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professor and Student.
Paper Read Before the Chautauqua Circle. IN THE good old days when the oldest members of my audienqe were attending school of their own volition or from the per suasive influence of a stronger hand, the schoolmaster to many was considered a very objection able character indeed. The night- mare to the young, an object of scorn, the bully of the weak and the butt of the mischievous. The birch was the favorite weapon, and flogging was the chief delight. The tears of infants were to him a source of great satisfaction. Nor was the schoolmaster in those flays much better than he was rep resented. This is, of course, in reference to teachers in the rural flistricts, or what the city folk want to call among the backwoods people. And what I have de picted in the foregoing was the experience of the cities and towns in the early part of the nineteenth •century or from 70 or 80 years ago. However, as time wore on, a ehange came about in the ideals of education and the schoolmaster •or professor of a higher type ap peared. One great, and I feel the most important change that has taken place among the many, is the relation of the boy and master in school. The latter is no longer invariably regarded as the natural foe of the former; often a sincere affection has appeared where once there was only bitter animosity. ; So when the relations are pleasant and the professor is what he - should be, his influence with the student is greater than we are ac customed to give credit. To the man who loves boys, the profes sion of a pedagogue cannot be •otherwise than delightful, but to the one who does not, as one pro cessor used to say, is hell indeed. In many large schools are to be fouud teachers who have chosen teaching because it was an obvious sort of thing to do, demanding as they supposed little special apti tude. Those whose careworn air tells a tale of dreary disappoint ment and a vacant future, they ■continue to teach and draw their fimall salaries going on from year to year, getting more morose or lax as the case may be, until they finally decide they have chosen unwisely and enter into some bus iness or go back on the good old farm. Then there are those among the teaching foroe, whose well-directed efforts secare a marked degree of success. Fresh trom the univer sity he plunges with ardent enthu . siasm into the task of guiding the -young lives intrusted to his care, .lie is there to instruct them in the art of noble living, together with the many other requirements. In liis hands is the future; he is moulding the destinies of the country; he is shaping characters ■on whose integrity depends the national welfare; but for all his labor and this sacred trust, he re ceives the salary of a seotion boss. Among the early traditions of education whioh are hard to eradi cate, is the one that the proper relation between teacher and taught, is that of the hunter and hunted. Whioh is whioh is de pendent on circumstances. In actual fact the teacher is usually -the former, and in the young boys’ mind he is usually the latter. The average student much prefers play to work and the palace of day dreams is fair to dwell in when .the lesson is dull and the teaoher prosy; but however well-balanced each may be, there is a certain antagonism bound to exist in the class room. Allowing all this to t>e true, the typical schoolmaster is no longer a policeman and noth ing more, altho even in this capao- I*s. •.v •/; . v •> '< V y:'^' ity he once had his ardent admirers. There may be some truth in the theory that the sturdy youth likes the man who dragoons them and cherish his memory in after life, and that these young barbarians prefer brutality to kindness, de spise the master who desires to establish friendly relations with them and loves the one who smites and spares not. I repeat, this may be the character of a few, but the ordinary American youth does appreciate kind ness, especially when not marred by weakness, and tho he’ would prefer the cane /to the more hu manitarian, but less healthy meth od of punishment known as detentions and impositions, he does not admire undue severity. Those studies that are associated with pleasurable emotions in youth, will probably be continued in after life; while those that are associated with unpleasant recol lections, will probably be discon tinued. A love of learning will never be inculcated by a discipline of fear, and much of the strained feeling that naturally exists between the professor and student may be eliminated in the playing fields, where an opportunity of friendly intercourse is afforded. This field work or exercise has, in years past, afforded a strong drawing card, and mauy a youth’s name has been recorded on the register of our colleges, because of the ad vantages given through college athletics. From accounts of news paper articles on college athletics, football, especially, is beqonpiug a canker in college life which threat ens dire corruption. Football, as it was first played, was a source of great benefit to all participants. Its chief aim was to physically develop the student and not fit him for a martyr’s grave. In its mild form it is an excellent thing to play football; but it is not an excellent thing to be al ways watching football, and it is a most foolish thing to be always talking about the game. Football has taken such a large share of the thoughts and interests of the college life that it is at the pres ent time a dangerous pleasure. When people work at their play they have a natural tendency to play at their work, and when the people in question are schoolboys, and this tendency is carefully fos tered by those who ought to know better, viz., the schoolmaster, the result is’bound to be disastrous. Just beoause a man carries a good reoord as a football player is no criterion for the high sohools of the state to go by in selecting a man to take charge of their sohools. The conversation of euoh a man naturally turns to tales of former matches; his language is generally slangy and is usually great on good form. His natural vocation is that of a farmer, circumstances and a craze have made him a pro fessor. He is good humored and popular; that is the best that can be said of him. Then there are those professors who are really egotistical bookworms. I had the experience of having for my pro fessor, for two years, a man of this type. He is often mistaken for a good teacher. He does not edu cate. He crams and is usually hated and despised in equal meas ure. He enjoys the distinction of being the most severe of teachers in the neighborhood. The fright of the young boys on entering his class room is often so great that it oannot be concealed, and this is keenly enjoyed by our haughty professor. And yet this sort of man is regarded by the authorities as an excellent teaoher. His soholars do well at the examina- tions and more could you ask? The most unfortunate type of pedagogue is the one who cannot keep order. We all know how easy it is for the well-behaved boy to beoome a veritable fiend in the presence of a schoolmaster of this kind, but the reason for this will ..have to be left for the expla nation of the psychologist. The only thing that the unhappy man can do is to flee from the enemy and make a fresh start some place else. The ideal relations between the schoolmaster and the schoolboy are in fact hard to realize; the pitfalls and misunderstandings are many, and where one gives an inch the other takes a foot. Doubt and misunderstanding will play havoc with the best intentions, and yet an intimacy may be productive of much advantage and much happi ness. The conversations of the professor will widen the boy’s mental horizon and the boy’s youth and earnestness are inspirations to the teacher. Morever, os they grow to know each other better, the task of the master becomes less irksome, for the student will hard ly give trouble to one whom he regards as a friend, and the lot of the boy is the more pleasant for it. The old saying is true, that roots of learning, planted under kindly conditions, are bound to grow to a healthy maturity. Many other features, chief among them the preparation necessary and salaries "paid to the professor of our high school, compared to that of the men in other walks of life, may be taken up in a subsequent paper. F. W. B. Muldoon on Herpetology. At the idytoor’s rayquist I am now afther ixposin’ the science av live wriggles, profissionally known as herpytology. This science io>- braces a writhin’ congriss av ix tinuated oorganisms rangin’ from wan inch to the lingth av Clanoy’s alley; at laste Grogan’s tapewoorm oame widin five fate av stritchin’ from Halstid to the lake. Spakin’ av tapewoorms, I don’t belave the pooblic iver indorsed thim as riptiles. Besides, I may be committin’ perjury, fer the last ligislature av herpytologists roobed both thim an’ ringwoorms off the map complately. Ye see, the simylar intonation that mannyfists itsilf whin articu latin’ thim, raysimbles the wor-rds tape misure an’ ringbone an’ im barrasses our aeethitio sinses; is pioially those av aristocratic origin. Apparintly our decision obliter ated rid paint scandal, annyhow us scientifics collicted a boonch av bank notes makm’ the iffort. Av coorse, it waz rigulationary fer the binyfit av outsiders in gineral an’ the donors in particular. I will now give the affirmative, nigative, an’ positive argumints imployed to cash the chioks. Yis, Grogan’s boorder insisted that tapeworms waz. sacred serpints analogous to white ilyphants, ring bones a mule disaze av the lig, an’ ringwoorms the tadpoles av hoop snakes, therefoor, wid the ixcip tion av wan, both wur ligitymate riptilian monstrocities. While the typewrither adjoost ed a foolscap av frish paper in the wringer, Grogan tuk the stand. Wid his usual ixthravagance he tould us that instidav bein’ snakes, tapewoorms wur a natural prevint ive av appindysaytus. Some wan waz a liar shure, fer Grogan has had both, an’ accord in’ to his hypothysis, whin a man has both he has nayther wan nor the other. Thinkin’ he had oondimed that propysition he oomminced to vily fy ringbones an’ ringwoorms be Bayin’ the foormer mint the pitry . A: ' .■ V: . V fied nucleus in round steak an’ ham, while the lather waz only a oonstillation av rid friokles, hinoe their illegality. The charter members objicted to the oroodniss av both argu mints an’ their inflooince swayed the lower house, resultin’ in a tie up. In the manetimiT a caucus waz hild an’ the comity called on me to sittle anny doubts that might be floatin’ around. Thank in’ thim fer showin’ benivolince to an ould man, I told Dinny to place a blank recoord on the fohonygraph. Whin all waz ridy I placed me face in close jufctopo sition wid the hoorn an’ rindered the followin’ oratory: “Gintlemin, the tistymony ad vanced fer an’ aginst abolishin’ woorms from our prisint systim is full av flaws, bein’ based solely on circumstantial ivydinoe. Our objiction to thim is not fer what they are, but because their maiden names raysimble vulgar appilla tions whose depravity is height ened be the boom acoustics an’ disazed intillict av a few angils who wud aven suppriss enuncia tion in their howly prisinse. “Fillow scientifics, we tire op posin’ the foorces av nature an’ insooltin’ oursilves be acquiescin’ wid this demand, but money talks. They can call thim mermaids wid out offindin’ ayther baste, fer they will grow the same linght an’ live amphibious lives as in days av yore. “Midycal min fer ages hov be laved that parboiled poork carried germs to the stomach, the half cooked wans dyin’ while the hearty wans attained the appalin’ lingth av half a mile. In a misure this is troo, but it is the hawg bristle that germinates fadin’ on gastric joooe till it is foor months ould an’ thin ixtinded itsilf on predi gested food. Outside av the sciences their didlymss is unknown, nivertheliss they create more hav ic than all the snakes en masse. “I am mesilf aginst ixpillin’ thim, still we might as well acoipt the donation in the followin’ wor rds: ‘Resolved: Whereas, to kape society from shockin’ itsilf we hov this day condimed ring woorms, tape misures, ringbones, an’ tapewoorms owin’ to a simylar intonation that lades to confusion, imbarrassmint an’ vulgarity. Cau tion: we also countermand all or ders of specimins on root to our disictin’ parlors. Comity Royal.’” E. E. H. There are a whole lot of people who will be strictly at home if phonetic spelling ever becomes generally adopted. The spelling books will then be off the map. — Stillwater Gazette. Most every man has a private skeleton in his closet if you dig down deep enough. We’re none of us perfect.—Elk River (Minn.) Star-News. Sooner or later you are sure to come to the point where the roads fork. Two signs will stare you in the face. On one we read, “Hon esty and fair dealing without riches.” On the other is inscribed these words: “The American peo ple love to be humbugged and suc cess and great wealth is attained by the jnan who disregards the golden rule.” —Mora (Minn.) En terprise. Lawyer—“ Where did he kiss you?” Pretty plaintiff—“On the mouth, sir.” Lawyer—“No, no! You don’t understand. I mean, where were you?” Pretty plaintiff (blushing)— “In his arms, sir.” —Ex. Synonps-Their Dse. Taken from O. F. Graham’s book on “English Synonyms.” ✓S/WWV Vice — Sin. Sin is an offense against the commands of God. Vice is an of fense against morality. Whatever is contrary to the Divine law is a sin; whatever is contrary to the precepts v of morality is a viqe. Sin has reference to the relation between God and man; vice re fers to the relation between man and man. The harm we do our selves by sin is, that we thereby incur the anger of our Maker. The barm we do ourselves by vice is, that we thereby render our selves less capable of fulfilling our duties-to ourTellow-creatures. The same act may be both sinful and vicious; sinful, because it is contrary to the law of God; vic ious, because it is injurious to so ciety. To bestow—to Confer. To bestow signifies to place, or lay out; to confer , to bear towards or upon. The idea of giving is common to both the verbs. They differ in this —that the former is said of things given between per sons in private life; the latter, of things given from persons in authority to those below them in rank. The king confers the honor of knighthood. Princes confer privileges. One friend bestows favors on another. We bestow charity on the poor. It is also to v be observed, that these verbs are scarcely ever used with any other than abstract nouns. Honors, dignities, privileges, etc., are con ferred. Praise, charity, kindness, pains, etc , are bestowed. Vicinity — Neighborhood. These words differ in degree. Vicinity does not express so close a connection as neighborhood. A neighborhood is a more immediate vicinity. immediately adjoining a square are in the neighborhood of that square. The streets a little farther removed are in the vicinity of that square. Hampstead and Highgate are in the vicinity, not in the neighbor hood, of London. Where houses are not built together in masses, there can "be no neighborhood. In the country, gentlemen’s seats are often in the vicinity of a town or village. In London, every square, street, and alley, has its neighbor hood. The word neighborhood is also used for the inhabitants, tak en collectively, who live near, as well as the place near. Wood — Forest. A forest is a large and unculti vated tract of ground covered with trees. A wood is a smaller assem blage of trees. A forest is the re sort of wild beasts. A wood is the haunt of smaller animals. Lions, bears, wild boars, etc., live in for ests; hares, rabbits, squirrels, etc., in woods. Wood is derived from the Saxon wod\ forest from the low Latin foresta. The forest is characterized by its uncertain ex tent and wideness of growth; the wood, by thickness of growth. Obstruction— Obstacle. Both these words are expressive of what interferes with our prog ress. The difference between them is, that an obstruction hinders our proceeding as fast as we wish; whereas an obstacle effectually pre vents our advancing. An obstacle is something standing before us; an obstruction is something, thrown m our way. We stumble at an obstruction; we are stopped by an obstaole. Hence, an obstacle is a more serious matter than an obstruction. A heavy, wet road, is an obstruction to the wheels of a oarriage. A gate placed across a road is an obstacle to the prog, ress of a oarriage. Metaphorically, the saqie distinction exists. Ob structions are removed; obstacles, are surrounded. - ■' & .