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• Entered at the postofflce at Stillwater, Minnesota, as second-class mail matter. The Mirror is issued every Thursday at the following rates: One Year <I.OO Six Months .so Three Months f. .*8 ' r o inmates of all penal institutions per year SO Address all communications to Thr Mirror. Stillwater. Minn. The Mirror is a weekly paper published in the “Minnesota State Prison. It was founded in 1887 by the prisoners and is edited and managed by them. It aims to be a home newspaper: to encourage moral and intellectual improvement among the prisoners: to acquaint the public with the true status of the prisoner: to disseminate peno logical information and to aid in dispelling that prejudice which has ever been the bar sinister to a fallen man’s self-redemption. Each inmate is accorded the privilege of sending one paper home, or to friends free of charge. To do this you should write your own name and register number and the name and address of the person you wish to send the paper to, and hand same to your officer. If you desire to send more than one paper, each additional copy will be charged for at the rate of 50 cents a year.—The paper delivered to your cell each week must be kept clean, and should be folded in the same manner as vou receive it. placing it at the foot of your bed on the morning follow ing the day on which it is delivered to your cell. <*' Services in the Prison Chapel at nine o’clock every Sun day morning, Protestant and Catholic service every alternate Sunday. Rev. C. E. Benson and Rev. Fr. Corcoran, Chap lains. Notice Contributions submitted to tbe Mir ror for publication must be absolutely original; if not original, proper credit must be given, if known; if writer s name is not known, it should be so speci fied by said contributor. Should contributor fail to comply with this request he will henceforth be dropped from the Mirror’s contributing staff. Signed by Editor. Approved by Warden. j .-.COMMENTS.-. Last Wednesday evening: we were most happily entertained by tbe dedication of a beautiful Ameri can flag:, of the purest silk, a magnificent gift to this institution from that patriotic and benevolent organ ization known as the Mary E. Starkweather Tent of Daughters of Veterans of Civil War, Mpls. Minn. This finely considerate and patriotic labor of love had its inception on a former visit of these la dies to an “Old Soldiers Reunion” at this institution last September. And last Wednesday evening saw the consurnation of this generous labor through their inherent spirit of loyalty and patriotism. This or ganization has for its object the fostering and pro motion of the appreciation of a grateful nation to its heroic veterans of our Civil War —not only do they keep enkindled this holy flatne of patriotic gratitude, but they also loyally support and minister to the material as well as bodily needs of our ever decreasing roll of G. A. R. veterans. Our welcome visitor arrived at 4 45 P. M. aud were ushered into the spacious balcony of our Audi torium, while the participating members of the pro gram were escorted to the rostrum to the strains of well-chosen patriotic selections by our Prison Or chestra. The presentation to this institution of this beau tiful emblem of a united country was made in a brief and enthusiastic address by Mrs. Agnes C. Davis, President, in response to which, Warden C. S. Reed, in a brief and all-tbe-more sincere address of gratitude, accepted the gift in behalf of the in mates and officials. The flag itself is four by five feet in width and length and of the finest silk with heavy gilt cord fringe and tassels, while the staff is one with adjustable joints surmounted by a heavy gilt eagle and sphere. The speakers for the occasion were Mr. Hugo V. Koch, Deputy Labor Commissioner, representing the Secretary to the Governor, of St. Paul, and Dr. T. T. Warham, Son of Veteran, of Mpls. Mr. Hugo V. Koch outlined, in an interesting address, the history aud development of “Old Glory ’ up to the present day, the speaker holding the vast audience spellbound with the dignity and patriotism of his remarks. The humorous reading by Miss Brooks, and the vocal solo by Mrs. Alice Adrian Pratt aud the origi nal poem recited by Mrs. Evelyn N. Whittier, are worthy of special commendation because of the en thusiastic applause that was given in response to their eutertaiug selections. In closing the entire assemblage arose and join ed in singing the Star Spangled Banner. Below is given the complete program of the oc- casion: — Selection Orchestra Remarks Mrs. Agnes C- Davis Vocal Solo Mrs. Alice Adrian Pratt Remarks Dr. T. T. Warham Humorous Reading Miss Kendrick Brooks Address Mr. Hugo V. Koch Presentation of Flag Mrs. Agnes C. Davis Reponse Warden C. S. Reed Salute to the Flag By Daughters of Veterans Original Poem Mrs. Evelyn Whittier, of Faumiugton Closing (Entire Assembly) Star Spangled Banne r Led by Prison Orchestra To the Gospel Trumpet Co., of Anderson, Indi anna, is due the sincere thanks for the beautiful Cal endars that were donated to the inmates of this in stitution last week. The management and The Mirror join in extending in behalf all inmates, the gratitude that such evidence of thoughtfulness to ward them prompts. Again, we thank you most NOTICE TO INMATES: CHURCH NOTICE. sincerely for this kind remembrance and reminder that brethern of the Hoosier City, believe witbJames Whitcomb Riley, that doing “little kindnesses serve the bestest.” Iloumania has gone on record “to shorten the war.” The egotist has a continual flirtation with self cupid, which, to the bystander, looks like a toad. The success of the “green goods” people de pends upon the success they have with good,, green people. VERSE STUDIES: No. II A Word About Meter— Forms and Irregularites By Beau Esprita Meter means measure, and the meter in which verse is written is the measure of its feet. So me ters are named for the kind and number of feet used in a line. A line of verse consisting of of one foot is a Monoineter line. A line consisting of two feet is a Di meter line. A line consisting of three feet is a Tri meter line. A line consisting of four feet is a Tet rameter line. A line cosisting of five feet is a Penta meter line. A line consisting of six feet is a Hexa meter line. A line consisting of seven feet is a Heptameter line. A line consisting of eight feet is an Octameter line. Monometer and Dimeter are used only for re frains or for light verse as a rule, though Hood used Dactylic Dimeter in “The Bridge Of Sighs” — Take her up 1 ten der ly, [ Lift her with | care; — Fash ioDed so | slender ly, | Young, and so | fair! — Com *on meter uses three —and four —foot lines alternately, the first and third line being lambic Tet rameter, the second and fourth lambic Trimeter: — She gath | ered at | her slen | der waist | The beau | teous robes | she wore | Its folds | a gold | en belt | embraced | One rose | hued gem | it bore | —The Girdle Of Friendship, Holmes Common meter only requires two rhymes to the stanza, though, in the above; all four lines may be rhymed. Short meter uses three three-foot lines and one four-foot line to the stanza, and is written in lambics. The third line is Tetrameter:— To com | fort and | to bless | To find | a balm | for woe | To tend | the lone | and fa | ther less | Is an | gel’s work | below | Each line in this meter requires a rhyme. Long meter is lambic Tetrameter, rhymed in couplets. It is a very slow rhythm. Praise God | from whom | all bless | ings flow | Praise Him \ ye peo f pie here | be low | —Old Hundred — Tbos. Ken Different forms of Pentameter are used in many English stanzas. Nearly all blank verse is written in lambic Pentameter, notably Milton’s Heroic Verse, Surrey’s “Aneid,” Pope’s best work, etc., and much of Shakeapeare is in lambic Pentameter. Riding rhyme, which was named from Chau cer’s Canterbury Tales” because the “Tales” were supposed to have been told by the Canterbury Pil grims while riding down from London, is lambic Pentameter rhymed in couplets. Pope used lambic Pentameter rhymed in couplets in translating the Iliad,” and from this the meter is sometimes called Heroic Couplets: Achil | les’ wrath |to Greece | the dire | ful spring | Of woes | un num j bered, heav’n | ly god | dess sing. | Rhyme Royal is the name given to a stanza form used by King James in “The King’s Qubair.” Chaucer also used this stanza in “Troylas and Cry sede,” and it has been imitated since for poems of the doings of Kings. There are seven lambic Pent ameter lines in each stanza, and three rhymes which must come in a certain order. In a | far coun | try that | I can | not name, | And on | a year | long a | ges past I away, j A King | there dwelt | in rest | and ease | of fame, | And rich | er than | the Em | p’ror is | to day; | The ver 1 y thought | of what | this man | might say From dusk | to dawn | kept many | a lord | awake For fear | of him | did many | a great | man quake. Wm. Morris. Hexameter, Heptameter, and Octameter are us ed mostly in imitations of the classic Greek and Rat io forms, though there are some English stanzas that make use of them. These will be treated under The Stanza. Of metrical irregularities we have already stud ied somewhat. We know that the use of an extra Definitions — H. M. Dow. short syllable occasionally adds a touch of grace to a meter, as in the above quotation from Wm. Morris where the third foot in each of the last two lines has an extra syllable in the word “many.” Irregulari ties are permissible also when they help out the ex pression of the rhythm, as when Kipling introduces a single ejaculatory syllable ,at the beginning of the line in “Danny Deever.” Ho! The young recruits is shakin’ an’ ihey’ll want their beer today. To avoid irregularities not needed for purposes of rhythm or ornament, a verse writer is permitted a certain licence in the spelling and accenting of words. Ei.ision, the cutting short of one word ending with a vowel when tbe word following begins with a vowel, is used to prevent false accenting, and also to slur over words of little importance in the line. Thus we write “hand o’ God” for “hand of God,” “th’ book” for “the book,” and “i* th’ spring” for “in the spring.” Slurring, or passing over vowtil sounds in order to shorten a word, is the commonest form of “poetic license;” as when we say “heav’n’’ for “heaven,” “mem’ry” for “memory,” etc. Formerly all such words were written with the apostrophe to indicate the omitted vowel, but it is now customary to spell the word out, trusting to the reader’s sense of rhythm to recognize the slurred syllable. Expansion means accenting a syllable which is not commonly accented, in order to fill out the me ter. Expansion of a word is usually indicated by writing in the accent mark above the expanded syl lable. Such words as “armed,” “beloved,” etc., are expanded so that they read “arm ed,” “beloved,” adding one syllable to their normal pronunciation. Such irregularities, while their occasional use may not seriously detract from the beauty of a verse, should be used very sparingly. An English critic, writing of Milton’s “Paridise Lost,” has claimed that in the entire book there are less than two hun dred irregularities of all kinds, and that, too, though Milton was blind and had to depeud upon others for the preparation of his manuscripts. Friends and Friendship One often hears the remark: “That man? oh! he’s a friend of mine.” But is that man referred to, really a friend of the speaker, in the true sense of the word? Is he not rather, merely a close acquaint ance, who, having been thrown into intimate contact with the other on several occasions, and finding the companionship agreeable, is simply sort of, “hail fellow-well-met,” and nothing more? Our real friends are apt to be few in number-indeed, if a man can claim even one as a true friend, he may call himself blessed of the gods on high Olympus! Friendship is a sacred thing; something to be cherished, watched over and guarded with the greatest of care. Respect and honor it, and it grows into a beautiful thing. Abuse or slight it, and it shrivels and dies like a neglected flower. —Ex. LIBRARY BRIEFS COMMENTS AND PARAGRAPHS PERTAIN ING TO LITERATURE AND PHILOSOPHY By Mr. C. R. S. When you have risen a degree—view from aloft the incline up which you have come. It creates confidence. Tens of thousands grind out their grist of hu man grief .in a never-changing, never-widening, soul-stunting narrowness of meal vision. Emerson, iq his clear, precise way, tells us “Life is a search for power; and this is an element with which the earth is so saturated there is no chink or crevice in which it is not lodged— that no honest seeking goes unrewarded.” The individual determines bis own position in life, according to the amount of intelligent effort exerted. The failures in life are the men who could not obey themselves; they became commanded by others. Remarkable results have been obtained in Vi enna with “sun cures” in the treatment of tubercu losis and bone diseases. It is said that the proper exposure of the body to the sun’s rays produces highly satisfactory results in many cases where or dinary medical treatment is of no avail. WRITING NOTICE All inmates are hereby requested, when writ mg, to place their register number and page num ber on the u right hand corner of the envel ope. in the space to be covered by the stamp. If page or register numbers are not placed in their proper position, the letters will not be accepted for mailing. The page number will be found writ ten with a lead pencil on all incoming letters Compliance with this request will cause letters to be mailed at an earlier date. Also, inmates are cautioned against writing between the lines, and be careful to sign your names to letter at its close. / , ; ... ■ of any lnma tes who apprecciate amd see the op that the ' r spare hours give towards a means of self-education tnrough correspondence school courses, study of good literature, rt.couir education in ?ur Night Schools, or. who need helpful informa * ? connection with their work in our various departments, will here with be privileged to use the “Query” column. You are welcomed to £. n . y qu 5 rles °/ serious interest to yourself. Tre Mirror with the l ihrc,ri^l lt> ,V r ?i tlo i n Ji* M 'j ß M,rlam E. Carey, Supervisor of Institution Libraries, will gladly endeavor to supply the requested information. NOTICE—In order to regulate the conduct of this column in mates must sign their name, register number and lock number to all queries submitted for publication. Inmate's names, of course, will not be published, only the initials of each querist being used. (Ed.) Q: What is the most valuable metal, iron or gold?— B. C. : y° u were guessing you would naturally say that gold is, of course, the most valuable of the metals. But you would be wrong. The proper answer to this is iron. We do not mean the pound for pound value, for you could get much more for a pound of gold than for a pound of iron. We mean in useful value iron is in that sense the most valuable metal known to man. This is true because iron is of »uch great ser vice to man in so many ways, and it is very fortunate that there is such a great amount of it available for man’s purposes. Iron is not generally found in a pure state in the mines. It is generally found compounded with carbon and other substances, and we obtain pure iron by burning these other substancee out of the compound. Iron is put upon the market in three forms, which differ very much in their properties. First, there is cast-iron. Iron in this form is hard, easily fusible and quite brittle, as you will know if you ever broke a lid on a kitchen range. In the form of cast-iron it cannot be forged or welded. Next comes wrought-iron, which is quite soft, can be hammered out flat or drawn out in the form of a wire and can be welded, but fusible only at a high temperature. Third comes steel, the most wonderful thing we produce with iron. It is also malleable, which means that is capable of being ham mered out flat and can be easily welded, and this is the great property of steel—it acquires when tempered a very high degree of hardness, so that a sharp edge can be put on it, and when in that shape it will easily cut wrought-iron. Ordinarily we make wrought-iron and steel from iron that has been changed from unoriginal state to cast-iron. The term cast-iron is generally given to iron which has been melted and cast in any form desired for use. Stoves are made in this way. The iron is melted and then poured into a mold; while the product out of which wrought-iron and steel are made is technically cast-iron, the term pig-iron is used in speaking of iron which is cast for this purpose. The process by which pig-iron is changed to wrought-iron is called puddling. The object of puddling, which is done in what is called a reverbratory furnace (which is a furnace that reflects or drives back the flame or heat) is to remove the car bon which is in the pig-iron. This is done partly by action of the oxygen of the air at high temperature and partly by the ac tion of the cinder formed by the burning furnace. When this has been done the iron is made into balls of a size convenient for handling. These are “shingled” by squeezing or hammering and passed between rolls by which the iron is made to assume any desired form. Now we come to steel, the most wonderful product or form in which we take advantage of the value of iron. Steel was formerly made from wrought-iron, so that you first had to get cast-iron, from which you made wrought-iron, and event ually got steel by changing the wrought-iron. Now we make steel direct from pig-iron, This is known as the Bessemer process. The most noticeable feature in the chemical composition of the different grades of iron and steel is found in the percent ages of carbon they contain. Pig-iron contains the most car bon; steel the next lowest, and wrought-iron the least. Iron has been known to men from early historical times. The smelting of iron ores is not any indication of advanced civilization either. Savage tribes in many parts of the world practiced the art of smelting, even before they could have learned it from people who had become civilized. Q: —Can you tell me how sound is measused? W. L. A: —Sound arises from vibrations giving a wave-like mo tson to the surrounding atmosphere, the wave gradually enlarg ing as it leaves the source of disturbance, while at the same time the motion of the air particles become less and less. The simplest method of determining the number of vibrations of a sound is by means of Savart's apparatus. This consists of two wheels—a toothed or cog-wheel and a driving-wheel. They are so adjusted that the cog-wheel is made to resolve with great rapidity, its teeth hitting upon a card fixed near it. The num ber of revolutions is indicated by a counter attached to the axis of the cog-wheel. Suppose that sound is traveling in the air at the rate of 1,000 ft. per second, and that Savart’s wheel is giv ing a sound produced by 200 taps on the card per second, it follows that in 1,000 ft. there will be 200 waves or vibrations, and if there be 200 waves in 1,000 ft. each wave or vibration must be five feet in length. The velocity of sound through air varies with the temperature of the latter, but is usually reckon ed at 1,130 ft. per second. Q: —Would you advise or help me to buy the latest book from U. S. Dept, of Agriculture on horse diseases. A: —We advise you to write to the Superintendent of Doc uments, Washington, D. C. asking for the latest edition of the “Special Report on Diseases of the Horse.” There may be a nominal charge of one dollar for this edition but it is probable that you can secure a copy without other charges than that cov ering postage. In our Library catalogue you will find a book on the subject, (catalogue no., 4824) but it may not be just what you want. UNANSWERED QUERIES The Mirror will publish answers and solutions to the following queries in due time and consecutive order, and in the meantime all de siring to contribute solutions are invited to do so. Q: —A. has 20% more money than B. who has 25% more money than C. A. has SBO more than C. How much has each? Q: —A horse cost one fourth more than a carriage; the horse was sold for 20% more than cost, and the carriage was sold for 20% less than cost. Both together sold for $368. What was the cost of each? • Q: —A farmer enters a store and says: Mr. Merchant, give me half as many bushels of potatoes as I already have and I will give you three bushels. The merchant did and the farmer gave him three bushels. He did the same with two other merchants and when he left the third store, he had no more potatoes. How many bushels did he have when he went into the first store? — C. A. H. Q:—lf a certain number is divided by 32, the remainder is 25;"if divided by 25, the remainder is 19; and if divided by 19, the remainder is 11. What is the number? — C. A. H. ’ QUERIES NOTICE TO INMATES I • • A .-.a*.