries none but the very best of representatives. This is a matter congress would do well to look into. It is fullj* as nec essary to make the positions of diplo mats permanent, as it was found necessary to make permanent the posi tion of army and navy officers. A Notable Baseball Event. ABOUT the middle of the month of October there occurred on the diamonds of New York and Philadelphia, between the respective champion teams of the Na tional and American Leagues, a series of five games for the baseball cham pionship of the world. New York’s National League team, under the leadership of John McGraw, captured the pennant in that league while the American League banner became the property of Connie Mack’s Athletics of Philadelphia. The proposition for a series of games between the champions met with uni versal approval from the lovers of the game, and at once engaged the atten tion of hundreds of thousands of en thusiastic fans throughout the length Terms- i slooper year. In adranee i tKMB.-j S]x Months 60 cents and breadth of the land. The first game resulted in a shutout for the American League team, the score standing three to nothing In iavorofthe New York Giants. The second game resulted in exactly the re verse, a shutout for the Giants, with the score standing three to nothing in favor of the Philadelphia Athletics. The score in the third game was nine to nothing in favor of the New York Giants. The fourth game resulted in another victory for New York, the score standing one to nothing, while the fifth and last, both New York victories, stood two to nothing, giving New York four out of the five games, making them the world’s champions for the year 1905-06. 0 Enthusiasm of the fans of these two cities, and of the section contiguous, was boundless; as soon as the gates were opened, the crowds became un manageable, broke down the ticket fences, swept the police aside, and lit erally stormed the ticket offices. Women were lifted to men’s shoulders and carried through the entrance, and it was amid wild cheering on the part , of the enthusiastic supporters of each of the respective teams that each game was begun. Each team had thousands 1 »f rooters in the grand stands and on the bleachers, and every sharp play in ' these battles of the giants, was greeted , by thunderous applause from the sym pathizing fans. Had circumstances permitted I think I should have seen this test of skill between the Samsons of the base , ball world There is an electric thrill for him who loves and understands the game, in the wonderful display of cool-headed nerve and skill demon- I strated in a close play that stirs his . blood and brings to the surface all his virile exuberance, causing him to jump to his feet and disregarding years, wealth and dignity, yell like a wild Indian, and thirst deeply for the gore of the umpire. The nip of a gamey baßß at one’s hook sets every nerve tingling and keyß every muscle to its highest ten ’ sion; hut thrilling as is the aport of Isaac Walton, there *8 nothing in it ) that transcends the sensations a great i game of hall prodncea in t.he soul of he t who really lovea the game; he who “un derstands, I ”as Elbert Hubbard remarks. i Tn closing I want to commend these * lines from t.he New Orleans Times s Democrat, to all baseball cranks who . are mv colaborers in this corner of the vineyard: No Clarice, dear, In baseball speech, * Id stories like yon scanned, No fan Is used by players when They say a player fanned. Likewise there is no violence Except a weird, wild shout, In cases where the pitcher throws The man on third base out. Also It Is not larceny (Tho rooters, grim of face, Orv loud against this happening) For a man to steal a base. Ditto (and this Is curious) When rooters start to root They root with mouth and tongue Instead Of rooting with the snoot. „ _ 0.1. T.