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Entered at the postofflce at Stillwater. Minnesota, as second-class mail matter. Thk Mikror is issued every Thursday at the following rates: One Year SIOO Six Months 50 Three Months -* 5 To inmates of all penal institutions per year .50 Address all communications to Thb Mirror. Stillwater. Minn. Tbr Mirror is a weekly paper published in the Minnesota State Prison. It was founded in 1887 by the prisoners and is edited and managed by them. It aims to be a home newspaper; to encourage moral and intellectual improvement among the* prisoners; to acquaint the public with the truk status of the prisoner; to disseminate peno logical information and to aid in dispelling that prejudice which has ever been the bar sinister to a fallen man's self-redemption. NOTICE TO INMATES: Each inmate is accorded the privilege of sending one paper home, or to friends free of charge. To do this you should write your own name and register number and the name and address of the person you wish to send the paper to, and hand same to your officer. If you desire to send more than one paper, each additional copy will be charged for at the rate of SO cents a year.—The paper delivered to your cell each week must be kept clean, and should be folded in the same manner as you receive it. placing it at the foot of your bed on the morning follow ing the day on which it is delivered to your cell. CHURCH NOTICE. Services in the Prison Chapel at nine o’clock every Sun day morning, Protestant and Catholic service every alternate Sunday. Rev. C. E. Benson and Rev. Fr. Corcoran, Chap lains. Notice Contributions submitted to tbe Mir ror for publication must be absolutely original; if not original, proper credit must be given, if known; if writer s name is not known, it should be so speci fied by said contributor. Should contributor fail to comply with this request he will henceforth be dropped from the Mirror’s contributing staff. Signed by Editor. Approved by Warden. jCOMM E N T S The recent slight thaw reminds us that the snow on our campus was the deepest for many years and kept the yard crew clearing away the high and mighty drifts. Not only the pedestrian, but the transportation of all kinds was hampered by snow blockades but as the law of compensation existing in nature, will result in good crops lor the farmer, we can consider the temporary inconvenience as a blessing in dis guise. Ecuador, that little triangle-shaped republic in the northeastern corner of South America, has pass ed an eight-hour working-day law for all its work men. This is the first nation to adopt a universal eight-hour law. An eight pound surprise arrived at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Andy C. Stevenson on March 9, 1917. The “suprise” is a bouncing baby boy —congratula- tions from the official family and The Mirror. Just ordinary folks will keep on trying to worry along without those that hold themselves superior to very body and everything. It is not true that the price of ice will be raised just yet. The h. c. of 1. is the most prosperous thing we have in our country. Some people look for empty praise rather than for a praiseworthy duty to perform. Our weekly entertainment, which usually pro vides moving pictures for the benefit of inmates, was given over to a program of song by the members of The Elks’ Glee Club of Minneapolis. The singers were heartily and repeatedly en cored and each number on the program was a treat, especially the eccentric dancing of Mr. Fred I. Will, of Minneapolis, was vociferously applauded, and which the inmates will long remember and cherish. The management, on behalf of the inmates, take occasion to sincerely thank the willing entertain ers for their splendid program and their evident suc cess at pleasing all their hearers. * of our contemporarias says: “The high price of foodstuffs, are only a phase in our commer cial progress.” We were under the impression it was a progressive phase in flattening pocket books Sherman’s Great Army ‘ Captain Boltz, Steward of the Home recently found a clipping he had laid away many years ago. It is of great interest, or at least should be, to every loyal American citizen, and we asked him for the privilege of reproducing it in the Journal. It is in reference to the march of Sherman’s army through the city of Washington, which was perhaps the most imposing pageant ever witnessed in this country. It is as follows: — “Never shall I forget the 24th of May, 1865, when the bronzed heroes of Sherman’s immense column passed in continuous streams along Penn sylvania avenue. The head of the line started from this very Capital building, led off by Tecumseh him self. It was a bright and beautiful day. How many of our millions who did not see that wondrous sight, lived to regret their loss, and to envy those who enjoyed it! Previously, the Army of the Po tomac, with its fresh and bright uniforms, its splen didly equipped officers and its apparent holiday array, marched in succesive tramp, tramp, tramp. each platoon solid as a piece of animated machinery, drilled and disciplined and educated into a sort of inexorable regularity, as the whole mass swept by those marble halls. Then came Sherman’s hosts — hosts, indeed, they were. There were very few spangles and little newness, and nothing that savor ed of attempts at decoration; but they were awful in their order. ‘‘Veteran” was written all over their dark faces, browned by the ardent Southern sun, and health almost spoke from their elastic steps and erect figures. With their Kossuth hats and stained uniforms and‘ music, which, however good, was so different from the city airs oPthe bands of the pre vious day, they seemed like strangers from another planet, recalling, with their tropical plants, and animals, and dusky contrabands marching in regi mental order, what we read in the delightful page 8 of Irving, of the men of Columbus who came back from strange islands and unknown climes with the beasts and birds and flowers they had collected.” —Kingston, Ind., Home Journal. Brother Mine. Just like we used to, brother mine. Let’s wander back again— Let’s turn our steps from busy mart To meet there where our pathways part And then go back —my hand in thine Forgetting we are men. just like we used tc, brother dear, Let's link our hearts with joy, A-down the lanes and pleasant ways We knew and loved in boyhood days— Forget the world is old and drear And be again a boy. Let’s wander back again, we two, Beside the silvery stream — Beside the wood where mystery lies Beneath the kindly summer skies With sunbeams glancing dancing through, And rest again and dream. Let's wander back again and see The homestead, where today The flowers weep for one above And seem to breathe her mother love— She cherished them so tenderly Before she went away! Let’s wander back, O brother mine, And never more to roam; With all our boyhood shrines around Let’s kneel beside her grassy mound And tell her, through the whispering pine,' Her children have come home. — J. D. Wells, in Woman's World. One View of the Study of Latin If one does not study things because they “train the mind,” why, then, should one study them? The answer is extraordinarily simple. One studies things because they serve a purpose. Ido not say, mark you, a useful purpose, but a purpose —a valid pur pose, a genuine purpose, not a make believe purpose. Mental discipline is not a valid or genuine pur rose —it’s a make believe. Meanwhile the number of purposes, genuine, valid purposes, is simply in finite. Learning to read Virgil is, of course, just as valid a purpose as learning to play a symphony or learning to bake a pumpkin pie. The test is, however, not, did the student get mental discipline, but can he read and enjoy Virgil? Can he play the symphony? Will some one eat the pie? And because people rarely care to read Virgil because almost none of the thousands who study Latin ever can or do read Virgil, therefore, in so far as they are concerned, studying Latin has no pur pose and cannot be defended as mental discipline. —Abraham Flexner in Atlantic Monthly. Life’s Loom “A weaver sat at his loom, Flinging his shuttle fast, And a thread that will wear till The hour of doom, Was thrown at every cast.” I learned the above years ago when I was teach. ing. The sentiment has stayed with me. It has been an inspiration to me. I have often felt I was the weaver, making the pat tern of my life. The shuttle now flies rapidly. Time is the warp; as older I grow, time speeds more rapidly. Each thread forms an impression on the brain and makes character. My daily deeds are the work. The work is the lasting quality. Deeds multiply as we try to do our allotted tasks and help to make the world better. We each weave a different pattern. It takes a lifetime to complete it. The shuttle runs fast and the warp is pulsing and throbbing over life’s loom. The higher the ambitions and greater the re sponsibilities makes the weaving all the more a study. A pattern may easily be disfigured by a stitch dropped or a careless throw of the shuttle. This will always show in the woof and will be noted by our friends. Let us use the best warp, the surest shuttle, and make the best woof and pattern possible. It is a pleasure to watch the children spinning on their life’s loom so merrily. They are uncertain of some movements. Day by day the spining im proves. Youth comes along with pride. Confidence is great. The desire for a name is felt. The weaving is done with a vim. How fast the shuttle flies to achieve the great events! —Uncle George, in Wo man’s World. “Who has not made mistakes? And who has not felt sorry for making them?” Asks a writer in the Sabbath Review, and, says further: “The trou ble is that the mistakes of our youth often have the effect of making the future a mass of mistakes. Willful mistakes are more to be deplored than those made for want of good judgemeut or through carelessness. Many of the failures of after life are due to habits formed in childhood and youth. I honostly believe that if I had been more care ful in my younger days in regard to my studies, and had been more diligent in training my mind, things would have been far different with me today than they are. It is a mistake for a young man to permit him self to begin the fight of life without having im proved every opportunity to get his “thinker” in good condition while a boy. He who does other wise takes great chances of not being anybody worth talking about. One evening I stood around the stove of a little Methodist church, trying to warm myself. A young Scotchman entered with a shawl around him. He was small in stature and had other drawbacks to con tend against. He talked pleasantly and appeared to be pleased to make the acquaintance of the young men and the pastor. The Rev. Seymour A. Baker, the pastor, had a talk with me the next day about the young Scotch man, and among other things said; “He has a trained mind, and I will do all I can to give him a chance to follow out the bent of his mind,” which was to be a preacher. After a while the young man was sent to a small charge in the western part of this State belonging to a denomination that was never noted for having many adherents. He wrote me a letter shortly after he had become “settled,” and in it stated that his congregation sometimes consisted of twelve souls. But this did not discourage him, as he was filled with a desire to make the best of every opportunity and studied day and night to make himself a master workman in his chosen profession. I was in the habit of taking the letters I re ceived from my friend to Mr. Baker. After reading them he would say: “Tommy’s trained mind will yet land him on the upper shelf”; and it did. If I should tell you all his private history—how he stud ied to conquer difficulties —you would be astonished, and give him eredit for the place he fills now in the Presbyterian denomination. The poor young Scotchman saw the mistake that so many young men had made of not being thorough in anything, and thus succeeded in making headway against difficulties that would have swamp ed most young men. A dark beginning with him only strengthened hie determination to have a bright ending. And to day he is a bright and shining light in the literary world as well as in the pulpit. It is a sad mistake to start in manhood with no preparation: with no ideas as to what course to pur sue; with no plans either for earth or heaven. It is worse than a mistake to hope that some kind of “Pot Luck” will bring you into some haven of success. My school teacher had the good sense to once tell us boys that he knew the kind of men we would be. One boy inquired what kind of a man he was likely to become, and the response came quickly: “A prize-fighter.” And the teacher proved to be a true prophet. Mistake after mistake has the effect of “taking the heart” out of a young man, no matter what bis surroundings may be. One of the smartest young men I ever knew in the western part of this State committed suicide. I made diligent inquiry to find out the cause, and was told by those who knew him that before he commit ted the fatal act he wrote a letter stating that he could not overcome the mistakes of his early life. I can see him now —a handsome, bright-looking young man, beloved by all who knew him. As I bade him farewell for the last time, how little did I think that he was soon to be wrecked on the rock of mistakes which he had built with his own hands. It is a mistake for a young man to practice de ceit, for the habit will grow on him; and often when frankness and truthfulness would do more to accom plish what he desires, he will find himself using de ceit to his own discomfort. When General Grant resigned from the United States Army and went to farming he came near making the mistake of consigning himself to obscur ity forever. It is so easy to make a fatal mistake and so hard to avoid even the remotest results. One mis take often leads to many disasters. Not only in matters of a religious character, but also in business affairs. Make as few mistakes as possible, for every one leaves its mark upon you and is a hedge across your pathway in life. You will all have enough to con tend with without building impediments in the way of your own success, which will be hard to sur mount. I feel that it is ray duty to write on this sub ject, because, like most men, I have to say: “The mistakes of my life have been many.” But lam pleased to record the fact that nothing would please me more than to make my own mistakes the means of helping others to avoid mistakes which would be prejudicial to their prospects in life.” Mistakes QUERIES NOTICE TO INMATES For the benefit of any inmates who appreciate and see the op portunity that their spare hours give towards a means of self-education through correspondence school courses, study of good literature, inquir ing an education in our Night Schools, or. who need helpful informa tion in connection with their work in our various departments, will here with be privileged to use the “Query” column. You are welcomed to send in any queries of serious interest to yourself. The Mirror with the kmd colaboration of Miss Miriam E. Carey, Supervisor of Institution Libraries, will gladly endeavor to supply the requested information. NOTICE—In order to regulate the conduct of this column in mates must sign their name, register number and lock number to all queries submitted for publication. Inmate’s qames, of course, will not be published, only the initials of each querist being used. (Ed.) Q: Will you kindly give me the date, origin and area of the “great fire in London, ” as compared to the Chicago fire.— L. J. A: —The date of the great fire in London is September 2to 6, 1666. It was caused by a fire in abakei’s house in Pud ding Lane in the confines of what is now called “Old London.’ ’ The area laid waste was 436 acres which contained 13,200 buildings. The Chicago fire of October 8-9, 1871, was three and a half square miles in extent, destroying 17,450 buildings and causing the death of 200 persons. The property loss exceeded $200,000,000. Q: —(1) Please tell me when and how the first book was printed (2) When was the first Bible printed, and who printed it? (3) When was the first printing press invented that did away with the hand-power method of printing?— A. S A: —(1) The first book was printed about tour hundred years ago. This book was printed with wooden blocks. The work which was to be printed, was written on transparent paper. Each sheet of paper was glued face downward on a thin tablet of hard wood. The engraver with rude instruments, cut away the wood around the letters, making it ready to be printed. The ink was put on the type with stuffed leather balls. After the ink was put on, they would dampen a paper to a cer tain degree and lay it over the type passing a brush over the paper with a right degree of force, would cause it to print on the paper. In 1423 a Dutchman and a German discovered that the letters of a word could be made separately. (2) The first Bible was printed in 1450 and 1455 by Gut tenberg. The first letter of every chapter was executed with a pen and different colors of ink. (3) 1790 the first cylinder presses were invented and run by steam. After this invention, books and magazines could be easily pripted. About 1818 it was discovered that glue and molasses, thoroughly boiled, made a composition that resembled India rubber. The liquid, in its hot stattf 1 , was poured into an iron mould in the center of which was a wooden axis. When cool it was slipped from the mould. This composition, which now includes glycerin, is still in use today as rollers to put ink on the face of type As we come up to the modern age of printing we have the linotype machine which does the type settr.g for all the newspapers and printed jobs. These machines are operated by one man, who sits at the keyboard. The latest model of these machines is the “Mergenthaler. ’’ It is said that over 27,000 of these ma chines are now in daily use. Q: —Please let me know the admission requirements to the University of Minnesota. — C. F. F. A: —Admission to the colleges and school of the Univer sity of Minnesota is by certificate or examination or both. The candidate must offer 15 units of high-school work so chosen as to include those subjects which are required by the college which he wishes to enter. No candidate will be ad mitted for less than 15 units. Admission by certificate requires the candidate to be a graduate in any one of the following courses:— 1. —Any four-year course of Minnesota high-school or other accredited school. ' 2. —Four-year course of school in any other state accred ited to the university of that state. 3. Advanced Latin or advanced English courses of the Minnesota state normal schools. For further information see Bulletin of the University of Minnesota, “General Information,” April, 1916. —M. E. Carey. A man makes no noise over a good deed, but passes on to another as a vine to bear grapes again in season.—Marcus Aurelius. Count Them Up A man might lose a penny a day and feel none the poorer, unless he stopped to count them up. If he found that he had lost three dollars and sixty-five cents, and that this was just the price of a book or a tool that he wanted, but could not get for lack of that extra sum, he would certainly bemoan.bis loss, and feel somewhat poverty-stricken when he thought of it. One penny is such a trifle it seems scarcely worth while to count it. In fact it does not take long to count one, but add up hundreds, and the sum stands for values worth while indeed. Unfortunately some people count up losses in stead of gains, which is not half so comforting. Loss es must be reckoned, it is true, that wisdom and prudence may thrive, but the calculation is depress ing, while the counting up of gains is pleasing. There are many who count money by thousands, but multitudes more who must count it, if at all, by dollars, dimes, and even pennies. But it would be a poor arithmetic that made no account of small numbers. If a bookkeeper ignored all the small numbers, his accounts would be forever awry, and could never be straightened out. So, in reckoning the pleasant things of life, it will not do to count only the'great events. Some people never seem to have such occasions and they would have nothing to count* After adding up the joys, one may be sur prised to find how many they are and feeling in hap py possession increases in proportion. So, we get “The peace that springs From the large aggregate of little things.’ I —Ex.