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The Soul of Matter.
Paper Head Before the ChautauQva Circle. Ia choosing the above title for my paper support is giyen in re cent reports by prominent elec trical engineer# and oliemists upon experiments which proves electrio ity to be the source oE all animal and vegetable life. This is a great step toward proving that this in visible matter is the source of all motion in the universe, while its effects in producing motion, heat, light, or in exciting magnetic or chemical changes gives us the only means of measuring it, even tho today we have no more ability to see or handle electrioity than we can the human soul. Nevertheless our prominent electrical engineers are learning more of it and finding more uses for which it is adapted than ever before. Only a few years ago we were shown that with the proper elec trical current in connection with a little apparatus weighing less than ten pounds, our heavy armour plates were cut in two in less than five minutes. Then, recently, we were informed of a rapid-fire gun using electricity in place of ex plosives. Now we steel castings from the electrical furnace in place of the crude oil or coke open hearth, or the dangerous con verting process. Even prior to these developments the electrolytic furnace had proved its superiority in the copper and other smelting industries; and now the owners of blast furnaces are awakening to the fact that they are behind the times and are equipping their plants with modern appliances in order to eliminate the cost of fuel as well as to prevent the loss of life and limb usually following the explosion of gas tunnels. In the casting house you will notice a large magnet in connection with a traveling crane that picks up the iron and conveys it to the stock pile or to the cars. This machine is operated by electricity, and one man does the work that formerly required forty. Go to the rolling mills or steel works and see with what eate the hitherto almost impossible work that is now being successfully car ried on by electricity. Our modern steamships are all guided by elec tricity; and, by means of the wire less system of electricity, are con stantly in communication with land and other vessels. The wire less system proves conclusively that the air we breathe is charged with a species of electricity known as electro-static, and defined as electricity at rest. In the future this may be proved to be caused by the friction of different sub _ stances, altho its present cause is unknown. It is electro-motive force in motion that has been the main study for the past two years. In 1749 Franklin with his mag netic points and kites drew from the clouds electricity which he stored in metal jars. This was the first proof of eleotricity being in the air, altho the Greeks had a faint knowledge of its existence. In 1753 Richman was electrocuted by sending up a kite held by a light wire, whioh convinced the scientists of that day that -they found something they didn’t under stand or care to possess. Nevertheless, those eminent elec tricians, Volta, Ampere and Ohm, continued in their search to dis cover some means of ascertaining the force, velocity, and the resist ance of au electric current. These men were very successful, and as a token of esteem showing our ap preciation of their achievements the electricians of the entire world \ perpetuated their names by adopt- iug each as a symbol of suoh units as they represent. The same honor was paid to Watt, the in vehtor of the steam engine. The watt being the unit of work of ® certain amount of electric energy. The unit is equal to 1.746 horse power. The same respect we pay to The master mind of Professor Ohm for furnishing us with the means of determining the electrical resist ance, or such resistance as would limit the flow oE electricity under an electro-motive force of one volt to a current of one ampere. To Professor Volta we are indebted for the means of ascertaining the electro-motive force of which the volt is the practical unit. It some what resembles the pressure of steam or water in a pipe, for as we measure the pressure in the pipe, we measure the flow. However, if we measure the electrical pres sure in a conduit, we can measure the quantity of electrical energy passing thru it. The effects of this is apparent in our incandes cent lights, due to a sadden in crease of power Owing to the cur rent being shortened. To Professor Ampere belongs the credit of establishing the basis of the unit of electrical current. Based upon such a current as would pass with an electro-motive force of one volt thru a circuit having a resistance equal to one ohm, for in order to find the elec trical effeot it is necessary that we know the rate of flow as well as the pressure behind it. The flow is registered in amperes and the pressure in volts. in the near future I shall take pleasure in writing another paper on this sub ject dealing with some of the achievements of Edison, the man who made eleotricity famous as a lighting power. The G. Li. S. G. Debate. (Continued from page one.) Why, friends, real ships had been in existence over 2000 years before the offspring of Eric the Red touched our eastern coast. From the time of the early Phoe necians up to the settlement of Jamestown they had dominated the seas. They indisputably had benefitted of every opportunity for promoting their value to man. But they could not push into the wilderness, the mountains or the prairies. Like the kitchen cat around the birdcage, they lapped around our continent, and as the singing canary is denied to the cat, so the fair prize within our boundaries has been denied to them. And now this affirmative cries “Sour Grapes.” Under their auspices our country lay unde veloped up to 1830, and their boasted services had brought dur ing those 200 years or more, 250,- 000 people to our shores, to sur vive with extreme difficulty the rigor of colonial life. We find that in 1830, 8,000 immigrants were ushered into our country. Railroads were a reality. The first rude dawn of a real civiliza tion was at hand. Now was to bdgin the greatest scene of the wonderful panorama. An indus trial development which has no parallel in the world’s history was just shyly stepping forth, and after a few years had elapsed this youthful nation was to outdistance its rivals in financial and military power, in manufacturing, agricul ture and many other industries. Today its standard of civilization is second to none. From the paltry volume of 9,000 immigrants Id 1830 the total swelled to 100,000 in 1865 to over 400,000 in 1905. And all this shows as nothing else can show that it was our internal advancement which put the value on these foreigners, not the ships that brought them. We could do without these immigrants' We could destroy our entire shipping equipment and 6liut ourselves up with our railways for a quarter of a-century and spring forth from the trial a stronger and richer nation than we are today. But we could not do without our rail roads for a single month without untold suffering. The Northwest stringency a year ago upholds my statement. Greeks and Carthaginians paid great attentions to highways. The Roman empire was intersected by innumerable roads. The Incas of ancient Peru built the greatest of highways, 2,000 miles in length. Every country of every age has felt and realized that its per manency depended exclusively on the welfare of its people and that its people’s welfare was largely attainable by efficient means of intercourse. I tfould say to all who believe in the ambiguous, dubious sentL ments of the opposing gentleman that I have known people who have taken perverted pride in des semblance and confusion bat never have I known one to labor so hard to render its tenets ridiculous and despicable. When every allowance is made-his argument is positively offensive. When he tells you that ships have populated this country, think for one brief moment of what I have said and then tell this lord that ships have populated this country with 9,000,000 slaves. Tell him that ships did discover this oountry for purposes of con quest and vandalism. Tell him that his ships tilted upon our shores the poverty, the crime, the insanity of the Old World all thru our early existence. Rise above him and shout down to his cringing ears that his ships have brought us the “yellow peril” and a rabble of “undesirable,” that his ships laid the misery and pain to our father’s blood-stained paths, that they brought troops and im plements of war to our shores for our subjection. J. C. D. If he answers that the sea fights of our Revolutionary and Civil War days are the glory of our ships, fling to the ground his mask of sentiment and tell him that those encounters took place after our victory was practically won. That they did not make us free and I would have the sneer of scorn on your lips when you say that if our ships fought battles, they fought battles with ships, not rail roads. That if our ships defended, other ships threatened. One did nothing but offset another’s wrong. When he proudly asserts that in our Civil Wur a ship saved our nation, tell him with defiant cour age a ship did not save our nation, for our nation was divided. If our nation was not divided the Monitor and the Merrimao were both our vessels. The vessels of brothers. Cower not before your master’s spurious courage, but rise like men and show him his shame. Tell him that the slavery which bis ships introduced built the Merri mao to threaten, and that the rail ways built the Monitor to defend. And he can thank a fair fate that there was glory to the Monitor to offset the ignominy of the Merri cnac. The ignominy neutralizes the glory. And when, like a hunted Reynard this chief sinks from sheer exhaustion to his “immigra tion farce,”- tell him that China has lain in semi-barbarism for 3000 years; that her people out number any other people on the globe; that-she has had ships from the very dawn of her existence. She still hitches her women to the plow. Her daughters are still sacrificed to the ogres. Stand up like men and say that we are not a raoe of Tahoos fight ing for putrid oarrion. Say to him that we are a nation rich in do mestic happiness, friendship, inde pendence, leisure and prosperity, and assnfe him that ail his artifices of misrepresentation have cast no shadow over your belief, bat the shadow of disgust. Console him with the fact that there has been a time in the remote past when our industries were not in vogue, when ships and shipping were im portant. it was in the days when men drank from calabashes and oocoanut shells, or to flavor the oc casion, took their mead from the hollow scull of a defunct quad ruped. I bid my opponent’s subject adieu. I pay my last regrets that such a stout heart, that such a 000 l reason and above all that such ability should pursue such frivol ous, ud manly quests. I hope that the gentleman will see the error of his way. That he will leave his cause and his ships in a black stream that courses some deep valley of darkness, where mystic shadows brood and twist over dark aod lonely silence. The silence of oblivion. I go now to follow the tracks of a newer, grander cause that stretch away over the desert sands; that serenely lay where underbrush and reptiles once dominated; that span streams and torrents and climb mountains; tracks that turn and branch and stop wherever the benefit to mankind will be greatest; tracks that go where traffic has never dared to go before; traoks that turn to paradise, the fields and valleys, the woods and hills thru which they pass. ' They were born to bring a newer age of commerce; to take the -hid den treasures from the earth for the use of man, tb sow and reap the greatest harvests that ever blessed our kind. From the flower-kissed clime of California, the wooded slopes of Oregon, the metal wealth of Mon tana and Nevada, down thru the golden harvest fields of the Mis sissippi Valley where rippling laughter of sunny youth in health and happiness greets listening ears, thru all this promised land of peace and plenty we pass to meet the grand tumult of the East, that throbs and pulsates in its gigantic labor; that belches forth a constant charge of every commodity that our people demand. The story of our eminence and prosperity is a dazzling recital, and yet our hopes and plans have just commenced. Our future has just begun. Mankind’s whole history is a blotted review of crime and sorrow, of conflict and suffer ing, with a little death to relieve life’s tortures, with a little peace to beget new hopes, new ambitions and new purposes. Down the surging aisle of time we look iu vain for the heralded form of man’s brotherhood. We see along its frescoed walls deep blots_of sin, great scars of heinous crimes of war and conquest, and when friends in all this frantic jugglery, in all this phantasmagoria of~a billion crouohing examples of “man’s in humanity to man” we behold a fair ray of peace, hallowed by con tact with its environment, we wel come it with every emotion of an open heart. I tell -you all that the deeds of peace shall multiply. The crimes of war and oonfliot shall fade. And the means shall be our railways. They will span the world, perhaps in our genera ' tion. How sweet will be the dawn of that eternal consummation. How serenely will its champion forever its sacred palms. And where the tall prairie grass once bended over for gotten graves; where dark dells held their fitful secrets still; where arid wastes stretched be neath their cactns and their sage brush, there shall blossom life and happiness and there shall mellow their fairest fruits. I say that when these tnnscendant days have dome, mankind will instinctively revert to his piimeval state of which Whittier sings: l # You hear the pier’s low undertone, Of waves that chafe and gnaw, You start; a Shipper’s horn Is blown, To raise the creaking draw. At times a blacksmith anvil sounds With slow and sluggard beat: Or stage coach on Its dusty rounds Wakes up the staring street. A place for Idle eyes and ears, A cobwebed nook of dreams Left by the streams whose waves are years, That stranded village seems. And there like other moss and rust. The native dwelier clings And keeps an unlnoutrlng trust The old dull round of things. The fisher drops his patient lines, The fafiher sows his grain, Content to hear the murmuring pines Instead of railroad train. Go where along the tangled steep That slopes against the West, The Hamlet’s burled Idlers sleep In still profounder rest. C. R. H. Learn to do Practical Things. “It will be a great advance for the youth of this country,” says President A. B. Stickney, of the Chicago, Great Western Railway, “when it has thoroughly learned the wisdom of doing things in a practical way. A young fellow who applied to me for employment was pointedly asked what he would do if a freight yard became con gested with cars and there was an imperative need of getting those cars out on the road, Altho he had been railroading for some time, he could not answer the ques tion promptly and satisfactorily. Why? “Because he kad not given his time to studying out practical problems. He had been dream ing, or thinking of his pleasures, or longiDg for things he could not have. That was the trouble with him and I frankly told him so. I advised him to start at the bottom of the ladder again and learn to make himself useful in the things that make life better. “Dreams and ideals are good things to cherish but they ought not to destroy one’s usefulness. Usefulness consists ingoing able to do well what comes right to your hand to be done. My office boy is always trying to think out something that will make my work lighter. He can’t do much, but his willingness and ability is on top. I call him a useful boy. He is practical. . He sees that the work of today is the work that has got to be done and that we cannot cross tomorrow’s bridges until we reach them.”—Ex. Our Highest Ideals. To desire and strive to be of some service to the world, to aim at doing something which shall really increase the happiness and welfare and virtue of mankind — this as a choice which is possible for all of us; and surely ibis a good haven to sail for. The more we think of it the more attractive and desirable it be comes. To do some work that is needed, and to do it thoroughly well; to make our toil count for something in adding to the sum total of what is actually profitable for humanity; to make two blades of grass grow where one grew be fore, or, better still, to make one wholesome idea take root in a mind that was bare and fallow; to make our example count for some thing on the honesty, and cheerfulness, and otrarage, and good faith, and love —this is an aim for life which is very|wide, as wide as the world, and yet very * definite, as dear as light. Henry Van Dyke. We are not allowed to know all things.—Horace. :®j »■*' 'k i