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Established 1887 # Sounding Gear and Its Use Instruments Used in Finding the Depth Of the Sea By Mr. E. M. IHE operation of measur ing the depth of the wa- ter and investigating the character of the bottom • • of navigable waters, is called sounding. The in- struments used for this purpose are known as the lead and the sounding machine. There are three kinds of leads: viz., the hand lead, the coasting lead and the deep sea lead. The form of these three leads is practically the same, the only difference being in their weight. The hand lead weighs from sev en to fourteen pounds and is used chiefly in harbors and rivers, or for soundings in water where the depth is inconsiderable. The deep-sea lead weighs from eighty to one hundred and fifty pounds and is attached to a much longer and larger line than the hand lead. The lead is made in the form of a hexagonal pyramid and has a hole in its upper end by which it is attached to the lead line, while the bottom end is hol lowed out to a depth of from three to six inches. The hole in the lower end of the lead is charged with tallow which, on striking the bottom, picks up a specimen which is compared with the description of the bottom given on the chart for the locality in which the soundings are being taken. The lead line is marked in vari ous ways; the markings most com monly used are as follows: Two fathoms, two strips of leather; three fathoms, three strips of leather; five fathoms, a piece of white bunting; seven fathoms, a piece of red bunting; ten fathoms, a leather with a hole in it: thirteen fathoms, a piece of blue bunting; fifteen fathoms, a piece of white bunting; seventeen fathoms, a piece of red bunting; twenty fathoms, a strand of yarn with two knots in it. Lines for harbor and lake navigation usually have the first four or five fathoms divided up and marked into feet. For deep sea sounding, where the lines are longer than twenty fathoms, they are marked above the fathom point with an additional knot at every ten-fathom point and by a single knot at each intervening five-fath om point. In casting the lead, the leadsman always takes a position on the weather side of the vessel, usually up near the bow. The line is coiled down in such a manner that it will run out freely without kink ing or snarling. The leadsman grasps the line about two feet above the lead and gives it a swinging motion so that the lead will strike the water some distance ahead of where he is standing. The lead is let go and the line paid out until it becomes slack, which is a signal that the lead has reached the bottom. The line is quickly drawn taut and the mark at the water-line is noted and called out to the officer of the deck. If, for instance, the line comes up to mark fifteen on the water-line, the leadsman calls out, “By the fif teen!” If, however, the lines come up with the water-line at a point half way between fifteen and sev enteen, the call is, “By the six teen!” For night sounding, the line is read from the mark on the leads man’s hand, and the distance from his hand to the water is deducted from the sounding. When the deep-sea lead is used, the ship’s speed is reduced to about one or two knots per hour. Several men are usually required for this oper ation. The man who heaves the lead takes up a position on the forward deck, and they who are to assist take positions at intervals along the deck. Each man holds several fathoms of the lead-line corded in his hand. At a pre arranged signal the leadsman for ward heaves the lead, and each man in turn lets go of his coil as he feels the pull of the lead. As soon as the lead strikes bottom the line is drawn taut and the depth called off as already explained. Heaving the deep-sea lead by hand is gradually becoming a thing of the past, as nearly all ships are now equipped with sounding ma chines. There are several types of sounding machines in use, but the one most favored is known as the “Lord Kelvin Sounding Machine.” This machine consists of a drum twelve inches in diameter and four inches wide, on which about three hundred fathoms of steel piano forte wire are tightly wound. To the wire is attached nine feet of log line, and to this there is fastened a heavy sinker. On the log line between the wire and sinker a small copper tube is fastened, the lower end of which is perforated, the upper end being opened and shut at will by means of a close fitting cap. When a sounding is to be made the copper tube contains a small glass tube; the glass tube is open at its bottom end, while the upper end is hermetically sealed. The interior of the glass tube is coated with a chemical preparation known as chromate of silver, which gives the glass a light salmon color. The drum is filled with a break which, on a cast being taken, con trols its speed and ultimately ar rests it when the lead touches bot tom. A pair of small winch handles wind up the wire again, and the depth is indicated by the height of discoloration in the glass tube. The water is forced up into the glass as it descends, and the chemical action of the salt in the water turns the salmon color to a milky white. The chemical formed by this action is known as chloride of silver. The junction of these two colors is applied to a boxwood scale and the depth to which the glass descended is then read. Another instrument sometimes used instead of the tube and chemi cals, is called the “depth recorder.” The depth recorder is attached to wire and sinker in the same way in which the chemical tube is fas tened. Instead of chemicals being used to register the depth to which the instrument descends, the depth recorder is equipped with a piston to which a spiral spring is at tached. As the recorder is drawn down by the sinker the water pres sure forces the piston upward, while the spring tends to draw it down. In moving upward, the piston carries with it a marker that moves over the face of the scale. When the instrument is drawn up to the surface the piston returns to its original position, while the marker remains at the point to which it was moved by the piston. The depth is read from the scale and, by turning a screw, the marker drops back to the zero point on the scale. In operating the sounding ma chine, two men and an officer are employed. One men is called the leadsman, the other is the brake man. When a cast is to be taken the leadsman leads the wire out OUR MOTTO:-- “It Is Never Too Late to Mend.” over a shreave attached to the end of a kind of a crane or arm that projects a short distance from the ship’s side. The brakeman in the meantime applies the brake and adjusts the handle for raising and lowering the lead. After the leads man has placed the wire on the shreave, or fair lead, as it is called, he attaches the sinker and with the assistance of the officer in charge, the depth recorder, or chemical tube, is attached. At the com mand, “let go!” the brakeman re leases the brake and lets the wire run free until the dial on the sounding machine shows that two hundred and fifty fathoms of wire have gone overboard; he then be gins to apply the brake in order to stop the wire at the three hundred fathom mark. The sounding is recorded as, “No bottom at three hundred fathoms.” If, however, bottom is reached before the entire length of wire is out, the brakeman begins to wind in the wire with the assistance of the leadsman. The lead and recorder are then exam ined; the lead fora specimen of the bottom and the recorder for the depth. It takes from a few sec onds to one minute for the lead to reach the bottom from the time it is let go, and from fifteen seconds to five minutes to wind it in, if the depth does not exceed one hundred fathoms. The main advantage of the sounding machine over the hand lead is that the speed of the ship need not be reduced, and the time required to sound great depths is reduced to a very small fraction of time required when the hand lead is used. In one of his early campaigns with the western Indians, General Phil Sheridan ordered a subordi nate officer to occupy a certain po sition. In his own mind, this officer believed the order was a mistake. He was certain it was a gross error and, as he afterward re lated, he was about to say so, when his sense of obedience came to him. He saluted and obeyed the order. For hours he and his command lay in a position that was not in volved in the fighting at all. He chafed and inwardly criticised his superior officer for a “blunder.” Then, of an instant, the brunt of the entire battle fell upon his men, and they were fresh. The Indians did not suspect they occupied the Stillwater, Minnesota. Thursday. July 20. 1916. THE WOMAN WHO UNDERSTANDS E. J. Appelton, Cincinnati Somewhere she waits to make you win, Your soul in her firm white hands; Somewhere the gods have made for you The woman who understands. As the tide went out she found him Lashed to a spar of despair; The wreck of his ship around him, The wreck of his dreams in the air— Found him and loved him and gathered The soul of him to her heart, The soul that had sailed an uncharted sea, The soul that had thought to win and be free, The soul of which she was part; And there in the dusk she cried to the man; “Win your battle —you can—you can.” Helping and loving and guiding, Urging when that was best, Holding her fears in hiding Deep in her quiet breast — This is the woman who kept him True to his standards lost. When tossed in the storm and stress and strife, He thought himself through with the game of life And ready to pay the cost, Watching and guarding and whispering still, “Win—you can—and I know you will. This is the story of ages; This is the woman’s way; Wiser than seers or sages, Lifting us day by day; Facing all things with courage Nothing can daunt or dim; Treading life’s path wherever it leads, Lined with flowers or choked with weeds, But ever with him —with him. Guardian, comrade, and Golden Spur, The men who win are helped by her. Somewhere she waits, strong in belief, Your soul in her firm white hands; Thank well the gods when she comes to you— The woman who understands. Obedience and Its Value Bv William H. Sexton Corporation Counsel of Chicago position they did. They not only repulsed the attack, but really won the victory of the day. Years aftewards, when this sub ordinate officer had risen to high rank, he told General Sheridan of his feelings that day and added: “The worth of obedience was impressed upon my mind that day as never before or since.” “But,” queried General Sheri dan, “suppose my order really had been a blunder —what then?” “I still would have had no ex cuse for disobeying you. The re sponsibility for that order rested with you. It was my duty to obey or resign the service.” In the story is the kernel, or meat, of the shell which encloses the word “obedience.” No hmaun being ever started life as a master or a boss. We all begin life with the proposition staring us straight in the face that before we can command, before we are fit to order others, to give directions, we must learn to obey those above us. We must learn the discipline of obeying, our- selves, before we can expect suc cessfully to exact it from others. There is not a business in which one of the first things demanded of a beginner is that he understands orders and obeys them. If a plumber sends out a young ap prentice to do a certain job, that apprentice knows his success in work rests upon his knowledge of what he is doing and his ability to do what he is told to do. Not so very long ago, a boy was sent out to fix the joint of a cer tain water drain pipe. He was given explicit instructions as to what he was to do. Examining the pipe, he made up his mind that his orders were wrong. It would have cost him little trouble to have telephoned back to his shop and had the original instructions re peated to him, but he had not yet learned the lesson of obedience. He mended the pipe his own way. Three days later the building was flooded; it was necessary to call out the fire department to check the damage, and the prop erty was injured to the extent of several hundred dollars. The boy’s explanation was: “I thought my orders were wrong and 1 fixed the pipe my own way.” He paid for disobedience with the loss of his position and a dis credited name. Obedience brings a rich reward. Possibly, in rare exceptions, or ders may be wrong, but the one who obeys cannot be wrong since he followed orders. If the orders are not wrong, there comes the consciousness of learning, through obeying orders, the wisdom of older minds. IIVE straight is the sea- F son’s record tor our lo ___ cal pastimers and three of them put on ice in #the final frame, demon strating that the M. S. P.’s have staying quali ties. For six innings the Byers were held scoreless and had con nected for but two hits off Lee’s delivery. This gave the home team visions of a sliut-out, but in the seventh frame consecutive hit ting, including a three-bagger by Nelson, gave them three runs. It was a 3weltering day, but this kind of weather seems to suit the locals and they were off with a safe lead early in the game. In the second, Fan, Lew and Lee each rapped Alvin’s offerings for doubles and during the cannonade three runs scored. One in the fourth and another in the sixth were added for good measure, but the visitors came from behind and tied it up at five all in the first half of the ninth. In our half Shields singled and Lew sacrificed him to second. Then Dela took his trusty willow and sent one of Gouliat’s slants far out to center. Dela to far third on it, but the scoring rules limit the hit to two bases. However, it brought home the bacon and added to an already good record for the day. The game by innings: First: —Nelson out, Lee to Wil. Dela captured Rowland’s fly Swanson safe on Brad’s low peg. Anderson fanned. No runs. Brad walked but was doubled up with Bush, Anderson to Rowland to Swanson. Wag sent a fly to Underwood. No runs. (fl> Second:— Dela got under Un derwood’s fly. Bush’s error gave Byers a life at first but he was out attempting to pilfer second. Pet erson out, Bush to Wil. No runs. Fan sent a nice double out near the left field foul line. Shields popped to Rowland. Lew scored Fan with a two-base blow to cen ter. Dela fanned. Wil was struck by a pitched ball and am bled to first. Lee doubled scoring Lew and Wil but was run down between second and third. Three runs. Third: —Zabel fanned. Alvin was safe on Brad’s error. Nelson struck out. Rowland out, Lee to Wil. No runs. Brad was called out on strikes. Underwood grabbed Bush’s fly. Wag struck out. No runs. Fourth: - Swanson out, Bush to Wil. Anderson fanned. Un derwood out, Bush to Wil. No runs. Fan struck out. Shields safe on Byers’ boot of his gronnder. A wild heave to center field by An derson allowed Shields to reach third. He then scored when Pet erson muffed Dela’s fly. Dela stole and went to third on a passed ball, but Wil fanned. One run. Fifth: —Byers singled to left and advanced to second on a poor throw-in. Peterson struck out. So did Zabel. Alvin out, Brad to Wil. No runs. Lee out, Nelson to Byers. Brad called out on strikes. Bush out, Rowland to Byers. No runs. Sixth: —Nelson walked. Dela nailed Rowland’s fly. Swanson sent a short single to right and Nelson was held at second. An deson’s grounder to Bush forced Nelson at third. Underwood out, Bush to Wil. No runs. Wag popped to Swanson. Fan walked and stole. Shields popped to Gouliat. Lew singled to center, ? v-Mesota O'.ICAL I -Oc;ety Byers Team Beaten in the Ninth Close and Interesting Contest Goes to Home Team By “Bobbles” Vol. XXIX: No. 50 scoring Fan. Dela popped to Gouliat. One run. Seventh: —Gouliat safe at first on Brad’s error. Peterson singled to right and Gouliat went to third. Zabel bunted but Lee’s throw to second was too late to catch Peter son. Gouliat tried to score on the play but was caught at the plate. Alvin out, Bosh to Wil. Nelson tripled sending two runs across and scored himself when Row land singled to center. On two successive passed balls Rowland went to third, but Swanson sent a fly to Lew. Three runs. Wil struck out. Lee single to center but was caught stealing. Brad fanned. No runs. Eighth: —Anderson singled to left and went to second on a passed ball. Underwood out, Lee to Wil, and Anderson went to third on the play. Gouliat sent a sacrifice fly to Dela and Anderson scored. Peterson’s fly fell in Lew’s glove. One run. Bush fanned. Wag’s third strike developed into a passed ball, but he was caught in an attempt to pilfer. Fan fanned. No runs. Ninth: —Zabel struck out. Al vin tripled to center. Nelson popped to Bush. Rowland was safe at first and Alvin scored on Brad’s boot. Swan fanned. One run. Shields singled to right and Lew sacrificed him to second. Dela broke up the game with a hard blow to deep center. One run. THE SCORE Byers AB R H PO A E Nelson 3b 4 110 10 Rowland 2b 5 0 1 5 2 0 Swanson lb-ss__s 0 1 2 0 0 Anderson ss-c-p 4 118 3 2 Underwood If 4 0 0 2 0 0 Byers c-lb 2 0 13 11 Gouliat p-c 1 0 0 4 0 0 Peterson cf 4 110 0 1 Zabel rf 4 110 0 0 Alvin p-lb 4 1110 0 Totals 37 5 8 25 7 4 M. S. P. AB R H PO A E Brad 3b 3 0 0 1 1 4 Bush ss 4 0 0 1 6 1 Wag c 4 0 0 9 2 0 Fan cf 3 2 1 0 0 0 Shields 2b 4 2 1 1 1 0 Lew rf 3 1 2 2 0 0 Dela If 4 0 1 4 0 1 Wil lb_ __2 1 0 9 0 0 Lee p 3 0 2 0 3 0 Totals 30 6 7 27 13 6 Byers 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 I—s M. S. P. 0 3 0 1 0 1 0 0 I—6 Summary: —Left on bases —By- ers 7, M. S. P. 2. First base on errors —Byers 5, M. S. P. 3. Stol en bases—Fan, Dela. Sacrifice hits —Lew. Sacrifice fly —Gouliat. Two-base hits —Fan, Lew, Dela, Lee. Three-base hits —Nelson, Al vin. Double plays—Anderson to Rowland to Swanson. Innings pitched —by Alvin 5, Gouliat 3, Anderson 1. Hits—off Alvin 3, off Gouliat 4. Struck out—by Al vin 7, by Gouliat 2, by Anderson 2, by Lee 8. Bases on balls—off Alvin 1, off Gouliat 1, off Lee l. Hit by pitcher —Wil. Passed balls —Anderson 1, Wag 3. Time of Game —2:00. Umpire. Fitzgerald. Fred Snodgrass is not called “Snow” because of the costly muff he showed in a world’s series. The name was tied to Snodgrass be cause, like snow, his batting aver age rapidly melts with the warm weather.— -Baseball Magazine.