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The mirror. (Stillwater, Minn.) 1894-1925, June 13, 1918, Image 1

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Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn90060762/1918-06-13/ed-1/seq-1/

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Established 1887
Power of Motor, Efficiency of Propeller and Speed
When Flying Important Factors
By C. H. Cloudy, in Motor Boating
[fjM T IS a curious phenomenon
Rill —this growth into our
social and national life of
some new invention, with
out our really understanding any
thing about it. Telephones, elec
tric lights, the storage battery, the
common desk fan, and a hundred
other everyday adaptions of the
discoveries of science get inter
woven into our daily affairs with
out our having more than the most
elementary understanding of their
And now, slowly, with its dif
ficulty in making headway against
the inertia of public sentiment in
peace time, and much more rapid
ly with the demands of war, the
airplane is forcing its way into our
vision. Already it carries passen
gers; it is soon to carry mails; the
next ten years will see it displace
more than one ferry, and there
seems small doubt that, in its ma
rine form, it will get the love of
many a waterman who has hitherto
found outlet for his energy and
his love of matters marine in the
motor boat.
Yet not one man in a thousand
understands anything more about
an airplane, or how it is built or
why it is so built, than that it pos
sesses some surfaces, an engine and
a propeller.
Why are some airplanes fast and
others slow? Why do some ap
pear squat and fat, and others
wide and slender? Why can some
climb up high very fast and others
but crawl aloft? Why are some
built with two “wings” (the pilot
never calls them so!) and others
with four? Why is the top wing
set forward of the bottom one?
Why do their centers sink lower
than their edges? Why is the
lower wing somewhat behind the
top one? Why isn’t the body of
the machine under both wings to
give an unobstructed view down,
or on top of both wings to give an
unobstructed view aloft? Why is
a side slip, a nose dive, a spiral,
a glide, an accident?
Ask yourself, ask your friend,
ask almost every one whose life
does not bring him intimately in
touch with aeronautics, and see
that, like the telephone, we all ac
cept the air boat or the airplane, as
a fact, without in the least under
standing that it is a fact!
When, ten years ago (so short a
time for the progress made!), the
first tentative airplanes were built,
any machine was a good machine
which got into the air and stayed
there. Now no machine is a good
machine just because it will fly,
any more than any automobile is a
good automobile because it will
run. The airplane of today must
function according to its design,
or it is no good. Doubtless, the
first savages to dig out a log found
the resulting boat a good boat, but
today the hull is most carefully de
signed for size, speed, resistance,
carrying capacity, beauty, and
efficiency, and if it doesn’t meet its
designer’s hopes and plans it’s a
poor hull.
So with the air boat. But like
its big brother of the water, the
air boat is not, as yet, anything
but a compromise. No one has
as yet designed a water-going
structure which has the maximum
of speed, safety, carrying capacity,
and beauty, all at once.
And no one has as yet designed
any sort of flying structure which
is anything but a compromise.
To understand why, it is neces
sary to know why an airplane flies
at all. When a surface is inclined
f -*•
to a stream of air, the air is com
pressed on one side and rarified on
the other. If the inclination be
downward, from fore to aft, the re
sult is a lifting force.
The airplane has such an inclined
surface or surfaces. The stream
of air comes from its motion
through the air, which is caused,
of course, by the propeller. But
no surface is weightless—nor is an
engine, a man, the fuselage he sits
in, the wires, struts, wheels, etc.,
which form the completed flying
machine. So the lifting force
must first overcome the weight be
fore the whole can get off the
ground or out of the water.
The result is that the total force
available is used in two ways—one
for the lift, and one part to over
come drift, which is the engineer’s
term for the resistance of the planes
as such. Head resistance is the
total of the skin friction and the
resistance of all the parts of the
structure which strike the air with
out giving any lift.
Obviously, the greater the pro
portion of lift over the drift the
more the machine can carry and
the faster it can climb. The great
er the angle of incidence at which
the planes strike the air the greater
the lift, but, also, the greater the
drift. Now, the longer the plane
from tip to tip the greater the sur
face—the greater the surface the
less the angle must be to produce
the necessary lift, and the less the
angle the less the drift. Therefore,
argues the theorist, planes of tre
mendous width and little depth are
most efficient!
But! Planes require ribs, and
ribs require strength, and strength
requires size. The camber or cur
vature of the top and bottom of a
plane must be just right for the
particular angle of incidence being
used. The less the angle the less
the camber, and, consequently, too
wide wings with too little curva
ture will have no room for the
parts necessary to produce
Hence the aspect ratio, which is
the proportion of depth of plane
to width of plane, is and must al
ways be a compromise.
But the designer has fought a
good fight against this compro
mise. The biplane, which is rapid
ly becoming the standard type, is
the weapon he uses. By having
one plane above another he gets
double the surface with little addi
tion of weight, and by halving the
span he gets strength without many
additional spars and wires; and
while he does increase head re
sistance with two planes instead of
one, his planes need not be so
strong, and therefore not so thick,
his angle of incidence may be less
and so his drift is less.
But compromise still persists.
Roughly speaking, the bottom of a
moving surface compresses —the
top surface sucks —air. If one is
above another, the top surface of
the bottom plane sucks air and pre
vents the top surface from having
its maximum compression. To in
crease the distances between the
surfaces is the first thought, but
that means longer and heavier
struts, more wires and more head
resistance, top heaviness and other
similar troubles. So compromise
comes into play again and the
planes are staggered—that is, the
bottom one is put somewhat to the
rear of the top one, to get it out of
the way of the air reaction. Again,
the top surface or plane is built out
on the ends (overhung) as wide as
can be accomplished without need-
OUR MOTTO>-“It Is Never Too Late to Mend.**
Stillwater, Minnesota. Thursday, June 13, 1918
The breath of joy was in the air,
A Maytime beauty everywhere,
Yet dark beneath my feet it lay
As ’twere a blot upon the day.
A shadow wavering to and fro
I looked to understand —and, 10,
The shadow of the flag!
The sweet winds from the orchard came.
They caught each scarlet stripe aflame.
The white stars gleamed upon their blue.
A glorious banner ’twas to view,
But as it filled and floated free
The sun played hide and seek to see
The shadow of the flag.
Emerging from the storm cloud’s wrack,
A phantom army struggles back.
To English and Canadian home
Exhausted, broken, maimed, they come,
A mighty sacrificial host —
Survivors of war’s holocaust,
The shadows of the flag.
And millions ’neath the torn ground lie,
Unfolding great Death’s mystery.
Their jouth was fair; they gave it all,
Upspringing at the trumpet call.
Was need to give it? Answer ye
Who sent to immortality
These shadows of the flag.
O God, omnipotent, bend down;
Compel a world in chaos thrown;
Man’B power is naught; thy power is still
The same that spoke from Sinai’s hill.
Speak now, with ster i authority,
That our dim eyes may never see
Such shadows of our flag.
—Mary Putnam Hart of the Vigilantet
ing struts to bold it up, thus get
ting so much extra free surface for
compression and sucking lift.
Strange as it may seem, this
suck or rarification of air on top of
a moving surface has a greater
effect as a lifting force than the
compression of the air below 'the
moving surface. It is not a mat
ter of belief, but of actual proof in
the wind tunnel, where aero-dyna
mic experiments are made. More
over, the lift, which is composed
of both the sucking and the com
pressing of the air over and under
the moving surfaces or planes, in
creases rapidly with the speed of
the whole through the air at about
the square of the speed, so that the
faster the plane the less surface it
needs to hold it up. The designer
says: “I’ll fly a tea tray if you
give me power enough,” and means
exactly what he says.
And right here comes in the
meat of the problem as to climb
ing ability versus speed. To climb
quickly, an airplane must have the
greatest possible lift-drift ratio.
That means a slow plane, because
the head resistance of all those
parts of the structure which do not
produce lift —wires, struts, skin
friction on the body, etc.—in
creases as the square of the speed;
and the greater the head resistance,
of course, the more of the total
power must be taken to overcome
it and the less there is for lift. The
slower the plane the larger must
the surfaces be, and the larger the
surfaces are the greater the weight.
The more the weight the greater
the angle of incidence must be to
afford lift, and increased angle
means increased drift, and—the
compromise comes in again!
For speed, small surfaces just
enough to lift the weight are re
required; a small angle, cutting
down the drift, which means small
camber or curvature, also cutting
down the drift.
Put categorically, for maximum
speed plus maximum climbing
ability, what is wanted is great
span, little depth, two angles of
incidence and two cambers to the
surface (an absurdity), no thick
ness in the surfaces (an impossi
bility), and a propeller which has
an alterable pitch to be most effi
cient at any speed (which, if not an
impossibility, hasn't been invented.)
But the end of the problem of
speed or climbing ability is not
yet. An airplane or boat is so
constructed that when on an even
keel, the propeller shaft horizontal,
there is sufficient lift, and just suf
ficient lift, to keep the plane slowly
rising in the air. To rise more
rapidly the pilot alters the angle of
the elevator, or “horizontal rud
der,” tipping the nose of the ma
chine upward and making the sur
faces have a greater angle of in
cidence. The greater the angle the
greater the lift (within limits, of
course), but also the greater the
drift The greater drift lessens
the speed, which also lessens the
lift. Somewhere between a level
flight and pointing the nose
straight up is the maximum pos
sible angle of flight—the critical
angle. At this angle the machine
does not climb — it staggers along
horizontally through the air, its
lift just equal to its drift plus
gravity. Force its nose higher
and it commences to fall.
Somewhere between a level and
the critical or maximum angle is
the best climbing angle. This best
angle may result in 1,000 feet a
minute in a good climber or from
4,000 to 5,000 feet in ten minutes
if it is a good all around machine.
In a very fast plane it will be very
slow climbing speed, for fast planes
have small surfaces, little angle (to
reduce drift), small camber, to go
with small angle, and none of these
things make for lift. It is the
motor boat over again—one cannot
have great speed and plenty of
room —great speed and small en
gines do not go together, and the
speed boat built for cruising is
neither speedy nor a cruiser!
But the designer’s problems only
commence when he has settled
speed versus climbing ability. He
has the stabilities to care for, and
they are very important, indeed,
especially to the pilot. In the
water the motor boatman can con
trol his speed and his direction,
but if speed dies away he still
exists. The air boatman must con
trol speed and direction according
to the compass, and direction up
and down, and must balance his
craft laterally and fore and aft and
never forget the peculiar-to-the-air
condition which the working of the
law of momentum and inertia pro
duces in a craft, the only hold of
which on the medium in which
it exists is due to speed.
(Continued on page S, column 8.)
Being an Account of a Game Played by the ‘YacKs”
and "Tigers,” the Latter Winning Game
The Stillwater Gazette
HHROUGH the courtesy
of Russel Kilty we are
enabled to present to the
readers of the Gazette an
account of a ball game played
Somewhere in France between the
“Yacks” and “Tigers.”
From the Extra Sporting Edition
of the Headquarters Gazoote,
March 25th, 1918. For Sale at all
Stew Dealers.
The Headquarters Tigers defeat
ed the E-Co Lumber Yacks on
neutral territory Somewhere in
France today, thereby sending the
Yacks to the basement of the Vol
canic League and tieing the Tigers
and F-co Gnats for the roof gar
den. It is rumored that the Yacks
will play the Philadelphia Athletics
to decide which is the worst ball
team in the world, but that is a
question that only trial can decide.
J. Patrich Gallagher, of Dublin
Gulch fame, Yack Manager, was
absent on a scouting trip Some
where in France. He is probably
hunting among the French natives
for a second Napoleon Larry La
joie. This brings up the old ques
tion, “Does lightning ever strike
twice in the same place,” or will
there ever be another French ball
There were many well known
spectators present, chief among
whom was the washwoman of E-co

and her husband. In honor of the
occasion he (her husband) wore
his famous brilliant red pantaloons.
General Pershing wired his re
grets on account of being unable
to be present. Law aDd order was
preserved and insured by the pres
ence of that famous M. P., Deacon
O. H. Johnson.
Fans forgot all about the old
Chicago Cub machine when the
Tigers took the field. The ma
chine was faultless as it should
have been as they had over five
minutes practice together. The
Yacks presented their old line-up
with the exception of first base,
which was covered by Hal Chase
Bolton, whom they obtained last
week from headquarters via the
waiver route. He fielded the ball
in fine style and showed that he is
not a has-been yet. At bat neither,
did he remind one of a has-been,
he appeared like a never-was-er.
However, he was full of all his old
time pep and kept things lively.
It was a hot day and many per
sisted in fanning themselves when
ever they came to bat.
The Tigers lined up as follows:
Tyrus Raymond Cobb Anderson,
cf; Eddie Collins Tiffany, 2b; Hon
us Wagner Beudoin, ss; Ray Schalk
Kilty, c; Home Run Baker War
ren, 3b; Tris Speaker Norton, If;
Chick Gandil Bishop, lb; Joe
Jackson Minum, rf; Grover Cleve
land Alexander Cotten, p; Walter
Johnson (Moose) Gurnsey, p.
It was a beautiful park, the dia
mond being set in the center with
a wonderful Montana Pearl. In
the fourth inning the Tigers
amassed six runs and it looked as
if the Pearl needed re-setting, but
it finally stuck it out. In the sev
enth inning, with the score 7 to 3,
Cotten was allowed to rest and
“The Moose” was led into the pas
ture. His machine gun fire rattled
the enemy for awhile but as he
couldn’t find the range they tied
the score in the last of the eighth.
However, this was not done until
two of their field generals were
plunked by the rapid fire. In the
first of the ninth the Tigers dis
covered that the Yacks’ shortstop
was wearing a corset and couldn’t
stoop, so a line plunge in that di-
Vol. XXXI: No. 45
rection was always good for several
yards, and with a man on second
and two men down, Bishop, the
Tigers’ “two eyebrowed first base
man,” tried a line buck through
short which put the man who was
on second across for a touchdown
and Bishie scratched sand for sec
ond. Someone (the dust was too
thick to see who) threw the ball
over the second baseman’s head.
Bishie streaked it for third and
zowie, the ball hit him on the
shoulder and bounced into the
bleachers. Bishie then romped
home. In the last half of the
ninth the Yacks had a man on sec
ond and one on third with two men
down but B. A. Bolton Casey-ed
in this last act. (Curtains.)
This is only half of the story —
the other half is what everybody
said about the umpires. However,
we cannot describe this as one is
our cook and we know who can
cook our goose, and the other —
oh, well, it ought not be printed as
some lady might get hold of this
P. S.—The final score: Tigers 9,
Yacks 7. Rah! rah! Tigers!
Best Backstop Records
A catcher who works in at least
100 games each season is worth a
liberal salary, ljast year’s major
league records show that these
men passed the century mark be
hind the bat: National league:
Killifer and Wingo, each 120
games, and Rariden, 100; American
league: Schalk and Severied, each
139 games; O’Neil, 127, and Ain
smith, 119.
Those who caught between 90
and 100 games were Stanage of
Detroit, Nunamaker of the Yan
kees, Miller of Brooklyn, Snyder
of the Cardinals and Tragresser of
the Braves. —Ex.
Baseball Stories
Russian soviets remind us of left
handed pitchers.
Kaiser’s army hasn’t stolen a
base on Hank Gowdy yet.
The poor, down-trodden players
are allowed but three feeds a day.
It is still possible to go crazy
over baseball, but it is no longer
Owing to the war Benny Kauf
ordered only twelve suits of clothes
this spring.
Catholic University has a pitcher
whose name has been given out as
Miller Huggins likes the looks
of Sam Vick, the young outfielder
from the Southern association.
Harry Frazee, owner of the
Red Sox, will retain the veteran
Billy Murray. He will be the
club’s scout.
Bert Humphries, former big
league hurler, has been signed by
the Louisville club and will attempt
a come-back.
Babe Ruth started off in fine
shape against the Brooklyn Dodg
ers with two home runs over the
garden wall at Hot Springs.
During 21 years as a player in
the National league Hans Wagner
of the Pittsburgh team has
cracked out a total of 100 home
Horace Milan of the Washington
team, now is taking a course of
instruction at the naval aviation
station at Charleston, S. C.
Hugo Bezdek, manager of the
Pittsburg Nationals, and Ed Bar
row, pilot of the ex-world’s cham
pion Boston American League
nine, never played ball on either a
major or minor league team. —Ex.

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