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AIR BOAT DESIGN A SUCCESS Power of Motor, Efficiency of Propeller and Speed When Flying Important Factors By C. H. Cloudy, in Motor Boating [fjM T IS a curious phenomenon Rill —this growth into our social and national life of some new invention, with out our really understanding any thing about it. Telephones, elec tric lights, the storage battery, the common desk fan, and a hundred other everyday adaptions of the discoveries of science get inter woven into our daily affairs with out our having more than the most elementary understanding of their how. And now, slowly, with its dif ficulty in making headway against the inertia of public sentiment in peace time, and much more rapid ly with the demands of war, the airplane is forcing its way into our vision. Already it carries passen gers; it is soon to carry mails; the next ten years will see it displace more than one ferry, and there seems small doubt that, in its ma rine form, it will get the love of many a waterman who has hitherto found outlet for his energy and his love of matters marine in the motor boat. Yet not one man in a thousand understands anything more about an airplane, or how it is built or why it is so built, than that it pos sesses some surfaces, an engine and a propeller. Why are some airplanes fast and others slow? Why do some ap pear squat and fat, and others wide and slender? Why can some climb up high very fast and others but crawl aloft? Why are some built with two “wings” (the pilot never calls them so!) and others with four? Why is the top wing set forward of the bottom one? Why do their centers sink lower than their edges? Why is the lower wing somewhat behind the top one? Why isn’t the body of the machine under both wings to give an unobstructed view down, or on top of both wings to give an unobstructed view aloft? Why is a side slip, a nose dive, a spiral, a glide, an accident? Ask yourself, ask your friend, ask almost every one whose life does not bring him intimately in touch with aeronautics, and see that, like the telephone, we all ac cept the air boat or the airplane, as a fact, without in the least under standing that it is a fact! 1 When, ten years ago (so short a time for the progress made!), the first tentative airplanes were built, any machine was a good machine which got into the air and stayed there. Now no machine is a good machine just because it will fly, any more than any automobile is a good automobile because it will run. The airplane of today must function according to its design, or it is no good. Doubtless, the first savages to dig out a log found the resulting boat a good boat, but today the hull is most carefully de signed for size, speed, resistance, carrying capacity, beauty, and efficiency, and if it doesn’t meet its designer’s hopes and plans it’s a poor hull. So with the air boat. But like its big brother of the water, the air boat is not, as yet, anything but a compromise. No one has as yet designed a water-going structure which has the maximum of speed, safety, carrying capacity, and beauty, all at once. And no one has as yet designed any sort of flying structure which is anything but a compromise. To understand why, it is neces sary to know why an airplane flies at all. When a surface is inclined f -*• . iltuTnr to a stream of air, the air is com pressed on one side and rarified on the other. If the inclination be downward, from fore to aft, the re sult is a lifting force. The airplane has such an inclined surface or surfaces. The stream of air comes from its motion through the air, which is caused, of course, by the propeller. But no surface is weightless—nor is an engine, a man, the fuselage he sits in, the wires, struts, wheels, etc., which form the completed flying machine. So the lifting force must first overcome the weight be fore the whole can get off the ground or out of the water. The result is that the total force available is used in two ways—one for the lift, and one part to over come drift, which is the engineer’s term for the resistance of the planes as such. Head resistance is the total of the skin friction and the resistance of all the parts of the structure which strike the air with out giving any lift. Obviously, the greater the pro portion of lift over the drift the more the machine can carry and the faster it can climb. The great er the angle of incidence at which the planes strike the air the greater the lift, but, also, the greater the drift. Now, the longer the plane from tip to tip the greater the sur face—the greater the surface the less the angle must be to produce the necessary lift, and the less the angle the less the drift. Therefore, argues the theorist, planes of tre mendous width and little depth are most efficient! But! Planes require ribs, and ribs require strength, and strength requires size. The camber or cur vature of the top and bottom of a plane must be just right for the particular angle of incidence being used. The less the angle the less the camber, and, consequently, too wide wings with too little curva ture will have no room for the parts necessary to produce strength. Hence the aspect ratio, which is the proportion of depth of plane to width of plane, is and must al ways be a compromise. But the designer has fought a good fight against this compro mise. The biplane, which is rapid ly becoming the standard type, is the weapon he uses. By having one plane above another he gets double the surface with little addi tion of weight, and by halving the span he gets strength without many additional spars and wires; and while he does increase head re sistance with two planes instead of one, his planes need not be so strong, and therefore not so thick, his angle of incidence may be less and so his drift is less. But compromise still persists. Roughly speaking, the bottom of a moving surface compresses —the top surface sucks —air. If one is above another, the top surface of the bottom plane sucks air and pre vents the top surface from having its maximum compression. To in crease the distances between the surfaces is the first thought, but that means longer and heavier struts, more wires and more head resistance, top heaviness and other similar troubles. So compromise comes into play again and the planes are staggered—that is, the bottom one is put somewhat to the rear of the top one, to get it out of the way of the air reaction. Again, the top surface or plane is built out on the ends (overhung) as wide as can be accomplished without need- OUR MOTTO>-“It Is Never Too Late to Mend.** Stillwater, Minnesota. Thursday, June 13, 1918 THE SHADOW OF THE FLAG The breath of joy was in the air, A Maytime beauty everywhere, Yet dark beneath my feet it lay As ’twere a blot upon the day. A shadow wavering to and fro I looked to understand —and, 10, The shadow of the flag! The sweet winds from the orchard came. They caught each scarlet stripe aflame. The white stars gleamed upon their blue. A glorious banner ’twas to view, But as it filled and floated free The sun played hide and seek to see The shadow of the flag. Emerging from the storm cloud’s wrack, A phantom army struggles back. To English and Canadian home Exhausted, broken, maimed, they come, A mighty sacrificial host — Survivors of war’s holocaust, The shadows of the flag. And millions ’neath the torn ground lie, Unfolding great Death’s mystery. Their jouth was fair; they gave it all, Upspringing at the trumpet call. Was need to give it? Answer ye Who sent to immortality These shadows of the flag. O God, omnipotent, bend down; Compel a world in chaos thrown; Man’B power is naught; thy power is still The same that spoke from Sinai’s hill. Speak now, with ster i authority, That our dim eyes may never see Such shadows of our flag. —Mary Putnam Hart of the Vigilantet ing struts to bold it up, thus get ting so much extra free surface for compression and sucking lift. Strange as it may seem, this suck or rarification of air on top of a moving surface has a greater effect as a lifting force than the compression of the air below 'the moving surface. It is not a mat ter of belief, but of actual proof in the wind tunnel, where aero-dyna mic experiments are made. More over, the lift, which is composed of both the sucking and the com pressing of the air over and under the moving surfaces or planes, in creases rapidly with the speed of the whole through the air at about the square of the speed, so that the faster the plane the less surface it needs to hold it up. The designer says: “I’ll fly a tea tray if you give me power enough,” and means exactly what he says. And right here comes in the meat of the problem as to climb ing ability versus speed. To climb quickly, an airplane must have the greatest possible lift-drift ratio. That means a slow plane, because the head resistance of all those parts of the structure which do not produce lift —wires, struts, skin friction on the body, etc.—in creases as the square of the speed; and the greater the head resistance, of course, the more of the total power must be taken to overcome it and the less there is for lift. The slower the plane the larger must the surfaces be, and the larger the surfaces are the greater the weight. The more the weight the greater the angle of incidence must be to afford lift, and increased angle means increased drift, and—the compromise comes in again! For speed, small surfaces just enough to lift the weight are re required; a small angle, cutting down the drift, which means small camber or curvature, also cutting down the drift. Put categorically, for maximum speed plus maximum climbing ability, what is wanted is great span, little depth, two angles of incidence and two cambers to the surface (an absurdity), no thick ness in the surfaces (an impossi bility), and a propeller which has an alterable pitch to be most effi cient at any speed (which, if not an impossibility, hasn't been invented.) But the end of the problem of speed or climbing ability is not yet. An airplane or boat is so constructed that when on an even keel, the propeller shaft horizontal, there is sufficient lift, and just suf ficient lift, to keep the plane slowly rising in the air. To rise more rapidly the pilot alters the angle of the elevator, or “horizontal rud der,” tipping the nose of the ma chine upward and making the sur faces have a greater angle of in cidence. The greater the angle the greater the lift (within limits, of course), but also the greater the drift The greater drift lessens the speed, which also lessens the lift. Somewhere between a level flight and pointing the nose straight up is the maximum pos sible angle of flight—the critical angle. At this angle the machine does not climb — it staggers along horizontally through the air, its lift just equal to its drift plus gravity. Force its nose higher and it commences to fall. Somewhere between a level and the critical or maximum angle is the best climbing angle. This best angle may result in 1,000 feet a minute in a good climber or from 4,000 to 5,000 feet in ten minutes if it is a good all around machine. In a very fast plane it will be very slow climbing speed, for fast planes have small surfaces, little angle (to reduce drift), small camber, to go with small angle, and none of these things make for lift. It is the motor boat over again—one cannot have great speed and plenty of room —great speed and small en gines do not go together, and the speed boat built for cruising is neither speedy nor a cruiser! But the designer’s problems only commence when he has settled speed versus climbing ability. He has the stabilities to care for, and they are very important, indeed, especially to the pilot. In the water the motor boatman can con trol his speed and his direction, but if speed dies away he still exists. The air boatman must con trol speed and direction according to the compass, and direction up and down, and must balance his craft laterally and fore and aft and never forget the peculiar-to-the-air condition which the working of the law of momentum and inertia pro duces in a craft, the only hold of which on the medium in which it exists is due to speed. (Continued on page S, column 8.) BASEBALL OVER IN FRANCE Being an Account of a Game Played by the ‘YacKs” and "Tigers,” the Latter Winning Game The Stillwater Gazette HHROUGH the courtesy of Russel Kilty we are enabled to present to the readers of the Gazette an account of a ball game played Somewhere in France between the “Yacks” and “Tigers.” From the Extra Sporting Edition of the Headquarters Gazoote, March 25th, 1918. For Sale at all Stew Dealers. The Headquarters Tigers defeat ed the E-Co Lumber Yacks on neutral territory Somewhere in France today, thereby sending the Yacks to the basement of the Vol canic League and tieing the Tigers and F-co Gnats for the roof gar den. It is rumored that the Yacks will play the Philadelphia Athletics to decide which is the worst ball team in the world, but that is a question that only trial can decide. J. Patrich Gallagher, of Dublin Gulch fame, Yack Manager, was absent on a scouting trip Some where in France. He is probably hunting among the French natives for a second Napoleon Larry La joie. This brings up the old ques tion, “Does lightning ever strike twice in the same place,” or will there ever be another French ball player? There were many well known spectators present, chief among whom was the washwoman of E-co ✓ and her husband. In honor of the occasion he (her husband) wore his famous brilliant red pantaloons. General Pershing wired his re grets on account of being unable to be present. Law aDd order was preserved and insured by the pres ence of that famous M. P., Deacon O. H. Johnson. Fans forgot all about the old Chicago Cub machine when the Tigers took the field. The ma chine was faultless as it should have been as they had over five minutes practice together. The Yacks presented their old line-up with the exception of first base, which was covered by Hal Chase Bolton, whom they obtained last week from headquarters via the waiver route. He fielded the ball in fine style and showed that he is not a has-been yet. At bat neither, did he remind one of a has-been, he appeared like a never-was-er. However, he was full of all his old time pep and kept things lively. It was a hot day and many per sisted in fanning themselves when ever they came to bat. The Tigers lined up as follows: Tyrus Raymond Cobb Anderson, cf; Eddie Collins Tiffany, 2b; Hon us Wagner Beudoin, ss; Ray Schalk Kilty, c; Home Run Baker War ren, 3b; Tris Speaker Norton, If; Chick Gandil Bishop, lb; Joe Jackson Minum, rf; Grover Cleve land Alexander Cotten, p; Walter Johnson (Moose) Gurnsey, p. It was a beautiful park, the dia mond being set in the center with a wonderful Montana Pearl. In the fourth inning the Tigers amassed six runs and it looked as if the Pearl needed re-setting, but it finally stuck it out. In the sev enth inning, with the score 7 to 3, Cotten was allowed to rest and “The Moose” was led into the pas ture. His machine gun fire rattled the enemy for awhile but as he couldn’t find the range they tied the score in the last of the eighth. However, this was not done until two of their field generals were plunked by the rapid fire. In the first of the ninth the Tigers dis covered that the Yacks’ shortstop was wearing a corset and couldn’t stoop, so a line plunge in that di- , MJNNESO ! / I IHSTORIO: • SOCIETY Vol. XXXI: No. 45 rection was always good for several yards, and with a man on second and two men down, Bishop, the Tigers’ “two eyebrowed first base man,” tried a line buck through short which put the man who was on second across for a touchdown and Bishie scratched sand for sec ond. Someone (the dust was too thick to see who) threw the ball over the second baseman’s head. Bishie streaked it for third and zowie, the ball hit him on the shoulder and bounced into the bleachers. Bishie then romped home. In the last half of the ninth the Yacks had a man on sec ond and one on third with two men down but B. A. Bolton Casey-ed in this last act. (Curtains.) This is only half of the story — the other half is what everybody said about the umpires. However, we cannot describe this as one is our cook and we know who can cook our goose, and the other — oh, well, it ought not be printed as some lady might get hold of this paper. P. S.—The final score: Tigers 9, Yacks 7. Rah! rah! Tigers! Best Backstop Records A catcher who works in at least 100 games each season is worth a liberal salary, ljast year’s major league records show that these men passed the century mark be hind the bat: National league: Killifer and Wingo, each 120 games, and Rariden, 100; American league: Schalk and Severied, each 139 games; O’Neil, 127, and Ain smith, 119. Those who caught between 90 and 100 games were Stanage of Detroit, Nunamaker of the Yan kees, Miller of Brooklyn, Snyder of the Cardinals and Tragresser of the Braves. —Ex. Baseball Stories Russian soviets remind us of left handed pitchers. Kaiser’s army hasn’t stolen a base on Hank Gowdy yet. The poor, down-trodden players are allowed but three feeds a day. It is still possible to go crazy over baseball, but it is no longer obligatory. Owing to the war Benny Kauf ordered only twelve suits of clothes this spring. Catholic University has a pitcher whose name has been given out as Kerononwetter. Miller Huggins likes the looks of Sam Vick, the young outfielder from the Southern association. Harry Frazee, owner of the Red Sox, will retain the veteran Billy Murray. He will be the club’s scout. Bert Humphries, former big league hurler, has been signed by the Louisville club and will attempt a come-back. Babe Ruth started off in fine shape against the Brooklyn Dodg ers with two home runs over the garden wall at Hot Springs. During 21 years as a player in the National league Hans Wagner of the Pittsburgh team has cracked out a total of 100 home runs. Horace Milan of the Washington team, now is taking a course of instruction at the naval aviation station at Charleston, S. C. Hugo Bezdek, manager of the Pittsburg Nationals, and Ed Bar row, pilot of the ex-world’s cham pion Boston American League nine, never played ball on either a major or minor league team. —Ex.