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©fe MIRROR A | IPuWished Weehly | A — SS QH =! ' I nnesot gy t&te J Vol. XXII.—No. 38. (Seorge llOlasbington Paper Read Before the Chautauqua Circle Commander-in-chief of the Continental forces in the Revolution and first president of the United States, was born February 22nd, 1732, at Bridges Creek, Westmoreland Co., Va. Little or noth ing is known of Washington’s ancestors in England. His grandfather, John Washington, emigrated to Virginia in 1657, and served as a colonel in the early Indian wars. His father died when he was eleven years of age, so that his educa tion and training was undertaken by his mother, who was a woman of noble character, and, as events proved, fully equal to the task. All thru his life we are able to note the deep love and re spect that he bore her, and to her in fluence, no doubt, is due the develop ment of many,of his admirable charac- teristics. -As a boy Washington was very fond •Of outdoor sports, and it was his great delight to organize his boy friends into a soldier company and drill them, llis attendance at school was from necessity quite limited, but as he was very bright he soon lesame the best scholar in the vicinity ot his home, excelling in math ematics, and at the age of sixteen had thoroly fitted himeelf as a practical surveyor. One of Washington’s early friends was Lord Fairfax, an eccentric Eng lishman, who owned an immense estate in Virginia. He employed him to sur- vey this land, and it was while engaged in this work, away from civilization and compelled to undergo numerous hardships, that he learned many lessons that afterward proved useful to him. When Governor Dinwiddle arrived in Virginia he appointed \V ashington, with the rank of major, over one of the four military districts into which he divided the colony. Is was at this time, in 1753, and when only twenty-one years of age, that he was dispatched on his mission to "V e nango (a French fort on the Alleghany river) to find out from the French com mander his reasons for invading British territory. This being accomplished he returned, in imminent peril from In dian bullets and floating ice, for it was while on his homeward journey that he was fired upon by an Indian not thirty feet distant. Fortunately the latter missed his mark, an i was captured by Washington and his guide. The guide desired to kill the -savage at once, but -acting on Washington’s advice, they merely detaiued him until night and the i allowed him to depart. During the night while attempting to cross tl e Alleghany on a raft, they were huiled amidst the grinding ice and had to cling to the timbers of the destroyed raft until morning, when they found ice solid enough to cross on foot. When called upon to take command] of the army of the United States, Washington was forty-three years of age. He had married a wealthy young widow in 1759 and being heir to large estates himself, had decided, to devote the rest of his life to agriculture and the improvement of his property. His kind and genial disposition seemed better fitted for the quiet of domestic life than for the stern duties of military command, but to these gentler traits he joined a high enthusiasm, an un conquerable spirit of daring and en durance, which later on made him the idol of his soldiers. Lt was in May, 1775, that the Second Continental Congress met at Philadel phia, and appointed him to be com mander-in-chief of the continental ar my. Altho he had written a letter to a frit nd in which he stated that he "abhorred the idea of independence” he cheerfully gave up his home circle and risked his property and his life. On the 3rd of July, 1775, this great general took command of the forces besieging Boston. His first task was to create an army out of these raw re cruits, and happily the inaction of the British gave him a few months for the STILLWATER, MINNESOTA, THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 25, 1909, work. When we consider the material and resources at his command as com pared with those of the enemy, and his lack of experience in handling large troops, we must admit that his success was remarkable. More wonderful, how ever, was his indomitable courage and perseverance in the face of every dis couragement, on the part of the people, congress and jealous generals. On Dec. 4th, 1783, Washington took leave of his comrades in so many perils and sufferings; and a few days later he resigned his commission to congiess in a speech full of wisdom and earnest devotion to the interest of his country. Before separating, the officers formed themselves into a friendly society called the “Cincinnati,” in memory of the noble Roman, Cincinnatus, who left his plow to serve his country in wa f , and returi ed to his peaceful pursuits as soon as the victory was won. At the close of the war Washington looked eagerly for a renewal of his do mestic life, but again heroically sacri ficed his private desires for his coun try’s good iu accepting the presidency. As a president he was fiequently-criti cised for his aristocratic tendencies, but he earnestly defended himself from cavils which in the light of the present day teem ber.eith his notice. No man of his time had more trust in the reason and conscience of his fellow men or knew better how to take their advice. Whenever he had anything of import ance to do, it was his custom to pie pare himself for it carefully, and when others * ere at fault, they often found that he had already prepared the way, so that men willingly gave him the lead, which he never appeared to claim, altho always able to undertake. I do not believe that any of us can read the life of Washington without admiring the simplicity and truth, the patriotism, i erseve atice, integrity and diligence displayed during his carter. His one ambition seems to have been a desire to excel in the minds of men by the development of high qualities, the love, in short,of an h< norable lame, that stirred him to exult in the rewards of popular favor. Ilis eight years as president was of far more importance to our country than his eight years’ command of our armies, for it was while under his faithful care tha* auew period of prospe ity legan. The honor of the government was sustained by a secure provision for the payment of its debts, confidence and order were es tablished, commerce began to flourish and the products of the soil became a vast w* alth. In spite of the complaints of restless politicians, the people loved the government, for they found it well able to secure their peace and happi ness. At the close of his second adroinie tration he once more resumed the quiet round of plantation life. Mount Vernon was an estate comprising seven or eight thourand acres, half of which was under cultivation and was worl e l by two or three hundred slaves. When at home Washington personally super intende i his affairs aid kept his own books, in fart, it is said that during his entire absence he had an exact report of each week’s transactions sent to him by mail. During the year of 1798 Virginia pre sented him with canal stock valued at $60,000 in return for his services to the state and nation. This Le accepted, but only to assist two institutions of learning; a college in Virginia, now called the “Washington and Lee Uni versity,” and a school at tte capital of the United State r. It was white taking his usual ride over the plantation on the morning of the twelfth of December, 1799, that he was caught in a cold storm of rain and sleet. A few days later he was at tacked with the sudden illness which ended his grani and useful life. The whole nation mourned him as a father, and those who had teen his opponents were most sincere in doing him honor. INo character was more free frofh sel- “IT IS KEVGR TOO LATE TO MEND.” fish aims, none could 1 ave held to-; gether so many discordant interests j until they had time to become united.! Pre-eminent among his contemporaries for the clearness aud soundness of his , judgment, for his perfect moderation and telf-controi, and the firmness with ! which he pursue! every path that he had chosen, he, of ali the great men in history was the most judicious, and there is scarcely a rash word or judg ment lecordel against him. Altho many of Pieddint Washington's acts were denounced by his partisan op ponents, and the press very bitter in its criticism, the sober judgment of later years has approved most if not all of his public acts. It is proper to n >te that during the last y* a's of his life he utei ail his in fluem e to remove the bitter feelings inluced by the war, aud that those memorable words, “First in war, first in peace, aud first in the hearts of his countrymen” that were spoken by Gen. Henry Lee, of Virginia, who at the request of congress,'pronounced his funeral oration, are a fitting tribute to one of the graudest Americans that ever lived. G. W., 1055. The Fellow Servant Problem. Paper Read Before the Chautauqua Circle. ££ w—EXACTLY as the workingman L is entitled to his so | he should be entitled to in demnity for injuries sustain ed in the natural coarse of his labor.” These were the words of Presidrnt Rooseve t in a special message to Con gie s, and so it is true. Isn’t it enough that a man te crippled and maimed for life without having to carry the re sponsibility of earning a living for himself and family as a cripple V Isn’t it enough for him to bear the pain and suffering without laving to go out in to the world and compete with able bodied men; or must he have further humiliation heaped upon him by being compe lei to look to charity for ex istence? Where is this man going to find an employer who will be kind enough to take him in and allow him ti e same compeusath n that he does a physically perfect mao? Nowhere; and is it a wonde ? Why should he? lie isn’t responsible for the man 1 e ng a helpless cripple. Some firm, cor poration or individual, as the ca e may be, is directly or indirectly responsible for this u au’s condition, and they are the ( n j ß I e should look to for support. The man whote care'essne s caused the injury is the mau-who should carry the buideu. What kind of a world is this, where a man is employed < n public work as a public servant, end thru no fault of his own meets with an accident in the course of his employment and becomes a permanent cripple and then is cast out like a piece of broken machinery? He has not only been robbed of the means of .e truing a livelihood, but the opportunity. He has no immediate friends or relatives that he can look to for support. No one wants to give him employment. He hasn’t the means or ability to establish a business of his own. He thei* pre becomes an outcast and a charity. What fond hopes l.e may e cherished are blight ed, and his family, if he has one, is sep arated and its members become wan derers on the face of the earth. It doesn’t only wreck his own life, but the lives of others. Life istj.e’d too cheaply. A nao is nothing taore or less than a piece of machinery. As long as it is in good working condition it is worth a fixed price; bnt when it becomes worn out or broken it is cast aside and new ma chinery takes it' 1 place. So it is with the life of a mail. As long as he is hardy and perfect in limb and can per form h« task satisfactorily, he is worth so much to hi employer; but if he meets with an ccident he is cast in I the rubbish pi& of human wrecks to rust, canker and de ay. lie is no longer of ute to his employer. He must give way to some one else who will probably follow the same course in the end. The foregoing is merely a prelude to the main topic, i e.,a e we responsible for otte;’s mistakesV In many suits: to recover damages for personal in-. juries judges have held that employers are not liable for accidents to employes ! when same was due to carelessness of | a fellow employe. .Notwithstanding that this same employe was hired, ex-! amined and placed there by the injured j one’s superiors. If one does not choose j to work with, or does not feei safe while working with a fellow r emploje, his only remedy is to resign. There is absolutely no redre s or compensation for him in or thru the courts, as proven by decisions not culy of the lower but the Supreme courts as well. Who of you here have not at some time or other been p a ed in posith ns where your fellow workman was an entiie stranger to you? Tl e efore making it an impossibility for you to judge of his fitness, either mentally or physically. But the courts say you, and not your employer, (who has the right and power to ascertain his fitness and ability) are to blame, if by his care lessness you sustain an injury. Are you and I, who have spent years in fit ting ourselvei for a certain class of work, to blame if thru an incompetent or negligent superior’s order are forced to work with incompetent or caieless co-workers, and are injured thru ignor ance of such a fellow servant? Or is the incompetent and negligent superior the one on whom the blame should be p aced? It stems to the writer that there is something radically wrong with a law of this kind. If we may be allowed to make this paper slightly personal, we will recite an incident of which we were an eye witness. A train of which I was in charge in the capacity of conductor be came disabled by the breaking of a draw bar, making it necessary to repair same with a chain. We ordered the brake 1 an to make repairs. After back ing up against rear portion of tra ; n, engineer reversed engii e, that is, put it in the forward motion, but did not set air brake or open cylinder cocks. Throttle was leaking a id in a short time e lough steam had accumulated in cylinder to move forward portion of train, crushing the brakemau’s hand so badly as to necessitate the amputation of the entiie hand. The company claimed, and the judge sustained tl em, that the engineer, not the company, was the one who was liable. Notwith standing tl at. comj a iy knew of defect of throttle, and the brakeman was tm cars from the engine and could not know what had been done to protect him, or had been neglected to be done by one who was a fellow eervaut. This engineer had been placed in charge of engine by our superior officers and was supposed to be competent, but thru his carelessness the brakeman lost his hand. It was proved that the Company knew that this particular engiueer was not a reliable man, as he had in the course of two years injured three men by carelessness. Nevertheless the company letained him and the court upheld them in so doing by finding that said brakeman was injured by fellow servant and not by company, therefore was not entitled to any recompense from company. Again we ask, is there not something unjust in a law of this kind ? A. E. D. Mrs. Mary Thaw. Recorded history—ancient or modern does not afford a finer or more striking example of filial affection than that exhibited by Mrs. Mary Thaw. In the bitter circumstances in which Mrs. Mary Thaw became involved she came bravely to the rescue—hypothe cating her securities and mortgaging her home for the purpose of aiding and assisting her son. Disregarding ali _ „ I s!.'oa year, in advance TERMSi", six Months. 60 cents. conventionalities set up by those in her class she ha* slealfastly clung tena ciously to the iiliai affection wiiich re gards the welfare of offspring superior to all earthly possessions. The old aphorism, “My country, right or wrong—my country,” has been phara phrased by her into the sentiment “my son, right or wrong—my son.” in cater like hers alleged friends are the iirst to det^rt—but the white-haired mother sticks io every adversity—no matter how severe it pray be. The red blood of the mother is seldom found in other branches of the family. Sisters may be lukewarm, brothers may desert and fa'hers may give desultory aid— but the mother—never, never, never. With Mrs. Mary Thaw the exhibi tion of filial affection has been the highest, the.loftiest and the noblest in recent annals of the world’s history. SI e has fought like a tigress and yet has exhibited no unwomanly, no un ladylike, no ungracious attributes. Re cently however she gave utterance to a wail that the n e.i of America ought to listen to. She said in substance that si e bad exhausted her entire fortune in fighting for what she considers to be right. That another’s lilerty and free dom were dea r er to her than all e’se. Yet on every hand shehadbteu hound ed and ha assed by lawyers and detect ives seeking the last dofar in her pos tessh n—and that in almost all cases she has met with connivance, chicane ry, duplicity, deception and opposition until sick and sol e in heart, body and brain. She has finally become a physi cal bnd almost men al wteck. Laying aside questions of right or wr< n| Mrs. Thaw is reserving of more than a passing mention in the recorded history of the present day. All honor to the faithful, persevering broken-hearted mother who like the story of the Rible will be more rejoiced over the return of the sheep that has strayed from the fold than thote that remained in the flock. The mothers of America will cherish a prorer appreciation of the mother love of Mrs. Thaw which has prompted her to make all these sacrifices. Can’t Be Done. “And now,” a Ided the judge, after having sentenced a* burglar to seven yiars in state’s prison, “let me indulge in the hope that this will prove a great moral lesson to yon,and that whtn you find yourself us again you will have decided to make your future way by habits of industry.” “It can’t be done—not in my case,” replied ti e prist ner. “Do you mean that you are so steeped in crime that it is impossible for you to reform V” “No sir. I mein that I am such a poor business man that there is no show for me in the wa'ks of industry.” “I don’t quite understand.” “Why, judge, this will make twenty one years in the coop for me, and all I’ve had out of the burglary business is S2O in cash, an old watch and a second-hand suit of clothes. It’s easy to see that 1 wasn’t born for either business or industry.”—Ex. “The constable teems wonderfully certain about the details of my case,” said a defendant with a sneer; “but how is it he doesn’t call his fellow officer to corroborate what he says?” “There’s only one constable stationed in the village, sir,” exclaimed the police man. “Rut I saw two last night,” indig nantly asserted the defendant. “Exactly,” the policeman rejoined, smiling broadly, “that’s jest the charge against you.”—Ex. The costliness of keeping friends does not lie in what ore does for them, but in what one out of consideration for them refrains from doing.—Henrik Ibsen. Faith.