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Established 1887 THE HUMAN SIDE OF THE CRIMIHAL “Still Belong to Fellowship of the Com mon life— Engulfed by Stroms Which Perhaps Would Have Wrecked the Best of us”—Says Rev. Cooley. A BRILLIANT ADDRESS The following are excerpts from an address by Harris R. Cooley, of Cleveland, delivered before the American Prison Congress, in In dianapolis, last October: Our dealing with the offender has been largely pagan. has been a criminal treatment of crime. In the modern betterment of the conditions and opportunities of life the prisoner has been overlooked. Progress has halted at the iron doors. The old torture idea has lingered long iu the common thought of puuishment. The traditional feeling is that severe and painful punish ment exterminates wrong thoughts aud action. Having been called from the active ministry to the head of the munic ipal department ot Chanties and Correction, I suddenly found myself face to face with three hundred pris oners iu the workhouse, with the responsibility of their treatment. As I looked into the faces of these prisoners there came to me this challenge. “Dare you put iuto prac tice with these men aud women the g >Bpel which you have been preach ing from the pulpit?” It was one of the most serious questions I had ever been called upon to face. I weut to Mayor Johnson, saying to him that a change of methods would raise a storm of protest. He said to me, ‘if it is the right thing to do, do it auyway.” And so iu his first administration we pardoned and paroled eleven hundred and six ty men aud women from our House of Correction. In the previous ad ministration only eighey-four had been pardoned. Of course the radi cal change raised a storm of protest from the press aud even from the pulpit. Many good people seemed surprised that the gospel of human kindness really worked. If we are to deal fairly with the offenders, we must know, as Victor Hugo says, “the path up which the crime has done,” aud sometimes to know all is to forgive all. Some of our visitors have express ed surprise, saying that “the prison ers really look like the men outside.” If they are hurt on the machinery they bleed, aud their blood is red like ours. Reasons for Imprisonment There are only two reasons which justify the contiuemeut of men and women in prison; the first, the pro tection of society; the second, the good of the criminal. All thoughts of revenge should be put away in a civilized community. Severity and brutality of punishment has never decreased crime. A hundred years ago in Great Britain there were two hundred offenses punishable by death. This was thought necessary in order to repress and restrain the criminal class. If the executions of men and women has a marked deter rent effect on crime, then to have private executions is to hide a light under a bushel. By the law of suggestion, brutal, revengeful puu nishment arouses thoughts of vio lence and blood. The method of severity and torture is not necessary either to protect society or to cure the criminal. For its own sake, society canuot afford to be brutal even to the weakest, meanest man or woman. VVLeu the apostle said, ‘‘lf thine enemy hunger, feed him,” he was expressing a good social law. The best way for society to destroy its enemies is to make honest citizens. The simple story of mercy and kind ness of the Nazarene has done more to lift men and women out of vice and crime than all the jails and peniten tiaries aud hangmeus’s ropes com bined. The emblem of the coming power is uot a liou as with Great Britain, a bear as with Russia, an eagle as with us, but the emblem of the coming power is a Lamb which is in the midst of the Throne. Trainintf Men for Criminal Life The awakening to the magnitude and vital importance of this problem has been slow aud slothful. We spend money like w ater for punish ment. While at the head of the police department, a voucher came through one day for twenty-one dol lars for a Book of Thieves. I said to my secretary, “Why is this? I cau buy a Book of Saints bound in morocco for a dollar.” In this coun try we are expending for the detec tion aud punishment of crime pro bably a thousand million dollars a year, as much as for education, charity aud religion combined. This enormous expenditure is devoted to one-tenth ot one per cent, of our population. More than this, many of our penal methods aud institutions are training first offenders for a criminal life. In the face of these facts, the general indifference in re gard. to this subject is difficult to explain. Winston Churchill recent ly declared in the House of Com mons that “the attitude of the pub lic in regard to the treatment of crime aud criminals is one of the best tests of the civilization of any people.” We are so apt to feel that those iu prison are of a different class from ourselves. They are outcasts from society with whom we have nothing in common aud with whom we want nothing to do. We do not see them in their family relations with the human past and the possi bilities of the human future. They still belong to the fellowship of the common life, only they have been engulfed by storms and undercur rents which perhaps would have wrecked the best of us. A Change of Attitude A general change of attitude to ward the so-called “criminal classes,” is the fundamental thiug which is happening. Prophetic minds have heralded the new 7 spirit of human fellowship, and here and there in dividuals had faith to try the dis cipline of kindness. Some are see ing the vision*of the possibility and wisdom of preventing and curing crime. The new probation and pa role systems show that the social conscience is growing sensitive. So ciety is asking w'hether, by its own neglect, it is not in many cases a pardner in the wrong-doing. Even the family of of the prisoner is be coming a burden on the new con science. The body social is feeling that the good of the weakest erring member is the concern of all. Vice and crime are men and women go ing wrong, and uot offensive refuse which you cau “clean up” as from an alley or a back yard. The heart of society is more and more directing its services to the men and w'omeu farthest down, the poorest aud weakest and most wretched. This ministration “to the least of the human family who is iu want or sick in prison,” the great Teacher has made the final and supreme test of religion, He has placed it far above dogma or form or ceremony. It is not merely a beautiful sentiment, it is the funda mental principle of His teaching. It is the only permanent method of the grow 7 th of human society. Jesus was a profound social teacher. Other nations have developed cul ture, art aud education on the part of a few' favored ones. Their civi lization has always declined. If we make permanent progress, we must lift society from the bottom and then we all rise together, not to decline and fall. This movmneut is beginning to make itself felt in our religious, social and political activities. We are coming to real ize that the conservation of human life is the highest function of re ligion and education, of society and of government itself. —O. P. News. BILLY SUNDAY’S PULL Take* Nearly Forty Thousand Dollar* Out of Pittsburg for Eight Week’s Work With the real closing of the Pitts burg evangelistic campaign on Mon day —the formal closing was Sunday - came the announcement that the freewill offering for the Rev. Wil liam A. Sunday amounted to $37,- ‘.415.43. This represented the col lections at the tabernacle and Memo rial Hall meetings, those taken up in a number of churches and the vari ous amounts sent to Mr. Sunday personally. It was said that other offerings, sent too late for tabulation on Monday might increase the amount, which w r as the largest ever given the revivalist. This evangelistic business is cer tainly some money getter. “Did I understand your wife treats you like a dog?” ~Great Scott, no!” replied the scared looking man. “You don’t suppose my wife would let me eat anything as expen sive as dog-biscuit, do you?’ ’—Washing ton Star OUR MOTTO:—“It Is Never Too Late to Mend.” Stillwater, Minnesota. Thursday, March 12, 1914. GOOD DREEDING AND ILL MANNERS Another Meritorious Paper Read Before the Chautauqua Circle at a Recent Meeting, in Which the Writer Expresses his Views Logically. COURTESY GOES FAR By W. P. A. 3457, If I were asked to state ‘"just wh t degree of s ’ccess depended upon good manners,” I would say it is impossible to estimate to how great a degree success does depend upon good manners. We all know 7 however that if tw 7 o men were to start in life each with the same qual ities, except that one was W ind, courteous, and obliging, w hile the other was stiff, rude, aud unoblig ing, the former w 7 ould make the suc cess in life and the other the failure. I remember an instance which il lustrates this point exactly. In a small town which I had occasion to visit, there was a drug store kept by a man who w T as anything but an ideal merchant. He had plenty of money, as large and well equipped a shop as I have ever seen in a place of that size, and he advertised his goods widely. A block or so fur ther down the street there was an other drug storp, not nearly so large or w 7 ell supplied with wares, for it was owned by a young man w 7 ho had invested his last dollar in his somew 7 hat meager equipment. Another difference was, that the man in the larger shop was a surly, disagreeable sort of a person, one who seldom spoke unless directly addressed, and then in a tone that w r as anything but pleasing. While the other man was always smiling, obliging and willing to please. When you bought goods from the former you felt that he was doing you a favor to sell them to you; the latter alw 7 ays said, “thank you, come again,” or let you go away w 7 ith some other phrase equally as appre ciative. Forced Out of Businees A year or so later while traveling through this same territory, and on stopping at the town, I found that the larger druggist had gone, —gone because, as he explained, there was not room for a decent drug store in the place. While the other man had extended his business until he had obtained as large aud well equipped a shop as that of his rival had been. He found no difficulty in makiug his business a profitable one, he had no trouble in keeping his customers; oucethey visited his shop they were only too glad to accept his invita tion to call again, and called so reg ularly that he was on the high road to success. A true capacity for courtesy Is a high gift, and courtesy is an important business detail, a great asset, in getting under the buyers skin. To my mind, amiabil ity aud a fine discernment of the wishes of the individual customer are the only real weapons with which a small business man can hope to beat his competitors. Courtesy goes farther and does more to hold the buyer than bargain sales.' I fiud that people would rather deal with a small but amiable and accommodating trader than with a vast establishment run like a ma chine. The executive heads of a great w'estern railroad, consider that po liteness m handling traveling public is a form of advertising that costs nothiug, but which leaves a lasting impression upon those receiving cour teous attention, far outweighing the arguments of printed pages; this road according to the directors, has al ways endeavored to instill into the minds of its employe* the fact that the golden key to success lies in the measure of courteous and careful attention given to its patrons. In the popularity of this company has attained lies the proof that in a very large degree the effort has been suc cessful. The cashier of a large bank in Chicago has formulated a good sys tem for application of courtesy in business which has been productive of practical results. During the course of a day’s work, this bank official must meet many callers, each of whom has some “pressing mat ters” to discuss or present for his approval or disapproval. A consid erable number of gentlemen, some worthy and some misguided, forget that the time of a bank official is precious. Often they tarry too long and after a half hour of boresome talk they finally depart. This bank official always succeeds in parting with a caller in the most friendly and courteous spirit. When he has lis teued to an interviewer for a suffi cient length of time, he simply touches a button on the floor and the visitor is none the wiser. This is a signal to his stenographer, who sits in a near by room, that the time limit for the interview has been reached. At once the stenographer picks up a short hand note book aud walks into the office. “Excuse me for interrupting” begins the stenog rapher “but I’ve come to take that dictation scheduled for 10 o’clock.” Immediately the caller receives a subconscious idea —an inspiration — that he has talked quite long enough. And nine times out of ten he has the native good sense to leave promptly. He decamps with the impression that the executive treated him very cor dially and would have been pleased to listen much longer had not the stenographer interrupted. Yes it is just as Dr. Martin once said: “Fine courtesy is a fortune in itself.” It was Dr. Martin who also called attention to the fact that a dog is highly appreciative of cour tesy. Throw him a bone and he will go after it, take it in his mouth and turn away but there will be no movement of his tail. On the other hand, call him to you, pat him on the head, and give him the bone kindly and that same dog will go away with his tail wagging his grat itude. Lord Chesterfield may never have noticed that peculiar traits in dogs, but he certainly expressed a similar sentiment w 7 hen hp said “it is better to refuse a favor than grant it clumsily.” It is only the man of small caliber who feels that rudeness, gruffness, insolence to those who are beneath him are marks of supriority. A man of good breeding is always a geutlemau, always courteous; always anxious uot to give offense aud the better the breeding the more porfect is his control over speech and ac tions. Lord Chesterfield whose celebra ted advice shows him to have been a true mentor of good manners, also recognizes this great truth, for he says, “a man’s own breeding is the best security agaiust other peoples ill manners.” It carries along with it a degree that is respected by .the most petulant. 11l breeding invites and authorizes the familiarity of the most timid, rudness and insolence to those who fortune has made our subordinates, is one of the surest signs of ill breed ing. As Emerson says, “'life is not so short but what there is always time for courtesy.” And if you will study the lives of the world’s great est men you will find that there were few of them who did not re cognize this fact. Washington, Jefferson and Jack son were as courteous to their slaves as they were to the nation’s greatest statesmen. Lincoln received the negro with such kindly degree, that as Fred Douglass once said; “he was the first great man who could meet him in such a manner as in no way to remind him of the difference in color.” The birth of Lincoln had been humble enough, but he was a gentle man, with all of a gentleman’s mod esty, courtesy, and genial good will. Politeness and civilty cost so little and reward the possesser so munfi cently that it is surprising so many persons neglect to cultivate these ttaits. A gentlemen is not born. No matter how rough the diamond may be when it is taken the earth it maybe polished until it is ready to grace the crow r n of a monarch. So too, are the qualities that go to make up a gentleman, they are as free as the air we breath, we have only to reach out and have them for our own to enjoy ihe riches and advantages they will bring. The author of this paper desires to give due credit to the '‘Gregg Writer” and “System,” for certain quotations and facts; and in one in stance an entire paragraph. John, whose father was a baker, was in the habit of bringing his teacher fresh pretzels each day. “I wish you would tell your father not to make them quite so salty,” she once said, laughingly. Thereafter, the shiny, brown delicacies —always minus the salt—were found fre quently on her desk. “It is very kind of your father to make one on purpose for me,” she told him. “Oh!” was the startling reply. “He don't make them this way, I lick the salt off’ BARRACKS YARNS BY BLACKSTONE Life at Fort Riley, With Many Interesting Incidents, Form the Foundation for This Army Story by One who Was “Through the Mill.” UNEXPECTED MEETING The Pullman Diner of the Pioneer limited was quite crowded. An ar my officer entered, followed by his orderly. The Conductor seated the Captain and I beckoned the orderly to take a vacant chair at my table. Something about him seemed famili ar to me as I glanced at his service stripes and array of medals on his breast. I noted he was a private, and then all at once it came to me and I inquired: “Is this Sergeant Smith, K battery?” “Well, call out the guard,’’said he,his face wreathed iu srailes;'‘lf it isn’t Sergeant 8., this is indeed a great pleasure.” Yes indeed this was Smith of the First heavies —“the famous windjammers.*’ Smith the “top” of K, and now a private! and I said, “where are you chevrous Smith? are vou not ashamed of yourself? you, nearly twenty years in the service and still 3 private?*’ “Yes,” he said “I know it does not look right but you know how it was with me at Monroe,l was male and busted every few months and now I am in the Quartermaster’s department travel ling with the old man, indicating his Captain, and say A 1 he is a Prince and won’t let me touch a drop of booze soon I will be a Q. M. Sergt. again.” That night he told me of his ser vice in the Cavalry and Infantry at home, in Cuba, and in the Philli pines. In the Cuban campaign he was in the charge up San Juan Hill first duty sergeant, and as he charged by rushes, he was hit by a bullet in the shoulder; his captain told him to go to the rear, but he kept his place; again he was hit in the breast and knocked down. He was up and running along side of the captain and as the crest of the Tull was reached, the captain turned to him and said: “Stuith I told you to go to the tear.” “Captain” he said, “I will stay with you.” “No Smith I order you to the rear” and as he told me, “of course I had to go when I was ordered.” Smith’s Experience What happened to Smith in the cavalry I will try to relate iu his own words. “After leaviug Fori Monroe, I decided to take on again, and chose the cavalry for a chauge and was sent from Louisville to Jef ferson Barracks, nine miles below St. Louis, Mo. Dressed iu fatigue suits, the bunch of recruits were sent out to make hay; a great disappoint ment to most of them, for their idea of army life was derived from the pictures seen on the posters that hang alluringly ou the walls of post office buildings. After a week of hay making and mowing the parade ground, I was on my way to Fort Riley. Ever at Riley? If you was, you know what mud is; if not, thank heaveus you never hiked with the ‘'blues”at manuevers. Ft. Riley at that time was used as a cavalry school where recruits were drilled from three to six months before be ing assigned to duty. Its riding hall had anything but an elegant reputa tion in the army, iu fact from an en listed man’s point of view, it was notorious for the hard drilling. All recruits were drilled by three drill instructors, —a Kentuckiau taught the mounted driil, an Irishman the foot drill, and a German the use of the sabre and carbine. All three were sergeants whose tempers had been ruined by years of contact with stupid recruits, and all three could qualify as picturesque swearers in seven languages. The Irishman's greatest trouble was to get .the boys to keep their hands down in ranks. The noseum’s a small gnat or sand fly, so small as to be almost invisible, was a fierce and persistent biter, and it was almost impossible to obey the Sergeant’s orders. “At last the time came for our as signment to duty, at that time the gar rison at Ft. Riley consisted of four troops of the Second and four of the First Cavalry and three batteries of field artillery. After joining troop B of the First,! drilled from five to seven hours a day in company and battalion formation, and at carbiue, sabre and pistol practice. During the fall manoeverqs we had a sham HISJOPJC/r. SOCIETY, Vol. XXVIL No. 32 battle every day with charges and counter charges. The force was di vided equally into the Brown’s and Blue’s, marching out immediately af ter ’stables’and returning about two or three in the afternoon. These drills were very interesting and well liked by all the boys except whe we were called upon to entrench and fortify a particular position. Dig ging trenches is no summer dream, as a pick and shovel does not appeal strongly to a cavalryman; in fact he would rather charge a battery any day than use his entrenching tools. During the late summer and fall, . numerous prairie fires provided ex citing times and diversions for the troops. Army Fire Drill “Say. Al, Ft. Riley had ‘fire drill’ worn to a frazzle that fall, and this is how we did the trick. The stable sergeant saved all the grain sacks and when the bugle sounded ‘Fire,’ he issued a wet sack to each man, we would mount and at the gallop seek the fire line, then iu ex ended order, horses to the rear, each man falls to and beats the blaze out. “The winter passed slowly as there is room for but one troop to drill at a time iu the riding hall, but with the opening days of spring drills on the prairie began once more. Our squadron was remounted and each troop given new horses, all of the same color. This system is now used in all cavalry regiments and adds much to their splendid appear ance. One troop had blacks, anoth er grays, and another bays, then there were sorrels and roans. You can bet the boys were glad to get rid of their old nags some of which had been in the service for 20 to 25 years. Each man was required to train his own mount, and it was not long be fore they knew the bugle calls as well as the men. When the bugle sounded the ‘charge’ it was impossi ble to hold in the fastest of them and on several occasions, some of the boys had to stick to leather for several miles before they could se cure control. Breaking the Horse* “The greatest fun came when C troop was detailed to break in the band horses. Now, it’s nice to hear a mounted band, especially when headquarters require them to give concerts for the benefit of prominent visitors, but when it comes to break ing in their horses for them, why that’s a bugle call in a wrong key. Well, several of the old timer’s in C troop were expert horse trainers, and in addition to training the band horses to their work, taught them suudry tricks. McAllister was training the Band-masters’ horse, a beautiful gray, one of the boys in quired, ‘how are you getting along with your horse Mac’? Fine’ said Mac, ‘l’ve got him trained so he will shy at a hurdle or a ditch quicker than any other horse in the outfit, and if he don’t kill that d —n, Jew the baud leader, the first time he gets on him, it will not be my fault.’ So when the band w T as ordered to ride at Guard Mount, most every body off duty came out to see the fun. Say take it from me, a four ring circus was not in it when the band started in to play. You know a band man must guide his horse with his feet, a strap running from the bit to each foot; and after the horses were through their prancing and bucking, there were baud men and horns of all kinds scattered all over the parade ground. The adjutant was wild as the colonel and a lot of headquarter officers were laughing, besides most of the men in the ranks. The colonel thought the trouble was caused by the band men being un able to ride, so he ordered them to take a special course of instruction in the drill hall. “Ever bunk near the band quar quarters! Well, our outfit was quar tered in the same building with the band, a very thin partition separat ing the rooms. One of the sacred privileges of an old soldier is his afternoon nap, especially if he has just come off guard or extra duty, and it will spoil any soldier’s dispo tion to be kept awake listening to the continual practicing and tooting of horns, and it became so unbearable that the first sergeant was prevailed upon to take the troops, protest to the captain. The captain was a good fellow and he in turn spoke to the colonel; with the result that the post carpenter was directed to make a souud proof baud room and the colonel was heard to say —‘you may as well make some wooden horses for the band at the same time as that was the only kind they could ride.’” .