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6/>e MIRROR | published Weekly | <^% - gta&e ——<- Vol. XXII. —No. 14. Electrical Development, Paper Read Before llie Chautauqua Circle. ELECTRICITY is by no means a new factor in the industrial ac tivities of the world today. Since Benjamin Franklin’s simple ex periment with the kite, proving light ning and thunder to be caused by elec tric current, and his subsequent inven tion of the lightning rod (which by the way gave him a high place among sci entific men) early iu the eighteenth century, its progress has been steady and in the last decade phenomenal. Sixty years ago the magnetic tele graphic lines measure over 1,300,000 miles, and use wire enough to go eighty limes around the globe. Submarine ■cables lie beneath the oceans thereby bringing the different nations of the world into closer communion. The tel ephone, which, by means of electricity, transmits the spoken words instead of mere conventional signals, is one of the most important inventions of mod ern times; its value in business is be yond calculation. More than <5,000,000 miles of wire are now in use for tele phones alone. Electric lighting and the automobile industry are directly alue to the adoption of electricity as one of the most energetic forces the world has ever known. But I shall not attempt to name the numerous fields electricity is used in. You all know that in the most ex clusive and out-of-the-way places it is used for lighting purposes if for no other. It is within the last decade tho that it has entered a new field of activ ity: the experiments iu this field, if rat isfactory, will bring about the most radical changes in the railway systems of the world that has ever been known. Of course such changes will take many years and the expenditure of billions of dollars, but labor and cost are noth ing compared to the results expected. Several steam railroads have been experimenting with electricity in the last few years, but I shall refer to the electrification of the New York Cen tral terminal, and the adoption of elec tric motive power by the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad, in this paper, for they furnish the best examples of these experiments. Tne New York Central is using wbat is technically known as the age, direct-current, third-rail system,” while the New Y'ork, New Haven and Hartford is using the “high-voltage, alternate-current, over-head trolley wyetem.” There is considerable differ ence in the construction and operation «t these two systems. For instance, the third-rail system used by the tirst named road has two central power sta tions; one at Yonkers and one at Port Morris, with three sub-stations on its line. With the over-head trolley sys tem used by the other road, the cost and expense of operation are not so lirge. With this system but one cen tral power station is required to gene rate and transmit a current sufficient to operate the twenty-two miles now in service. While using steam as their motive power the railways entering the Grand Central Station in New York city were compelled by law to burn hard coal, the cost being about five dollars per ton, and requiring about ninety men to handle it. With the electric system these figures are greatly reduced. The central power station of both lines are .located far away from the Grand Cen tral Station, where they can burn soft coal at a cost of three dollars or less a ton. Furthermore, they use an auto matic firing device, which requires but three men at each power house to ope rate them. When installing the third-rail system the New York Central made many im provements that cost it thousands of dollars. The most important being an outer casting of wood that covers the top and sides aud which necessitates the electric contact being made beneath instead of on top the rail. This of course makes it harmless to those who work around it or have to cross over STILL WATEK, MINNESOTA, THURSDAY, OCTOBER 15, 1908 it. This system was first used by the 6levated and suburban railways, but could not be used iu the terminal in its exposed condition. These roads re ceive their power from on top of the rail, the contact-shoe being the means by which the train picks up the cur rent. Any little obsiructiou will easily break it, which will cut off the power and leave the train helpless, and in case it is not quickly repaired will tie up the entire line. This danger has all been removed by the New York Cen tral’s improvement. Eminent engineers and electricians 1 claim that the third-rail system is not I without its advantages over the over- i head trolley system, chief of which is its greater hauling capacity. Both the New York Central and New Haven roads furnish a cleaner, speedier and more frequent service than was possi ble when they used steam locomotives as their motive power. Both these roads enter the terminal thru a long tunnel under Park Avenue and on ac count of the large number of trains passing thru each day they were filled with smoke, which rendered the signal ing of trains very difficult. This caused several accidents to happen in which there was great loss of lives. The re sult was that the state authorities gave the roads until 1910 to make improve ments that would give their protection to the traveling public. The two roads had already tried to improve the ventilation in these tun nel* but without success, so there seemed to be no other way put to ban ish the steam locomotive entirely. This they have done, for in 1903 began their experiments with electricity as their motive power, and, since July of last year, all trains entering and leav ing the Grand Central Station are op erated by electricity. A great deal more might be men tioned in regard to electrical deveiop i ment, such aB electric power in milling and mining operations, wireless teleg raphy and the application of electricity , to household purposes. This, tho 1 will leave for some other member of : our circle to write on, as I am not fa miliar enough with electricity and its < uses to treat the matter in a coropre -j hensive manner. T. M. The Dime Novel Indian. Paper Head llefnre the Chautauqua. Circle in.his report the critic may tell yon that, for an old pap-py 1 have selected a very juvenile topic to write on. Now I will admit that the title of my paper smacks of the kindergarten, but the subject matter is so old that if any of you accuse me of plagiarism I cap eas ily escape conviction on a statute of limitations. In my youthful days 1 read everything in the yellow-back line that came my way, from the bold bad pirate to the Indian fighter. But l am willing at any time to have my osculptory apparatus sterilized, kiss Carrie - Nation’s bible and then raise both hands aud one leg if necessary, and swear that 1 never perused the pages of a French novel. 1 never took much iuterest in detect ive stories but I remember reading one entitled “Little Lightning,” and the author surely did uncork some awfui thunder. As au all-round thief catcher Little Lightning would make Sherlock Holmes look like that diminutive dum my who stools for the little Nigger cop in i’unch and Judy. I never intention ally ran away from school to read blood aud thunder stories, but on one occasion I remember that t became so deeply interested in a dime novel, en titled “Wildcat Ned,” that I failed to hear the school bell ring. One thing that I liked about the author of this novel was that he did not waste any ammunition on an introduction. The tale began thus: “Jiang! went Ned’s rifle, and a blood-thirsty redskin nit “IT IS NEVER TOO LATE TO MEND.” the dust.” In fact it was a continual bang, bang, from cover to cover. He was dressed in a buckskin suit, I and wore one of those broad-brimmed, \ 1 forty-four caliber Jack hats, with aj < misty turn up ii\ the front. In his arms he held a rifle as affectionately ! as a mother holds her babe. Ned al ways slept with his hand on his trusty rifle, and when he rolled out of his blankets in the morniDg he used to kill all the way from fifty to three hundred Indians just to whet up an appetite | for his java and johnnie-cake break- j fast. This hero owned a horse that he called Comancpe. - Comanche was a wonderful animal. He could climb trees and scale a mountain with the alacrity that a tomcat gets over a back fence, and on one occasion he swam a lake that was twenty miles across and towed a string of parges with six hun dred women and children aboard. The only man or beast who ever equalled this feat was when General Freddie Funston swam the Bag Bag with thirty seven big guns from the Astor Battery strapped to his back. When Horace Greeley advised young men to go west 1 was just old enough to take notice, and a few years later 1 started for the wild and woolly west, not to kill Indians but to make a for tune. When I went west I rode on the i cushions, and came back on the well I hiked a part of the way, and while on some of these hikes I lived on scenery and washed it down with water from babbling mountain brooklets. A straight diet of mountain air and mountain scenery is the bast anti-fat remedy that I know of. The first real, sure-enough Inaian that I ever saw was at Pocatello, Idaho, and I was uever so disappointed in my life, for instead of feasting my eyes on a tall, magnificent specimen of man hood, with painted face and wearing ornamental leggings and deer skin moccasins, I rubbered at a slouchy, shiftless, old chap who had a face that would be an insult to a slaughter house, and he drew flies like the proverbial molasses barrel. As a substitute for the pipe of peace, he was smoking a cigar butt that he had shot on the de pot platform. On one foot he wore a rubber boot with the leg cut off at the ankle, and on the other a leather shoe with no lace in it. Some time previous to my seeing him lie had crawled into a pair of soldier’s blue pants held np with one galius that was fastened with pieces of wire fence. On his large, massive head he wore a woman’s straw hat, with all the decorations swept from its deck. Under his arm he car ried a bible that he whs trying to sell to the passengers. A railroad man told me that this Indiau had been con verted only a few weeks before, and that the tears he shed while on the mourners bench were scarcely dry be fore he began to backslide. There is a reservation at or near Po catello, but on the day I passed thru the indiaus were holding some kind of a pow-wow, aud the civilized buck that I have already described was the only one that I saw. 1 b 3 bound for Pu get Sound and made cry few stops be fore 1 reached Seatt , and it was in this latter city that 1 first saw au Indi an woman at close range. Now 1 know absolutely nothing about the dress-maker’s ait, so it will be - im possible for me to give you a descrip tion of the gown she wore. Neither am la judge of feminine beauty, but she had a face that 1 am sure would not attract the attention of a Jack the Kisser. She was walking in the mid dle of the street, and her carriage was anything but graceful. Her feet were as broad, and as flat as a stone boat, i and every step she took the mud 1 squirted up bettveen her toes. On eaeh arm she carried a basket of clams, and » on her back sitting in a sling was a lit : tie papoose about one year old. The i only clothes that this little Kickapoo had on was a pair of cotton bloomers, i that had been evidently made by a i well-known Minneapolis firm because . on the dome of the m in big red letters was stamped the inscription, “Pils bury’sbestX X.” I thought at the time that if Pocahontas looked any thing like this squaw and I were in Captain John Smith’s place 1 would rather had Powhatten land on me with his battle ax than to have her throw her arms around my neck and call me her little tootsie wootsie. Washington is the greatest hop growing state in the Union, and at the time I landed in Seattle the picking season had just opened. So after spend ing a few days in the city, a friend in duced me to throw a pair of blankets on my back and accompany him to the hop fields. The hop growers depend largely on squaw labor to gather their crops. Thousands of Indians from all the adjoining states assemble in Wash ington during this season of the year. The squaw comes there to work, the buck to collect her wages aud spend it in card playing and horse racing. The Indians that I saw in this hop country were much better to look upon than the two 1 have described, still they did not size up to the ideal of my youthful fancy. The Indian is an inveterate gambler —but it was against the law for a white man to gamble with him, because poor Lo is as easy pickings for the pule faced, paste-board juggler as a green gosling is for a hen hawk. Now I was led to believe that the Indian was brave and honorable, and when he made a promise put his life up a 9 a bond to keep it. 1 read of his haughty demeanor and of his aristocratic mode of life, and of how easy it was to ruffle hia dignity. The Indian’s bravery re* minds me of the small boy who is will ing to fight only when his big brother is with him, and I do not believe you could find any dignity about him with the aid of a search warrant, lie does not possess as much honor as a tow path mule, and his promise isas worth less as a divine prophet’s certificate on heaven. 11 is table manners would shock a bull-pup that was bred and 1 raised in Chinatown. Some of the In- I dians that I saw were so filthy that they would contaminate the Chicago River by washing their face in it. Uncle Sam was represented in this hop country by a small army of U. S. Deputy Marshals. These officers were there to enforce law and order, espe cially to prevent white men from sell ing the Indians booze. The arrest and conviction of a white man for this offense meant a tidy little sum of mon ey, not only for the marshal but for the Indian who caused the arrest, and some of the Indian spies could put up a job and manufacture evidence that would be a credit to Harry Orchard Uncle Sam is a shrewd old duck, but these marshals and their red stool pig eons pulled his leg, and pulled it good and hard for a great many moons be fore he got wise, but when he did tum ble, he sent several of his secret service men to investigate, and it did not take Sam’s sleuths very long to round up a large bunch of crooked deputy mar shals. Any white man found intoxi cated would be arrested and charged with selling whisky to the Indians. One of the secret service men who feigned intoxication was arrested and ■ half a dozen Indians not only swore that he sold them bo< ze but they pro ; duped the bottles with the wet goods in them. The blanket Indian, that is the Indi ■ an whoclingsto the customs ofbisfore , fathers is a much better man in every [ respect than the Indian who has > adopted the white man’s garb, together ■ with his vices and habits. F. M. Nature’s Law of Justice. It is indeed necessary that we should remember that outside our selves is inflicting penalties upon us. In that sense there are neither rewards nor punishment. There are simply consequences. If an infant picks up a live coal it will burn him. He is inno cent and ignorant, but that will not _ _ ( sl.ro h year. In advance. TERMBS | six Months, 60 cents. prevent the operation of natural law. He must suffer the consequences. At first thought it seems cruel but upon reflection we see that in no other way can his life be made safe from Are. And following this method of teaching by experience, the only successful method possible, nature is constantly permitting us to suffer the minimum in penalty in order to escape the maxi mum of pain. It is a legal maxim that ignorance of the law excuses no man. This may sometimes work an apparent hardship, but there is no other way in which society can be protected; no other way to secure the greatest good to the greatest number. S > if we ig norantly violate law, either statutory or natural, we must suffer for it. Ignorance is the parent of all suffer ing. Happiness is the offspring of wisdom. Again let it be stated, that every cause must work out its natural effect. We may do an indiscreet thing in youth and still suffer for it in old age, long after we have apparently learned our lesson, and perhaps after we have forgotten its origin. There are two things we may do with our lives: We may drift aimlessly on like the rudderless ship or we may take (irmly hold of ourselves and make safe and rapid progress.' It is a splen did thing to know that we may rely upon the law of cause and effect as conlldently as un the law of gravity, and that a certain metho i of thinking and acting will produce certain results. It is a splendid thing to know that we have nothing m the universe to fear except ourselves, and that no possible harm can come to us except as the re sult of our own thoughts and acts. Once that fact is ffrmly grasped all the (lends of fear will vanish. One of the first things we should do i 6 to stop evil thinking of every description. We should check all uqkind thought of everybody. If we can not love our en emies, we can at least stop hatiog them; and as surely as we do that we shall | Anally have no enemies. If a man [ sends against you a thought of hatred and you meet it with another this de structive, disintegrating thought-force is multiplied. But if you meet it with a kindly thought it is neutralized. Kindly thought is a shield which (hear rows of malice cau not penetrate. Think kindly of all and nothing can harm you. Our safety is in our own hands. Not only should the thought-force be wisely aud beneficently directed to ward others, but our general attitude must be right if we would get the most from life. No matter how hard our temporary condition may be we only make it worse by worry. Most things people worry about never come to pass and worrying only increases the trouble if they do. Some good people worry so much they would not know good cheer if it came their way. You can’t worry and be logical. Victor Hugo expressed this wholesome trustfulness in the san ity of the universe in beautiful words: “The snow of winter is on my head but eternal spring is in my heart. Do your duty and at the end of life do not fear to go to sleep. God is awake." It literally pays to be sunny. Any thing as cheap as smiles ought to be plentiful. A smile is a ray of light from the soul. It is a flash of Deity translated into matter. “Laugh and the world laughs with you," says Ella Wheeler Wilcox. We need not wait uiitil death for either heaven or hell. Both are within reach, and we can take our choice uow. These words indicate different spiiitual conditions. Jesus put it into such clear and simple lan guage that all could comprehend when hp said, “the kingdom of heaven is within you." Literally this is trpe for by the conscious exercise of this fgte making faculty of Thought, we can be generous and sunny and tolerant, Bnd win the smiles of every one, or we can be miserable and nuhappy. If we would get from this old world ail the joy that life can give, we must learn that there is no such thing as accident or chance, but that each human being is the roaster of his destiny. A. H. T„ San Francisco Calif.