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MINNESOTA’S EARLY HISTORY.
fatter tinut H~f<ne ’I" Cli mtauqua Circle. AT THE outnel I desire to say that I Imve gleaned my facts from a “History of Minneso ta,'* written by Judge Charles <3. Flandrau, who, I am told, re sided in Minnesota through nearly adt of this state’s political exist * once and took part in nearly all of chief events of her history. “History,” some one has said, "“is like India rubber, assuming shapes iu different hands.” Headers of history will, I believe, admit the truth of this quotation. ’Conceding the right of historians draw upon their imagination to supplement their narratives, and this in mind, the reviewer las only to concentrate his mind spon the historical facts —not the xnanner of depicting them, nor the specific language chosen. There fore, I have eudeavored to touch briefly upon the historical faots of early history. In reviewing this state’s history sre become, so to speak, acquaint <ed with those who endured the hardships of pioneer life; hewed a ’Commonwealth out of a wilderness, and left to their progeny the fruit age of a grand conquest: the con quest of a land where prior to "their coming nothing flourished — ■4>nly as nature ordained. While 4he East, West and South were being populated, the great North west was slumbering. Her vast were undreamed of. She only awaited the coming of civi lized men to yield up the products •of the farm, the mine, the quarry, the forest, and to establish com merce. What a wonderful change lias taken place in the Northwest the last fifty years! Of ifhe many states carved out of the •wilderness, Minnesota stands fore most. Therefore, it is commend able for us to familiarize ourselves with her history; the state that ?has so benevolently thrown around tub the mantle of protection, cur tailed our propensities to idly meander along life’s pathway, »nd provided us with shelter from the storm. A general supposition is that ILouis Hennepin was the first "white man to set foot in Minneso ta; but this assumption is contra dicted. and documentary evidence sets forth the fact that two French onen, Radison and Groselliers, ex plored Minnesota as early as 1652. They remained in the Northwest, "visiting various tribes of Indians, 'jnntil 1684. About 1679 one Du Xiuth arrived at Kathio, an Indian town then located on the south west side of Mille Lacs Lake. From here he wrote to Frontenac, who was at Montreal, and on July 2nd, 1679, Du Luth caused the French arms to be planted at Fathio. But as to the exploits of these early comers there seems to be no trace other than to claim priority, which has been accred ited to Hennepin. Hennepin and two others left Peoria, Illinois, in Feb. 1860. Reaching the junction of the Illinois and Mississippi they then ascended the Missis sippi to Minnesota. Hennepin visited the Indians, baptizing their twbies, and collecting information. "While in Minnesota he named the Falls of St. Anthony. Upon his Teturn to France he published an account of his travels. He died in France unregretted, owing to bis having published a second edi tion of his travels, which was con sidered reprehensible. In 1689 there arrived in Minne sota one Louis Perot, who estab lished a trading post at Lake Pepin, the first trading post estab lished in Minnesota, and took pos session, in the name of the King of France, of all the land inhab- ited by the Dakota trib< s Six years later (1695) another, trading post was- established at the head of Lake Pepin by one Le Sueur, who explored part of Minnesota. He took a party of Indians to Montreal to impress them with the importance of the French, and after returning with them he built a fort ou the St. Peter’s River which he called L’ Hullier. Le Sueur enjoyed the unenviable dis tinction of being the first man to supply the Indians with guns. Le Sueur County was named after him. Prior to 1766 those who came to Minnesota were French explorers and priests. Their influence in making Minnesota a great state may be summed up in a few words. They blazed a trail, named locali ties, and spread the gospel among the Indians. Jonathan Carver, born in Con necticut in 1732, was the first Euglishman who came to Minne sota. Carver was evidently of an adventurous spirit. It is said that his parents tried to make a doctor out of him. But the study of medicine was uncongenial to him and he gave it up. He then joined a Connecticut regiment and took part in the French war. In 1763 France, in a treaty, ceded the Northern Territory to England. Carver then decided to explore the Northwest. Leaving Boston in 1766 he proceeded to Mackinaw, Mich., thence to Green Bay, then down the Fox and Wisconsin Rivers to the Mississippi. From there he proceeded up the Missis sippi to Lake Pepin, thence to St. Paul where he found a cave in what is known as Dayton’s Bluff. This cave became his headquar ters. He had various experiences with the Indiaus, and claimed to have received an instrument from them conveying to him a large tract of land. At his death his heirs claimed the land. The com missioner of the general land office appointed Gen. Leavenworth to investigate the claim, and as a re sult the claim was rejected. In 1805 the government sent Lieut. Zebulon Montgomery Pike with a party to explore Minnesota, expel traders who were violating the laws, make treaties with the Indians, and procure a site for a military post. A treaty was made with the Dakota tribes in Septem ber, 1805, which secured for the government a large tract of land for a military reservation. Two thousand dollars was paid for the land thus secured. However, it was fourteen years later before the government finally decided to build a fort in Minnesota. The reasons given were as follows: “To cause the power of the United States government to be fully acknowledged by the Indians and settlers of the Northwest; to prevent Lord Selkirk, the Hudson Bay Company and others from establishing trading posts on United States territory; to better the conditions of the Indians, and to develop the resources of the country. ” In 1820 a site was selected about two miles north of the present site of Fort Snelling and called “Fort St. Anthony.” But in August of the same year Colonel Joshua Snelling changed the site to where Fort Snelling now stands. The fort was oalled Fort Snelling in honor of the colonel. Tho inter esting, time will not permit me to delve into the history of Fort Snelling. It has been for years the protecting arm to the inhabi tants of this state and many dis tinguished persons have sojourned there. In 1828 the first steamboat (The Virginia) to ascend the Mis sissippi River arrived, at Fori Snelliug. About this time tlie first sawmill was erected in th s state and the lumber sawed whs used in building the fort. About the year 1835 George Catlin and one Featherstonehaugh came to Minnesota. The former was an artist. He made Sketches of the Indians, and published statements about his adventures. The latter made a geological survey of the Minnesota Valley for the govern ment. Returning to England he wrote a book concerning his ex periences in the Northwest, and the people he met. I am told that his book reflected unjustly upon the people he met in Minne sota. In 1832 the government sent Henry R. Schoolcroft with thirty men to visit the Indians of the Northwest and to make treaties with them. While in Minnesota this exploring party discovered the source of the Mississippi. The honor of the discovery has been acoorded to Schoolcroft, while the honor of naming the lake has been accorded to Mr. Boutwell, a Latin scholar, who was in Schoolcroft’s party. In order to give the lake a name which would indicate its position as the source of the Mis sissippi, Mr. Boutwell took two Latin words, “Veritas,” meaning truth, and “Caput,” meaning head. He decapitated the word Veritas leaving Itas; and curtailed the word Caput leaving Ca, joining the two he made the word Itasca, thus the source of the Mississippi derived its name. Among the later explorers of this state perhaps the most noted is Mr. Jean N. Nicollet. He was an astronomer and it is said that the Indians were disappointed with him. He had no presents for them and spent a great portion of his time looking through a tub at the heavens. After exploring various parts of this state he went to Washington, D. C., and was com missioned to make further explor ations of the Northwest, with John C. Freemont as his assistant. They journeyed up the Missouri to Fort Pierre, and from there as fpr as Devil’s Lake. Nicollet made a map of the country which, with his astronomical observations, has proved to be of great value. Like Hennepin and Le Sueur, Nicollet has been honored by having a county in this state named after him. I have briefly touched upon the chief historical events of Min nesota’s history prior to the Ter ritorial period, which period I may review at another time. E. D. Muldoon’s Rem gg iniscences. There are momints in the career av ivery man whin the opprissive sinsation av conscience, pinytrat in’ thru the soobjective mind, cause him to remimber that at laste wan time grane apple c; oo sades an’ osculatin’ kisses wid Katie wur joost as hilayriously intoxyoatin’* as the convintional ixtry dhry av today. Yis, thim are plisant drames till yez happin to recollict ye are the sivinth hoosband av a naggin’ fay male at home. Why, ’tiz enough to ostracize a man’s silf-respict. I spake from ixperience av frinds an’ ricolliction av me own, in the manetime convayin’ the gintle imprission that I mesilf hov drilled hooryzontal ziz zags betwane the sidewalks av manny a road. Ye see, whin artificial stimulints inter the brain the prociss av blindin’togither makes yer cray nium top hivey; at the same time mitamoorphosic hulloocinations take posission av the eyebawls, multiplyin’ an’ creatin’ objects wid surprisin’ ingenooity. Plaze SS, FRAQMENTS.... 000000 i ▼ I | By Bill Nye, Jr. Broadcloth does not always f-hi♦*l c 1 a narrovv-niinded person. Baseball magnates are alreadv beginning to roll the ball for the season of 1906. Newport society belles recently attended a ball attired as farmer girls. It must have been a novel scene indeed, as a gathering of this kind at a full-dress function is something out of the ordinary. It is said that hearing is more distinct in the right ear than in the left. However, strike your best friend for a short loan and you will find both his sound receivers in a state of serious weakness. Merchandise to the value of $1,000,000 was imported to Egypt from the United States last year —also, several consignments of healthy missionaries. A Missouri farmer is swelled up with pride due to his beard, which measures over fourteen feet. “Shorty,” our local whisker am putator, could reduce the swelling in much shorter time than a Kan sas cyclone. About the unhealthiest occupation a man can be engaged in now adays is that of soliciting life insurance. We would much rather work in a dynamite factory with a lighted cigarette in our mouth than tackle the above job. A South Dakota woman will apply for a position as umpire in the Western league the coming season, she having successfully acted in a similar position the season recently closed. That her official decisions would stand unchallenged goes without saying. A brute in human form doing a sprinting stunt with a howling infant in his arms at two a. m., compelled his wife to get up and play ragtime melodies on the piano. Cutting off the nose to spite the face is clearly illustrated in this incident. For want of patronage, a physician has committed suicide in Readlyn, lowa. The coroner’s jury were perhaps hasty in reaching the verdict which caused the tragic death. It is very likely the de ceased accidentally drank some medicine he had prescribed for one of bis patients. A Guttenburg, lowa, man fishing for clams is responsible for the story that he saw a sea-serpent fully two hundred feet long in the Mississippi River. As a sequel to the above, his wife threatens to bring suit on the parties who sold her hubby the “disturbance” which caused his hallucination. “Kid” McCoy has at last decided to quit the ring at an early date. We infer by his statement that his mother-in-law, who has recently been sojourning at his place of residence, has deoided to remain and make it her permanent home. don’t git confused if I suggist that a short midytation will lit yez recognize the symtons. The phenomeny mannyfisted in this stage approxymate in magnitood to tillyscopes an’ saysickniss, de pinds materially on the timpera mintal affiny ties av the individjooal his self. Fer instance, while some can only see frogs on the wall par per, others detict riptiles foor miles long. But this en passant. Sooffize to know that I hov amal iorated beyant the alluremints av timptation. In the precaydin’ chapter, the stoodint will observe, I spoke on artificial agitation av the brain, its cause an’ effict, accoompaynied be fohotygraphic display. I may al so add whin a cemint sidewalk stands on its hind ligs, ’tiz caused be a law av gravytation. The fol lowin’ will deal wid personal re trospiction av mesilf, hince liss violince is preferrable do yez mind. As I langwidly recline in the bloo room av the shatoe me vision is blurred be savnes av thim palmy days befoor I waz civylized. Av coorce, I wazn’t wild like a hay then barbayrian, nayther did I ro tate around society on me own axis. Shure, I waz blackbawled sivin times fer me lack av convin tional decoorum. Ye see, I had owchyopagic tmdincies to chaw me finger nails, besides I talked wid an awful brogue. Wance in a momint av absint mindedniss I bit a choonck out av me ingage mint ring thinkin’ it waz me thoomb. WudD’t that frost ye? A recapitulation av me social stroogles, howiver, might be afther scandalizin’ some foor o’clock tay, so ’tiz bist I close me faoe indifi nitely. Years ago while stoomp in’ the state fer a will known candydate, I had the misfoortune to land im Galvy; wan av thim insignififycant spicks that hilp to fill space in geographical maps. Imagine, if yez can, a labyrinth av cowpaths intersieted here an’ there be wooden lamp posts or gooseberry booshes as the case may be, an’ ye hov a fine birdseye view av Wawtawgy, dyin’ almost instantly I hov been tould. Those an’ other thoughts flashed thru me mind as I siparated the majority av me imbonpoint from a railroad tie. Ensconcin’ mesilf in the daypo I passed the inter mission betwane trains countin’ yillow davvgs an’ other light amuse mints. Naturally, this incraysed the perturbation av me mind till I filt like the -sicond edition av a socialistic tract. B’gorry, I waz no more disgusted whin Mrs. Grogan fill in a State Strate coal hole knockin’ foor aces out av me hand. E. E. H. Judicial Verdict. Judge—“ You are accused of having beaten this person cruelly.” The accused —“Well, I had to beat him to make him do his work. He is an idiot.” Judge (severely)—“You should remember that an idiot is a man like you or me.” —Les Annales. No jHelp For It. Magistrate —“You say your ma chine was beyond your control?” Chauffeur —“Yes, your honor. If I could have controlled it, the cop wouldn’t have caught me.”— New York Mail. Garried Out. Police Magistrate—“ With what instrument or article did your wife inflict these wounds on your face and head?” Michael—“Wid a motty, yer anner.” “A what?” “A motty—wan o’ these frames wid ‘Happy Be Our Home’ in it.” —Cassoll’s.