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A | IFublished Weekly | VoL XXII.—No. 11. IRevemie Cutter Service. DURING the past month or soi the newspapers in many parts | of the United States have been advertising that competitive examinations are to be held thruout the country for appointment to cadet ships in the U. S. revenue cutter service. From the time that the first announce ment was made of the coming tests for eligibles, the writer has thought that a brief description from personal obser vation several years ago, might prove of interest to the members of our small community. It was while located at one of our < eastern army posts that the writer be came aroused to a full realization of the advantages of this Be d of endeavor. The revenue service requires a training rivaling that provided at the naval academy at Annapolis and opens up a career that in interest, variety and op portunities for travel and adventure is on a par with the navy itself. The young men who will this month endeavor to gain entrance to the cadet school of this service have a distinct advantage over applicants for West Point and Annapolis in that they are not required to make a long journey to take the examination. The exleusive machinery of the civil eervice commis sion which will conduct the examina tions will enable the average applicant to make the test right at home or by a short journey to the nearest large city. These examinations are always thor ough and comprehensive, not of undue severity but strictly competitive, polit ical and social influences being entirely eliminated. And I can say that in this respect the revenue cutter school is decidedly the most democratic school under the government. The particular desire of the officials of the revenue cutter service is to secure as cadets a number of young men who have had a thorough high school training, or whose education has progressed to the point where, in civil life, they would be ready to enter some profession. Com petitors are rated without regard to any consideration other than the quali fications shown in their examination papers. 1 have known of cases, where other things being equal, a preference was given to artillery Boldiers who had re ceived a good technical education at some school of instruction in the army or to dome graduate of civil technical schools, but these were very rare. When the civil service commission forwards the report of their findings, with regard to the young men who were up for examination, to the revenue cutter officials, the successful appli cants must pass a very rigid physical examination, and those who pass thru this ordeal satisfactorily will enter the service by taking the oath of office. A short interval is granted each cadet in which to procure an outfit of uniforms, And then he is instructed to report at Arundel Cove, (So. Balto.) Md., a short distance from Baltimore. As there are seldom more than two dozen cadets in the school at any one time, the new Arrival need have no fear of an initia tion of hazing as at West Point or An napolis, for the number is rather too small to encourage the practice of any such tricks. The academic year begins in October And ends in May. During this time the cadets live on board the training ship, tied up at the wharf, but pursue their studies in recitation balls on shore. There 4s also a drill ball m which all sorts of military evolutions sre practiced, together with athletic sports of various kinds. While at Arundel Cove the cadet elaborates on the subjects embraced in the competi tive examination by means of which he became a cadet and also takes up such subjects as seamanship, naviga tion, ordnance and gunnery, law, engi neering, etc. The method of instruction and the Administration of discipline are similar to those practiced at Uncle Sam’s other great national academy at West Point, STILLWATER, MINNESOTA, THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 24, 1908 N. Y., and which I described fully in a paper entitled “West Point,” about two years ago. A high standard of academic work is rigidly maintained and a failure in a single subject of the course, that is, any mark below 70 out of a possible 100, is followed by the re quest for the resignation of the cadet. And another thing 1 will mention, is, that the cadet is warned that he must not marry for the next few years, as the marriage of a cadet is considered equivalent to his resignation. Should either of the affairs just mentioned oc cur the penalty is always enforced. During his three years’ work at the cadet school each young man receives a little over five hundred dollars per year and a ration of thirty cents per day. However, the sum of ten dollars is withheld from bis pay each month in order that upon graduation he may have to his credit a sum of money suf ficient for the purchase of the uniforms and outfit of a commissioned officer. The cadets are required to purchase their uniforms and text books, and to pay their mess expenses, but on the al lowance before mentioned are able to save a few dollars each month for pocket money. The cadets have stated periods of 11 liberty and some social life, but the 0 commandant, a very efficient officer, e who had been in charge of the schools d for several years, did not favor so ex- 8 tensive a program of dances (“bops”) 8 and other festivities for the benefit of c fair friends as prevail at West Point 8 and Annapolis. But the revenue cut- * ter cadet tes very little time to lose in 1 play, for in two or three years after he graduates he will probably be the nav igating officer of a good-sized steamer and expected to act as his pwn pilot anywhere on the coasts of the United States from Alaska to the Florida keys. The pay, after graduation, is good, J ranging from SI4OO per year, the salary or a third lieutenant, to $2500 per year, I the salary of a captain. This is in- < creased ten per cent for each five years I of service, and the time spent as a ca det is figured iu, so that the pay of a ' third lieutenant two years after receiv- i ing his commission is $1540 per year, and if an officer be twenty years in reaching the rank of captain he will 1 immediately upon promotion to that rank be entitled to a yearly salary of $3500, with the same assurance that all army and navy officers have of three quarter pay and allowances when he is retired for age upon reaching 64 years. These officers receive their commissions from the president and holds rank with officers of the army and navy as follows: Captains with majors in the army and lieuteuant-commanders in the uavy; third lieutenants with sec ond lieutenants in the army and en- Bigus iu the navy, etc. , Revenue cutters are of three classes, ; the last being harbor tugs in charge of ; boarding duty. As near as I can re > member a first-class reveuue cutter i carries a crew of one captain, four lieu r tenants, three engineer officers, four - warrant officers and about fifty sailors. - Those of the second-class have a crew > of about three-fourths the size of the r first-class. The third-class vessels carry about twelve men in their crew, with r one lieutenant and one engineer officer. i These vessels, with their launches, l are used (as I mentioned before) for s the harbor boarding duties in counec l tion with the custom service, l The operations of the service con b tinue actively along the seacoast of the c United States, including Alaska, Porto t Rico and the Great Lakes. It is a story a of the rescue for the drowning, help - for the shipwrecked, timely aid tor the h victims of earthquake and fire, vigilant p effort to guard against pestilence and i- wearisome patrol of coastlines stretch i- ing from the sub-tropics to the Arctic circle. To prove this assertion 1 will e mention a few of the valuable duties ,r performed by the R. C. S. during the r last few years. There is much impor ts, tant work being doue in Bering Sea “IT IS NEVER TOO LATE TO MEND.” and the Acrtic Ocean where extended cruises are made for the protection of fur-seal, salmon, and other fisheries and the public interests generally. During the prevalence of yellow fever in the South the service maintained a quarantine patrol on the Gulf coast from Louisiana to Florida, ttfr result of which was that not a case of yellow fever entered any locality by water within the limits of the patrol. Many newspapers stated that great assistance was rendered by the service to San Francisco immediately follow ing the earthquake in 1906 by it% co operation with the municipal authori ties and the army in preserving order, in checking the progress of the fire, which threatened to destroy the entire city, and in the transportation aud dis tribution of supplies. Revenue cutters have cruised very actively on the Atlantic coast during the winter for the relief of distressed shipping, and help in various ways has been afforded a large number of dis abled and stranded vessels and their crews. The duties just mentioned af ford complete evideuce of the high efficiency and practical value of the Revenue Cutter Service. It is always alert and active in the interest of the government and the people. Its offi cers and men are worthy of our finest ideals ot courage and devotion. And may the candidates who are fortunate enough to receive appointments as ca dets in the Revenue Cutter Service re alize, that, as no duty is unimportant, so a readiness to do the routine work of the service is training for future achievements. The record of the past being a valuable heritage as inspira tion for the future. G. W., 1055. Adaptations of the Qas Engine. Paper Read Before the Chautauqua Circle. ( There has been many papers and i books written on the advantages and | disadvantages of mechanical power I generators and electricity as a power. i Electricity has done much and enables i mankind, thru one able inventor, to do great wonders considered by most peo- < pie as nothing short of miracles. We often read of these great works and still greater possibilities, but we must always remember that behind electric ity there must be a generating power, the force of running water, a stream, or a gas engine. Since it is plain that electricity is not independent, or in most all important cases a secondary power, as compressed air totally is, they do not, iu the Rtrict sense of the word, come under the head of mechan ical power as a primary cause. Up to date the steam engine plays the most important primary part, but even it has begun to lose ground. The gas engine, better known as the gaso line engine, was at first taken as a joke, or the rich man’s toy, to be used simply as any other luxury is used, as a source of pleasure. In those days such engines were very delicate, uncer tain and given to accidents which gave them a bad name. That time was not generations ago, but only a few years, scarcely more than ten, yet today so great has the in dustry of manufacturing gas engines for all purposes grown that millions of dollars are iuvested and thousands of men given employment. From a small beginning the number of automobiles, trucks, boats and farm machines driven by internal combustion engines has growu to such an extent that there are few towns, rivers, lakes and farms in the country that are strangers to the i sound of the exhaust, i Our modern farming is becoming ; more and more the work of brains in i stead of brute strength and hard man . ual labor. The up-to-date farmer sits >on a machine —a gas traction engine— -1 which not long ago would have caused i great wouder and excitement; he moves t one or two levers and starts a biggang . plow tearing np the earth eight or ten l f arrows at a time. This same engine ! coupled to a drill-plow or planter puts ! jin the seed while his neighbor, who j has no engine, is taking care of his horses. When harvest time comes the giant reapers and binders are brought into action; after the grain is cut there is no waiting for a thrasher outtit to come along and perhaps burn up more than could be accomplished in a year, with a spark from their 6team engine. Besides his tractor he may own a small , three or four horse power stationary > engine. Such an engine can saw wood, • shell corn, grind feed, pump water, ■ churn butter, run the cream separator, • milk the cows, turn the ice cream free , zer on Sunday, do any kind of heavy , lifting and if he has a small dynamo > he may light bis place perfectly safe, - better and more economical than the old way. r The gas engine is no longer merely a ' thing of pleasure but with its increase 1 in popularity has come a correspond -3 lng increase in the diversity of its uses - and apparently there is no limit to the r uses to which it may be put. And yet, - the gas engine is comparatively in its 1 infancy. Take steam, for example, not considering turbines—the principle of which is old—no particular improve ments have been made within the past few years, the great Corliss machines, the big locomotives have merely in creased in size and that is all, yet the gas engine of today is nothing like its prototype of a few years back. While steam has been standing still the gas motor has been refined until today, in connection with the suction gas pro ducer, it is recogn zed as the coming power. It has been known for some time that gas could be made from coal for use as gas engine fuel, but this great advantage in power production has only recently become apparent to the public. The following few liues are taken from a late census report on manufacture. “Probably the best demonstration of the economy of the internal combustion motor, as com- pared with steam engines, is afforded by the use of the gas engine in connec tion with a gas producer. It has been shown that such a combination will utilize about twice as much of the en- ergy of the fuel as can be developed by the use of the steam boiler and engine.” Later this is proved to be a very tame statement, for several reliable makers of gas producers guarantee their out- fits to do four times as much work, on a given amount of fuel, and not take up half as much room as the steam boiler and engine. The most striking evidence of the reliability of these engines is found in our larger cities, where they are used for all purposes, from driving the motor cycle, a small machine capable of car rying twice its own weight at the speed of an express train and at the trifling cost of one-flfth of a cent per mile, to the ponderous hook and ladder ti ucks and tire engines. In New York and Boston these gas-driveu Are appara tuses may be seen most any day glid ing over the streets at almost twice the speed horses could pull them, and the Improvement in other ways is apparent. Statistics recently compiled by the As sociation of Licensed Automobile Man ufacturers, aud published in Motor Talk. show that the total value of American made automobiles for the year 1907 reached the enormous sum of $105,669,572. This represents 53,302 pleasure cars. Of these all but 5,000 were gasoline vehicles, the smaller number being divided between steam and electric machines. In 1904 the value of the automobile output of the United States factories was $26,645,064, and a steady increase has been notice able for every year. Iu making the 53,302 automobiles turned out last year, < it is estimated that 58,000 employees were engaged iu the various factories, while the capital employed was more than $94,000,000. With the omission of heavy boilers and dirty coal bunkers, with reliability and safety, with the absence of the heat necessary to generate steam, with an engine taking up but a small space J ®'-C0 a year, in advance. TERMB- j six Months, 60 cents. and very economical to operate, ma rine interests have found what they have long been seeking for and were not slow to adopt it at once. In the olden days, the fisherman who went out had to depend upon the sail of his boat and sails in turn were dependent upon the wfnd, consequently when he said good-by to his wife he did not know whether he would be back that night or the next week. Outside the fishing industry the marine gas engine is put to an unlimited number of uses. Gas tugs are common and on the north ern lakes and rivers and in other sec tions of the country they are used for towing great rafts of logs, a small boat being able to handle many thousand feet of timber and being able to go where a steamboat could not enter let alone work. Gas schooners in the coasting trade are not unusual and are seen in great numbers. There are few people who have not ridden on a ferry propelled by gas and many have trav eled in passenger boats operated by the same power, for regular boat lines all over the country are paying big divi dends to the owners. Another interesting use to which the gas engine is put is in the life-saving service of the United states and Brit ish governments. For a long time these departments were suspicious of this power, preferring to depend on canvas and the strength in the arms of men rather than a machine. However, after exhaustive experiments the gas engine was deemed worthy of a place and was put into use with so great success that in the near future all sta tions will be equipped with power boats; the governments —have also found the gas engine useful in the in ternal revenue service and many swift launches are used to bring in wrong doers. The field of the gas boat is a wide one extending from the tropics up into the frozen fastness of Alaska where gas launches are used to trans port mail. This is only a brief consideration of the gas marine engine, from the little skiff with its engine whose power is less than that of a horse, to the mag nificent yacht finished in costly woods and equipped with a machine whose power runs into the hundreds, aud then back again to the Ashing boat and from that to the trim lines of the rev enue launch, the gas engine has found a place from which it cannot be dis- lodged aud is constantly (hiding and retaining new ones. Last, but by no means the least im portant, we find the gas engine driving machines thru the air and it is needless to say that steam is barred out here altogether. Santos Dumont’s sixth airship, in which he made several suc cessful flights, was driven by an eight een horse power motor, as were all of his other machines driven by gas en gines of various 6izes. The W right brothers are reported to have made a great success with their machine which they have been working on for some time. This information was taken from a most reliable paper, our Mirror, which went so far as to state, in words to the effect that, in the near future we may look to see passenger traffic car ried on by means of the airship, be tween New York and San Francisco and America aud Europe. We read most every day of the success or disas ter of some airship and we should al ways remember that these airships are operated by gas power. From this presentation of the use fulness of gas power for all works, from the very highest to the heaviest, one can plainly see the future that is in store for it and to enumerate all or even half the points in this amazing picture would ask altogether too much space. Andat best any endeavor to put the scene into words is a mere preßumptious effort to describe the in describable. J. R. D. A man must stand erect, not be kept erect by others. —Marcus Aurelius. The avaricious man is always in want.—Horace.