Newspaper Page Text
• - i iviium.ou(r, i
6/>e MIRROR A | | <^\ |jp* nnesot a, State | Vol. XXII.—No,. 24. Paper Head Refnre the Chautauqua Circle *» MONOPOLIES and trußts gener ally spoken of as meaning one and the same, and a difference is hard to find if one consider the power possessed by either. Yet writers on this subject and authors of dictionaries claim there is a great dif ference in the two words and their true meaning. A monopoly is defined i by Webster, as the exclusive power, right or privilege of selling a com mod- < ity; the exclusive power, right or privi- l lege of dealing in some article or i trading in some market, sole command ' of traffic in anything however obtained; I as the proprietor of a patent) article is i given a monopoly of its sale for a lim ited time.; chartered trading companies have sometimes had a monopoly of trade with remote regions; a combina tion of trades may get a monopoly of a particular product. He gives other definitions meaning the same, but this one would seem to make it plain that there are very few trusts, as most of the so-called trusts control the prod ucts they deal in, at least from seventy to ninety per cent, of the output of such products are produced by their plants. One author states that trusts are the result of evolution, the development to greater and better methods of pro duction, from the first business firm or the mechanic who made his manu factured article from the raw material in his workshop or at home, with no other than himself to represent the whole firm. This sounds reasonable, as the demand increased the produc tion had to increase, so brought about the shop with a few men working for an employer; later the factory devel oped with its foreman and overseers and twenty to fifty workmen; then the large manufacturer with improved machinery and great forces of work men, official force and traveling sales men; then the manufacturer's pool was formed, but failed on account of lawsuits and the dishonesty of some of the manufacturers; then next come the combination of the large manufac tories, to act as one under one set of officials which developed into what we call trusts. And if this be true, it would look as tho demand and the conditions surrounding it were the cause ot this development and they would also seem natural. This being the cause of the now ex- i is ting trust or monopoly, it must have tieen produced by the increasing de- < tnand for such articles and the favora- < t>le conditions to such development t by similar development of other trade i «ud traffic, which would only be nat- < <iral and for that reason I believe it to i be a matter of evolution. But this < does not signify that this is the end of I development or evolution of the pro ductive system or the measure of traf- < He, nor the good and evil so acquired 1 by their development. 1 With the increasing power to supply also comes their great tinancial power, and with the great protit which is pro duced and reinvested every year it is only natural to think that at some time they may become complete mo nopolies in the full term of the word. While the different combinations or trusts claim to be impartial and treat all trade alike, It seems strange that the railroad freight rates on some, if not a great many things, seem to be a great deal more favorable to the loca tions of the large trust plants and very unfavorable to the locations of the in dependent plant. In the shipment of oil it is claimed that the Standard Oil Company has locations which call for the lowest rates on oil, and the rates on sugar are very favorable to the plants of that trust; while the indepen dent plants are located where freight rates on the same articles are much higher. The trust that furnishes seventy to ninety per cent, of the products con sumed by the country has another ad vantage over the independent dealer, for the trusts of this size may raise monopolies STILLWATER, MINNESOTA, THURSDAY, DECEMBER 24, 1908. and trusts. prices for a certain length of time with safety, as the independent company cannot supply the demand; and if they raise their prices there are no reasons for the retail merchants to buy their goods, as they are sure of prompt de livery and full supply from the trust, while the independent plant is uncer tain and without lower prices are of small consideration In most cases the trust owns the pat ents of the machinery and devices used for the production of the r goods and ' the independent firm must pay royalty on these if used. Then the trust may have the choice in buying raw material, as such companies buy in greater quan tities and are more secure for pay and are generally favored. In the expense caused by labor the trust saves a great deal, as by combining the several large plants, they dispense with a number of high salaried officials and a great many salesmen, and are operated from the head plant by almost the same number of officers it would require for each in dividual plant, while the different plants are managed by a superinten dent and small force of clerks. In advertising it requires very little more for the combination of the trust than it would for one individual plant, and a large amount is saved iu this way. Labor unions have little effect on these trusts who operate a great many large plants; for a disagreement or strike only causes a transfer of or ders from the plant that has the trouble on hand and they are filled by the other plants, even If two or three plants have to be closed it causes no great, trouble, but an independent firm who may not have more than lour or five plants would suffer greatly in such a case. A trust is supposed to le a combira- tion of business firms for the purpose of saving waste labor a id other ex penses, and to promote business by producing with better methods and on a large scale without obstructing com petition of either trade or traftic. The public at large are to a great extent to blame for the power that helps to give trusts a monopoly, for it is to a great extent a slave to habit and even preju dice to anything new or out of the old rut, so when a trust obtains possession of plants producing the popular and well established brands or those bear ing such trade marks, then the busi ness is almost monopolized at once. Trusts, especially the largest, do not confine their operations to main plants of production alone but also gain pos session of the branches or even other industries that in some way are of ben efit to their welfare. If complete pos session is not to be obtained, stock enough to acquire favor to their indus try is purchased. Author Jenks mentions one case in this state. In 1900, The Federal Steel Company was a combination of several companies. It bought all the stock owned by The Minnesota Iron Compa ny, which consisted of Iron ore prop erty; The Duluth and Iron Range Rail road Company, which connects its mines with Lake Superior at two points, ore docks and twenty-two steel vessels for carrying its products. It also bought a’l the stock of the Illinois Steel Company, of several plants which produce pig iron, steel rails, steel bil lets, steel plates, etc. The Federal Steel Company also owned the Chicago Lake Shore and Eastern Railroad, be sides large tracts of coal property on which it manufactured coke for those plants. This company with such ad vantages for shipment and material at first cost could put its products on the market so much cheaper than any one of the individual plants that there would be very little chance for compe tition, and if the market price were the same for the products of both, the trusts would receive far the largest profit. But from these few facts and the statement that some four hundred men own the trusts and monopolies of this country it is not hard to believe “IT IS NEVER TOO LATE TO REND.” that most of them are stockholders in the majority of ti e trusts now formed i ] and by such united interests help each < other, so that almost the entire pro- i duce of the country are in their power I to a gieat exieot. . . I It is claimed by some scientific au thors that there is no te idency toward ' the ten laliza'h nof wealth. This may 1 te but if the profits of all or most of the produce of the country goes to such a few of the people how can it he otlerwise? The profits of two trusts, The Standard Oil and The Unite i S'ates Ste 1 Company, were for the ytar of 1905 over two hundred million dollars. Thie amount reinvested every y<ar is bound to increase the first profit and increase moie every year the wealth ef the owners. How long can this, with not only two but many such trusts, almost as profitable and owned by such a few persons, go on before there is a tendency tewa r d the central ization of wealth? There has bten a number of ieme dies proposed to protect the peiple from monopoly and trust power, the foremost seems to be the le noval of the tariff. But is this a cure for the pain or the disea-re? If it is possible to form trust combinations in a coun try as large as the United States why is it not possible to extend the combi nation to more countries and 1 ave a world monopoly which would be more pov erful ? It would be comg aratively easy for The Standard Oil Company to establish a world monopoly, as it now has a monopoly in this country, Ger many, France and England. If it should unite with ? the companies of Russia it would be complete in a short time. What I have tried to describe has only shown the dark side of trusts and monopolies and their operations for self-interest, and I believe that is the main reason for their existence. But there is no producer whose system ! is as complete as that of the trust, or ' that can operate with as little expense, or produce a better grade of products, if it so desires, or such large quantities in the same length of time; the more ' united the productive power the less * expensive are the means of production. “ And if the consumers could share the ' benefits of this economy by receiving ’ better goods at lower prices it would 1 be something to praise instead of cou -1 demu. There iB a farce comedy almost worthy of praise, now going on between The Standard Oil Company and the United States Court, with John D. and Lieu tenant Archbold as head comedians. This is for the benefit of the people who want to see the government make monopolies be good or those who want to see the big stick bust a trust. The Standard Oil Company has just been let off prying a small fine also, but as it was of no consequence either to Staudard Oil or the government there was no reason for demanding payment, even tho it was the largest fine ever put on record. This late comedy will also close with a quiet investigation, with insufficient evidence to condemn, or a fine imposed to later Le suspended and in time forgotten. But these small troubles dou’t worry monopolies and trusts. A. B. M. Golden Rule Policy. “For years the police—unwillingly and unwittingly, perhaps—have been instrumental in making as many crim inals as any other agency, poverty, heritage and association excepted. This has been done by arresting first offend ers and trivial offenders; by exposing and branding them with police court and prison records. The police have discouraged men; they have driven young and weak men to the haunts and association of habitual and expert criminals, who have taught them the ideals and practices of crime. The po lice have sometimes punished but never pi evented crime. “The time has come to change all this, and the Golden Rule policy is the way to do it.” Thus speaks Chief Frederick Kohler, of Cleveland, Ohio, the best chief of police in America, according to Presi dent Roosevelt. He has put his ideas into effect and today is coming nearer to solving one of the greatest prob lems of the cities than any other man. Some call him a “dreamer” and “idealist,” but Chief Kohler has done things. Above everything else he is a practical man and his ideas are prac tical ideas. His “common sense policy” in treating offenders against the law has proved a success, and chiefs of po lice thruout the country aie begin ning to “sit up and take notice.” The “best chief” has more than lived up to the president’s praise. That crime in the cities can be reduced to a mini mum, if not actually checked, by the simple observance of the Golden Rule, Chief Kohler thiuks he has prove 1. A year’s trial of this policy in dealing with crimes and criminals in Cleveland has convinced him of it aud now other cities are preparing to follow the ex amp'e of Cleveland in instituting the Goldeu Rule policy. It is only a ques tion of time, its advocates say, until it will be adopted everywhere thruout the United Statei. As its name implies, the Golden Rule policy is designed to tie it offenders against the law as men, even when they are drunk; even when they dis turb the pe ice; even when they insult the dignity of a policema-i. Under the workings of this policy intoxicated men are taken or sent to their homes in stead of being placed in j *il. Apparent offenders on any misdemeanor charges are warned and released by simply taking their name and address, unless it is evident on the face of things that the offense was committed with malice and forethought. In short, the police men are instructed that the people they have to deal with are human be ingp, not machine*; liable to make mis takes and failures, but not therefore lost souls. They are la ight to be the fritn is and parole officers of the of fenders against the law. They are in structed to enforce the law, but with the least show of authority, without personal pride and with the greatest sense of human justice. Under the ‘ Goldeh Rule” policy the city is 6a\ed thousands of dollars in witness fees, much work for the police judges, polite c'e.ks and court at tacl es; wear and iear of a’l police ap paratus. Patrolmen and detectivesaie able to devote more time to the pur suit of habitual criminals and crimes of a serious nature. Statistics for the first nil e months of the operation of this policy in Cleve land show a decrt aie of 65 per cent, in the numter of arrests as compared with the first nim months of 1907, when the old system was in vogue. In tl e first nil e months of 1907, 23,102 ar rests were made in Cleveland. In tl e i first nine months of 1908 but 8,088 ar rests were made. Ttie statistics also show that 12 per ctnt. more actual criminals were arrested during theniDe months un ler the Golden ltule policy than in the first months of 1907. “We now experience ‘arrettless’ days,” declares Chief Kohler in sum ming up the benefits of his system. “Think of it! On some days there has not been a single arrest, ani Cleveland has a p jpularion of 525,000 It is the natural result of our year’s work in trying to make better citizens of petty offenders. It is the ideal condition at which we are aim ng, and we are going to get theie befoiebng.”—Utica Glote. Education. “A word to the wise is sufficient”— an old trite saying to which may be added: An author, or ordinary writer, is not supposed to consider the ability of every individual to intelligently di gest the penned mental pabulum re sultant from his superior mentality. True, many are prone to disagree with me regarding matters of common in terest, but I have tailed to discern any convincing arguments which offset the printed ideas of Erid. However, my contemporary, Mr. Anglicus, proffered _ < sl.eo a year, in advance. TERMSr j six Months, 60 cents. exceptions to my ideas pertaining to a stepping stone to knowledge; inci dently, he, in a manner so familiarly delectable, utilized his interpreting faculty to demonstrate my lack of per ceptible powers to discern that Mrs. Wibox (one of the grandest poetic writers of today) and Mr. London, whose familiarity with the world en ables him to apply his imaginative ness and weave criminal records, Klon dike experiences, etc., into stories of fiction, are not entitled to enter the ranks of the Blackstones and Shake speare who attained knowledge. Well, they are not! Unless you can compre hend the distinction between the two terms, education and knowledge, by what power of analysis can one realize the nicety of the distinction ? “Education,” as Webster defines is, “Instruction; teaching;” also,“nurture; breeding ” whiclf, in the sense intended are to be accepted as synonyms of the two former terms. The instruction and teaching one may receive is pur veying from sources meant to convey knowledge and thereby one is intro duced by the process of education to the greater fields dominated by knowl edge. To aptly illustrate: A law stu dent gleans points of law from in structors, teachers, and applies his educational abilities to master such knowledge. And even tho he know the contents of Blackstone by heart, so to speak, even tho he is thoroughly ed ucated in law, he still remains in the ranks of the educated classes. Diffi cult to assimilate, Mr. Anglicus? Well, for sweet charity’s sake 1 shall deviate from Mr. Webb’s intention, “Won’t do Anything for Nobody until Somebody does Something for me,” and explain the uusouuded depths of profound log icaliness. “Knowledge,”says Webster,is “learn ing; scholaißhip; practical skill.” Men tally consider the “learning” of Black stone, instructing the educa'ei at Ox ford; rellect upon his “practical skill” demonstrated in those sheep-bound volumes p:epared by him; then the sig nificance of the term knowledge be comes plainer. Peruse the works of Shakespeare and ascertain his mode of interpreting characters, as they were; of life as it is. Consider, also, Bunyan, Byron, Lincoln, Cleveland, and myriad of others. Persons who passed thru educational vales to fields of knowl edge. Compare such as Mrs. Wilcox, and Dorothy Dix who dilate about rearing children, retaining a husband’s, wife’s, sweetheart’s love and other top ics of general information. Y\ hat pro cess do they utilize y The educational, observatory, theoretical process of an imate and inanimate deduction modi fied by technical “ifs,” “ands,” “pros,” “cons,” which adhere sufficiently to satisfy certain mentalities, and create loopholes to protect them from author ii ative corrections—such as knowledge, derived from actual experience o' practically demonstrated skill, can s« profusely extend to the educated bu* not experienced. It is these latter classes that Mr. a licus would consider as persons ol knowledge. Mr. London “is a recorder of elemental life” —enough! The veri- y est savage may know elemental lif and practicing it descends far fron the plane of knowledge— which show: us the sacredness of life. Knowett thou the history of elementally de rivel practice? “The Puritans re garded all secular books as works of the devil,” wrote Mr. A. Such diver gence from a point at issue confuses readers. However, one would have i great conception to deduce such an as serted idea! The daiuty little schoolmarms art presented with certificates to teach begat by Drasco’s Rules—educated, it you please, but of their knowledge—? One may attain education by personal efforts; but let such a one desert one woman for another—but of his knowl edge ? One may tell the people of a republic how to act, etc., by theorizing —but of such a one’s knowledge? Shakespeare, etc., understood laws, na ture, creeds, etc, in their highest, ap plicable sense. But many are to guess —few chosen to know. Erid.