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Entered at the postofflee at Stillwater. Minnesota, as second-class mail matter. The Mirror is issued every Thursday at the following rates: One Year - Six Months Three Months •** To inmates of all penal institutions per year ■&> Address all communications to The Mirror. Stillwater. Minn The Mirror is a weekly paper published in the Minnesota State Prison. It was founded in 1887 by the prisoners and is edited and managed by them. It aims to be a home newspaper: to encourage moral and intellectual improvement among the prisoners: to acquaint the public with the true status of the prisoner: to disseminate peno logical information and to aid in dispelling that prejudice which has ever been the bar sinister to a fallen man’s self-redemption. NOTICE TO INMATES: Each inmate is accorded the privilege of sending one paper home, or to friends free of charge. To do this you should write your own name and register number and the name and address of the person you wish to send the paper to, and hand same to your officer. If you desire to send more than one paper, each additional copy will be charged for at the rate of 50 cents a year.—The paper delivered to your cell each week must be kept clean, and should be folded in the same manner as you receive it, placing it at the foot of your bed on the morning follow ing the day on which it is delivered to your cell. CHURCH NOTICE. Services in the Prison Chapel at nine o’clock every Sun day morning, Protestant and Catholic service every alternate Sunday. Rev. C. E. Benson and Rev. Fr. Corcoran, Chap lains. Notice Contributions submitted to tbe Mir ror for publication must be absolutely original; if not original, proper credit must be given, if bno_wn; if writer s name is not known, it should be so speci fied by said contributor. Should contributor fail to comply with this request he will henceforth be dropped from the Mirror’s contributing staff. Signed by Editor. Approved by Warden. j .% COMM EN T S .% Minnesota State Prison Library A soap box would seem rather a peculiar place for a circulating library to spring from, also a library of over 11,000 well selected books to have started and grown from a few miscellaneous books of no great value, might also seem strange, but such was the start of the present Minnesota State Prison Library. The nucleus around which developed our present library, containing over 11,000 volumes, was through a privilege granted to inmates by one of the wardens of earlier days. This privilege granted that inmates could procure books from their rela tives or friends. Adding to this “entering wedge” the further permission granting friendless and less fortunate inmates to afterward read the books thus secured, it is easy to imagine the progressive stages that followed toward the establishment of a per manent library as a beneficent privilege toward in mates by the prison management. Regarding the earlier history and development of our own prison library, no complete records are forthcoming. An omission that today leaves room for very interesting conjectures and curiosity as to who were its kindly benefactors and promoters. It would give us pleasure to accurately know what ob stacles had to be overcome and what means were provided and suggested to create the Minnesota State Prison Library, that now ranks as one of the best in the country. It would give us pleasure, had we in record form for publication, all the facts, names, donations and personal help relating to this phase of our library growth. To the pioneers and promoters of our own library, however, any inmate ever here confined, or a present member within our portals, is sincerely indebted. In searching through old files of The Mirror for items relative to our library, we find scanty but significant facts. Thus, among the more important items we find that 1,000 books were added to our library during the month of July, 1887, through a personal loan of §250 by former Warden 11. G. Stor dock, and in the same month 150 volumes were pre sented by Mrs. W. H. Carman, Vice-President of the W. C. T. U., of Minneapolis. In September of the same year §650 were expended for books, of which The Mirror contributed §l5O, and for which sum 0‘25 volumes of miscellaneous books were re ceived. Years ago penal managements were legally con tiued to administrative affairs that did not provide for diversion in reading or other recreations for the wards of the State. Neither sanctioned they privi leges that today are regarded as vital and necessary aids to furthering the moral and mental welfare of immured delinquents. But today, in all model penal institutions, the library is indicative of its efficiency and worth in the mental and moral rehabilitation of the unfortunates within its jurisdiction. Thus the study and observations by officials of earlier ad ministrations, relating to the needs and welfare of their charges, lead to the development of the prison library. The Night schools, chautauquas, out-door recreations, “movies,” and privileges for advanced education, through correspondence school courses, are but the logical sequence of liberal prison man agement. The first library catalogue, listing about 1,000 volumes, was published in September, 1887. the books being kept in one of the cell rooms, shelving having been built in for that purpose. No copy of the 1887 catalogue seems to have survived the mov ing period, when the new prison replaced the old. The present management has been very suc cessful, through its interest and selection of real ly helpful books for the use of inmates, and a com- parison of the new library catalogue, just issued, with the one published in 1908, is ample compli ment that the present official family, in conjunction with Miss Miriam E. Carey, Supervising Librarian for the Board of Control, have not lacked in faith, interest and purpose to raise our library to the level of the best in penal library history. As a result of this liberal policy our new libra ry now lists 1676 volumes under the classification of fiction, historical fiction, and humorous fiction; 560 volumes of history; 322 volumes of biography; 209 volumes of travel; 209 volumes of literature, poetry and drama; 210 volumes of arts and useful arts; 312 volumes of science, language and social science; 402 volumes of religion and philosophy; 619 volumes of reports, public documents and magazines and 463 volumes in foreign languages. This list, however, does not include the many duplicate volumes con tained in their respective classifications, in which our library list makes a splendid showing: neither does it contain 188 volumes of reference books, in which are found 165 volumes of encyclopaedias and text-books, 31 different dictionaries, of which we have many duplicates, and finally we have the very valuable list of International Text-Bookß for the use of inmates who wish to take up a special study or continue one they may have started before commit ment. And but few could afford these books were they not part of this splendid prison library. The books cover the following subjects: Advertising, Agriculture, Architectural Drawing, Architecture, Automobiles, Business Methods, Chemistry, Civil Engineering, Concrete Engineering, Design and Illustration, Electrical Engineering, Locomotive Engineering and Railroading, Mechanical Drawing, Mechanical Engineering, Metallurgy, Salesmanship, Shop Practice, Surveying, Structural Engineering, Telegraph and Telephone. EXCHANGE FEATURE A splendid and much appreciated feature of the library is the “magazine exchange,” whereby an in mate who is a subscriber to one of the popular mag azines is allowed to exchange with other inmates who are also subscribers to some publication. Through the “exchange” an inmate may receive sev eral magazines to read each montli. This exchange system was worked out and put into operation short ly after the establishment of the library. A record is kept of every magazine re ceived in the prison, the name of the subscriber, when subscription begins and ends, also the price paid for same; a record too is kept of all weekly pa pers received by the inmates. • Words are ill fitting for the man Who spoke through all his days in deeds, Who found sufficient for his needs The common language of his clan. He had the rare mind that foreran Essential things a crisis breeds, The soul composed wherein the seeds Of daring served what he might plan. This be enough then. Let him rest Upon the hill above the stream That flows down to the sea he knew. He served his country in each test As it would best be served, supreme; And men—such men as he —are few. Good Philosophy in Verse Out of the night that covers me, Black as a pit from pole to pole. I thank whatever gods may be For my unconquerable soul. # In the fell clutch of circumstance I have not winced nor cried aloud, Under the bludgeonings of chance My head is bloody but unbowed. Beyond the place of wrath and tears Looms up the horror of the shade And yet the menace of the years Finds, and shall find me unafraid.* It matters not how straight the gate; How charged with punishment the scroll; I am the master of my fate, I am the captain of my soul. —Ex. The fellow that knows it all can unlearn a little every day and become wiser thereby. Think of the misery and contention that would be eliminated if people were mutually agreeable— this should be a duty, not an ideal. Mr. R. J. Henderson, our fibre inspector, had to undergo an operation in the City Hospital of Still water, last week. The operation has proved a success and Mr. Henderson’s present condition augurs well for his speedy recovery. The management and The Mir ror wish Mr. Henderson a speedy return to health and duty. We are all creatures of habit, and every action is cementing one either good or bad. If we only keep a watch on our daily actions it is not so diffi cult a task to force our rebellious nature to submit to that which makes for the uplifting and strength ening of our character. Some people are such slaves of habit that they have scarcely any will of their own, but are ruled and buffetted by their unruly and bad habits. Don’t be one of that number, or, if you are, climb out of the rut, and assert your better na ture. —Ex. Dewey —Maurice Morris. I FLASHLIGHTS I BY BEAU ESPRITA It was a treat to see photo play acting as admir ably restrained as that of the company which devel oped Helen Hunt Jackson’s historical romance of California in the pictures shown here February 22d. There was finished artistry even to minutest detail, and it is therefor the more to be regretted that the director resorted to so much padding of scenes, and so many repetitions. Only once in the entire nine reels were the familiar cinema gymnastics of emo tion displayed; when Captain Phail returned only to find his sweetheart wed to another, the actor playing the part, went through those eccentric gyrations in tended to express deep emotion which seem to be ineradicable from the movie stage. Just why a per son who has been disappointed in love should be pre sumed to act like an epileptic contortionist is the great mystery of photo-play land. No human being outside a movie studio ever acted so. This one scene in the pictures of “Ramona” was especially inapt, being in such contrast to the restrained and realistic acting throughout the rest of the picture. A man said to me after the show, “I never saw so real a “drunk” outside of a saloon before.” A “drunk” is usually caricatured. There was no cari cature about this one. As another illustration, after Ramona had thrown herself down at the feet of the Madonna, upon being told that she could not marry the Indian, Alesandro, her supper was brought to her. She did not eat it. But next morning, on waking and finding the tray of food, she attacked it with the natural gusto of a young and healthy girl who had fasted for a day, The appetite remains though the stars fall, when one is eighteen. It is such little touches of realism that make for finished acting; and, with the one exception noted, the act ing was superb. * * “I have done the state some service.” —Shakes- pear. * * To get money is the end and aim of some peo ple’s existence* In this they differ from other peo ple, who only aim without reaching the end. * * It begins to look as if the threatened baseball strike was only a bawl, after all. * # Something To Be Happy About: In Kayohito a man can buy himself a wife for two paper um berellas. The book doesn’t give the population of Kayohito. * * Before a man marries his heart burns with de votion for the sweet young thing; afterwards he has heart-burn from devotion to her cooking. * * DEAD STARS The dead stars gleam above us In their appointed places, Unmoved by what they see below In upturned, yearning faces. Youth, in the rose of morning Seeking the skylark’s flight, Joy in its eyes, and wonder At the mad daring mite. Tempting the very heavens Bending low to the hills, Stealing their rapture, and giving It back to the earth in trills. Thoughtful faces of women Looking with serious eyes, Down on the earth below them, Up to the infinite skies, Linking the two together With little labors of love; Guiding their sons from the muck of earth Into the light above. Steadfast faces of manhood, Facing the world we know, Wresting from it a foothold Giving it blow for blow. Wrong, and untaught, and misguided, Striving yet to attain Ends they know not, while dead stars look down, Calm, on their strife and pain. Dead stars, up in the heavens, Watching the embattled earth, Say, is the end we strive for Worth what we pay? Is it worth? * * Says Solomon Sorrowback: Many a feller buys a dictionary on the installment plan, an’ then has to look up to see what installment means.” * # It used to be said of a statesman who failed that he had feet of clay. We are more generous now-a-days. We say his head is solid ivory. * # Also, many a silver-tongued orator has used his talent to peddle gold bricks. * * There is no good in arguing with the inevitable. The only argument available with an east wind is to put on your overcoat. —Lowell. * * The soil out of which such men as he are made is good to be born on, good to live on, good to die for and to be buried in. —Garfield. QUERIES NOTICE TO INMATES . P® the benefit of any inmates who appreciate and see the op portunity that their spare hours Rive towards a means of self-education through correspondence school courses, study of good literature, tequir ing an education in our Night Schools, or, who need helpful informa •RJ? =on P e .ction with their work in our various departments, will here with be privileged to use the “Query” column. You are welcomed to send in any queries of serious interest to yourself. The Mirror with the kind colaboration of Miss Miriam E. Carey, Supervisor of Institution Libraries, will gladly endeavor to supply the requested information. NOTICE In order to regulate the conduct of this column in mates must sign their name, register number and lock number to all queries submitted for publication. Inmate’s names, of course, will not be published, only the initials of each querist being used. (Ed.) • Q:—Will you please give me a detailed explanation as to how measurements are made to determine the great depths of the ocean?— U. 11. V. —Deep sea soundings are made with wire, and the ma chinery is now so perfect that soundings may be made with ac curacy in the greatest depths. We quote the new International Encyclopedia: “In the operation of sounding, several instru ments are sent down with the wire. A thermometer takes the temperature at the bottom, a closing cylinder brings up speci men of the bottom water for analysis, and the sounding cylin der at the end of the line brings up a specimen of the bottom mud or ooze for examination as to the character of the bottom. To the sounding cylinder is attached the sinker—a sixty pound iron shot—which detaches itself on striking bottom. An indicator attached to the reel on deck shows the num ber of fathoms of wire that have run out. After sounding the wire is reeled in by steam. It takes about one hour to make a sounding three miles deep and get the instruments back on board.” Q:—Please explain how a person “catches a cold.” A:—A cold frequently arises from a change in clothing, putting on a thinner garment, or sitting in a cool place, or a draft when heated. The skin becomes chilled and thejperspira tion checked. The pores are closed and the blood is driven to the lungs for purification. Oppression of the lungs ensues, breathing becomes difficult and the extra mucus is thrown off by coughing. From this condition fever, headache, pneumo nia, or pleurisy is developed. Q: Please explain the general plan of conducting the Confederate war on the part of the government, and why is it claimed that the defeat of the National troops at Bull Run proved advantageous to the cause of the union. A: Ist: To confine the military operations within the Confederate States. 2nd. To enforce the blockade of the Southern ports. 3rd: To open Richmond, the Confederate capital, the result of the Battle of Bull Run convinced the Northern people that the preservation of the Union could be ac complished only by- the most gigantic struggle. After this bat tle extraordinary efforts, extreme measures and unflinching de termination characterized every act of the people, the govern ment and the army till the great work was completed. Q.—Can you tell me if any one steamboat was built previ ous to Fulton’s Cleremont?— O. S. A: The first trial of John Fitch s pioneer side-wheel steamboat was made on the Delaware August 22, 1787, antici pating Fulton s Clermont by 20 years. Fitch was a native of Connecticut and prior to building his steamboat had been an armorer in the military service during the Revolution, a survey or in Virginia, and a manufacturer of sleaves in Trenton. In 1786 he commenced work on his first steamboat, after experi menting with a skiff propelled by steam. This pioneer craft was fitted with an engine of 12-inch cylinder, and though the boat did not attain sufficient speed to answei the purpose of a packet, the trial proved conclusively the efficiency of steam as a motive power for vessels. In 1788 Fitch built a second steam boat, which made several passages between Philadelphia and Burlington at the rate of four miles an hour. In 1790 a third craft was built and was run as a passenger craft on the Dela ware, making during the season more than 2,000 miles at an average speed of seven and one-half miles an hour. Although John Fitch scored the first practical success in steam navigation, he was a failure financially, and in 1798 he committed suicide at Bardstown, Ky. Q: —Please explain the various calibers of guns.— W. A. A: —Confusion as to the meaning of the term caliber arises chiefly from its use as an adjective to indicate length, as when we say aSO caliber, six inch gun.” The word caliber as ap plied to artillery signifies the diameter of the bore of a gun measured diametrically from face to face of the bore, of course somewhat larger. A gun then, of six inch caliber is a gun whose bore is just six inches. For convenience and because the power of a gun when once its bore has been decided upon depends so greatly upon its length artillerists are in the habit of defining the length of the gun in terms of the caliber. Thus the twelve inch United States naval gun, which is forty feet in length, is spoken of as a 40 caliber twelve inch, the length being just forty times the bore. The six inch rapid fire gun is a trifle under twenty-five feet in length and is there fote known as a 50 caliber gun. In the case of small arms the caliber is expressed in hun dredths of an inch as when we say a 22 caliber revolver we mean one with a bore" that has a diameter of twenty-two one-hundredths of an inch. UNANSWERED QUERIES The Mirror will publish answers and solutions to the following queries in due time and consecutive order, and in the meantime all de siring to contribute solutions are invited to do so. Q: —Would The Mirror please inform me as to which of the Roman Orders has been mostly used in the design of the many new post-office buildings that this Government has been erecting during the past few years? Is the New Post-office at M’pTs. not designed along the lines of the “Gorinthian” or the “Composite” order?— L. T. J. WRITING NOTICE All inmates are hereby requested, when writ* mg, to place their register number and page num ber on the upper right hand corner of the envel ope, in the space to be covered by the stamp. If page or register numbers are not placed in their proper position, the letters will not be accepted for mailing. The page number will be found writ ten with a lead pencil on all incoming letters. Compliance with this request will cause letters to be mailed at an earlier date. Also, inmates are cautioned against writing between the lines, and be careful to sign your names to letter at its close.