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•7"' ; ’ '• v '••' ' f • ■; ' 1 Zbc ittirrn' /|g OUR MOTTO:—“It Is Never Too Late to Mend.’* Established 1887 fjUppJ PERFECTED SOCIETY laSfeu seems to me the most ex alted of all conceivable creations, as much more glorious than the suns and systems of the universe, as Godlike charac ter is more glorious than matter. And the harmony of ten thousand free wills perfectly attuned to one perfect will, is as much nobler than the beauty of a single soul, as the full orchestra is nobler than the shepherd’s pipe. Society was not an after-thought, nor was it of artificial origin. It began with the first human pair, and without it human history would have ended with the first human being. Soci ety has a life of its own, which is vast, complex, and continuous, and is constantly growing more vast and more complex. We are told that the human race has existed between 2,000,000 and 3,000,000 years, and that it has been conscious of its existence for about 10,000 years. The most it has accomplished of any value to it has been done within 2,000 years and its greatest work within 200 years. f In a word, relatively speaking, man has only just begun to exist, and is separated in two classes namely the individual, and the social class. To champion the in dividual against society is like championing rights against duties, forgetting that each implies the other. But there are multitudes who are nursing the idea, that the government, state and society are naturally antagonistic to them. And when they get into trouble of any sort they blame society for their down-fall. They are sure to make it known that society has not only trampled all over the flower garden of their heart’s affections, but have actually kicked the props out from under their prospects in life, and let them down with a thud, with no other cushion than this cold hard world to land upon. They seem to forget that not one of the great works of genius which enrich all nations and all generat ions, no triumph of literature, of architecture, of painting, of inven tion, would have been possible apart from society. Therefore society can have no existence apart from the individuals of whom it is composed, and that the individual can have no existence apart from society which give to him his life, and nourishes it through helpless years. I cannot imagine an infinitely good and wise creator who had not a purpose worthy of His goodness, His greatness and His wisdom. I cannot imagine any higher or more benevolent purpose for this world then bringing all its moral creatures into perfect harmony with the per fect will of this perfect being. Because that will is benevolent, and because it is made known to man in revelation and in nature, man’s highest good can be realized only through perfect obedience to the laws thus made known. These laws are not imposed on man from without, but implanted in his nat ure. Therefore, we must not think of the individual as quite apart from society, the state government naturally antagonistic to him. He is not only a person, but a social being and government. State and society are rooted in his nature. We must start from the pregnate fact that each man is made an in dividual and social being, and that his whole humanity, with all of its attributes, moral, religious, emot ional, mental, cultural and indust- SOCIALIZING THE INDIVIDUAL ! An Interesting' Paper on Man’s Social Attitude l Read Before the Pierian Chautauqua Circle j By L. J. W. j| rial, are decreed forever to revolve between the two poles of individ ualism, taking the latter term in its strictly philosophical adoptation. When we choose the individual or society and champion the one against the other we set up a false alternative and reveal a radically wrong conception of the origin of individuality and of sociality and, therefore, of the relation of the in dividual and society to each other. Every human being is not only the child of his parents but the child of the race, and inherits the universal racial characteristics. He is en dowed not only with the individu alistic instincts of self-preservation but also with the social instincts of affection, imitation, bashfulness, shame, love of approbation, sympa thy and the like, which link him to his kind. Our powers are, of course, developed by their use, what a muscle is depends on what it does. Placed under such unatural conditions that it could never be used, a muscle could never be de veloped. A sense of duty is de veloped only by doing duty. He that doeth righteousness is right eous. If an infant could be reared by a wolf, and by this unhuman foster mother brought to self support without ever having come into contact with his own kind, he would be in character much more wolfish than human; his intellect ual and moral life would remain dormant, because he would never have been brought into intelligent and moral relations with intelligent and moral beings. Apart from his fellows a human being could not develop his moral or intellectual nature, that is he could not become a man. We are told that Helen Keller remembers when she had only physical appetities and de sires. In other words she can remember when she was an animal, perhaps the only living human be ing of whom this has been true. There was wonderful possibilities intellectual and moral life and beauty lying dormant in her brain, but they were only possibilities because she was cut off from socie ty. No one can doubt for a moment that had she remained thus isolated her intellectual and moral life would have remained undeveloped. That is, she was individualized through social relations. And if, instead of coming under the train ing of a wonderfully patient and skillful teacher, she had been placed among the Eskimos of Alaska, and hearing had been given to her, evidently her degree of individuat ion would have been as slight as the sociality of those savages is low. What mother has not been almost appalled as she has seen the face of her still-infant child in flamed with rage, and the passion ate desire for revenge. Its chubby hands are not always raised to caress; but too often to strike, as mind and heart develop, darker and meaner the trails unfold with every natural grace. There is a canker worm in the bud, and unless it is removed there can not be a perfect flower. On the other hand, society can achieve a higher order only by individualizing the individual. Or ganisms rise in the scale of being just in proportion as their organs increase in number, variety and complexity. Variety is much more than the spice of life, it is an index of life’s rank. All progress in the world of life has depended on cell differentiation. Individuals maybe called the cells of the social organ ism, and the primitive group, in which there is only a very limited Stillwater. Minnesota. Thurflay. October 31, 1918 variation among individuals, is of a low order, and can rise only as its membrrs develop different adaptat ions and abilities. In high civilization there is not only a great variety of gifts among men, but an almost immeasurable difference in endowments. The differentiation of labor made the organization of industry possible, and powerfully stimulated social development, and by making the interdependence of men complete and obvious induced the new social self-conciousness, which has raised society to a higher rank in the moral universe, and immeasurably increased its noble possibilities. Thus the individual and society are so related that the progress of each is conditioned by that of the The Ribbon of White O I’ve a love on the fields of France, Where the battle grim is raging. Like a valiant knight he’ll couch his lance, Fell tyranny engaging. The glorius day he sailed away With heart of pride I gave him A ribbon of white to wear in the fight, And a prayer to God to save him. A ribbon of white That tsands for the right And the army of God’s command, My love will be true To his colors, too, “God, Home and Every land.” And now my battle is raging high, The struggle of duty and longing, Am I a coward to mourn and cry In a world with heroes thronging? So it’s work and weave and forever believe In the God of the just and his might; Safe in my arms my love I’ 11 receive With the victor’s ribbon of white. The ribbon of white Gives strength for the fight, And ever for courage stands; And I’ll be true To my colors, too, “God, Home and Every land.” other. And I sincerely hope you, will accept my cordial good wishes for the future of our Pierian Chau tauqua Circle. May the members carry out its noble purpose with ever increasing success as the years go on. I offer my warm congrat ulations to all who have laboured so assiduously to found and main tain this school of learning, which has been, and shall be, not only an addition to the great State of Minnesota, but to the forces of pro gress throughout the world. And may the circle be a lamp unto our steps; that we may in the distant future see the dawning of a better day. And when this life shall termin ate. we may leave without regret, and with the dignity of true man hood prove ourselves a worthy individual in this social universe. Without the individual, society should be nothing. Without society the individual, should be nothing we live by and for each other. Canals Aid Transportation Uncle Sam’s war activities have placed a tremendous strain on the railroads of the country, a fact which was brought home forcibly to many in the cold days of last winter when there was no coal to be had because of freight congest ion. The government’s action in taking over the railroads in the hope that centralized control and better co-ordination would make for greater efficiency has helped materially but still the country’s transportation job is somewhat be yond the railroads. In order to relieve them further for war traffic the government has lately taken over the New York and Lake Erie barge canal and it is expected that similar action will shortly be taken in connection with a number of other canal systems and navigable rivers. . Several hundred steel barges with a capacity of about 700 tons each will be ordered at once for use on this canal and government experts are at work designing a new type of barge capable of carrying from 750 to 1,000 tons. Impediments heretofore in the way of the suc cessful operation of the waterway— designed for the purpose of giving the railroads an unfair advantage — will be removed and it is planned to have in operation barges of steel and concrete capable of handling 10,000,000 tons of freight the first year. The use of the country’s inland water-ways for carrying freight will enable the railroads to handle more expeditiously steel and var ious other materials for war pur poses and will thus be of material advantage in speeding up our war preparations. Transportation experts tell us that a period of extraordinary de velopment is beginning for inland waterways in the United States. Not only may we expect traffic on our rivers and the existing canal systems to increase to enormous proportions, they say, but many new canals will be built and great numbers of steel and concrete ves sels will be turned out for use on our canals, rivers and lakes. This development of water trans portion will not stop while the war lasts because the country’s trans portion needs will remain as great at least as they are now. Because of transportation demands the waterways, growth and use on a large scale may be expected for many years after the war.—Ex. THE MURMAN COAST An Account of that Part of Russian Lapland Important to Germany’s Military Plans. * In Hanska (Minn.) Herald. ■ HE Murman coast, which Germany, with the aid of Finland, has been trying to seize, is a part of Russ ian Lapland, being the coast of what is known as the Kola penin sula. The oiigin of the name Murman is doubtful, but it is probable that it is a corruption of Norman (i. e., Norwegian) the district being adja cent to Norway. The Russian cus tom is to change the capital N of a borrowed word into M, so that “Norman” would naturally become in Russian, “Morman.” The Mur man coast is of immense import ance to Russia, since it contains an excellent harbor which is free from ice all the year round—the deep inlet usually called the Gulf of Kola, but now frequently termed the Gulf of Murman. The region has definitely belong ed to Russia for some five centuries, and it is extraordinary that no at tempt was long made to utilize it for commercial purposes. It was, of course, very remote from the then center of Russia at Moscow, and the difficulties of communicat ion in a virgin country, even now devoid of roads, probably deterred poverty-stricken and slowly pro gressing Russia from opening a route to it. It also lay close to the Swedish frontier (the Swedish em pire included Finland up to 1809), and the district was frequently raided by Swedish brigands and guerrillas. In 1533 the mission ary Metrofan (St. Tryphon) found ed the famous monastery Petchenga; but in 1590, seven years after his death, this outpost of civilization was sacked by the Swedes and its occupants massacred to the accom paniment of fiendish tortures. The anarchy of Russia during the early seventeenth century prevented col onizing efforts. For centuries Russia was content with Archangel, icebound for half the year, as her single outlet to the north; and in the nineteenth century large sums were expended upon the improve ment of that unsatisfactory port, while the ice-free Murman coast was neglected. This state of things lasted until the beginning of the twentieth cen tury, when a naval station was tard ily installed at Ekaterina harbor, a bay at the mouth of the Gulf of Kola. A railway to connect this single ice-free Russian port with Petrograd was projected, but, in the usual dilatory Russian fash ion, remained a project until the early part of 1915. Then the closing of the entrances to the Black Sea, and the consequent isolation of Russia, awakened the allies to the necessity of utilizing the port, and with feverish energy the railway was pushed forward across the 700 miles of wild and desolate country forest, lake, mountain, and snowy steppe—which lie between Petro grad and Kola. Thousands of workmen were levied to construct it, and in little more than a year communication was established. But the mortality among the work men was enormous, as was unhap pily too frequently the case with the gigantic engineering feats which excited our admiration in Russia. The railway runs through Kola, at the head of the gulf, and termin ates at Romanov or Murmansk, some distance further on. This place was in 1914 a small fishing hamlet, but has by now grown into a place of some 6,000 inhabitants. In the present chaotic state of Russian administration it is gover ned by seven distinct councils or Vol. XXXII: No. 13 boards, of which the principal one, the regional council, exercises a general supervision over the town and the province. This council is stated as being friendly in feeling towards the allies. The place is, indeed, practically dependent for food and other necessaries upon supplies furnished by the allies by sea; and this vital fact doubtless in fluences the governing body. Life in this outpost is curiously artificial. There are no shops or hotels; the councils distribute food and assign lodgings to new arrivals. The cost of living is low, but house room is scarcely obtainable. W ages are enormously high—l,ooo rubles a month for locomotive drivers, 600 for ordinary workmen, 375 for dock laborers, and so on. Even allowing for the depreciation of the paper ruble, the rates are very high. Alexandrovsk, the naval station on Ekaterina harbor, was during the war a depot of British submar ines and other mosquito craft. When Russia fell to pieces at the revolution, and Finland became a German vassal state, it was to be expected that an attempt would be made to seize the Murman coast. Hopes were held out to Finland of acquiring an ice-free exit to the Arctic ocean. The difficulties in the way of an expedition to the Murman region are great. The country is practical ly uninhabited, so that a military force must take its own supplies. There are no roads, and practically the entire country to be traversed is largely mountainous, interspers ed with tracts of forest and marsh, presenting many obstacles to mili tary operations, apart from the arctic climate. On the coast, it may be mentioned, the climate is decidedly milder than in the inter ior. Kola, the port near Murmansk, where Americans, British and French marines landed in order to protect munitions and provisions orginally intended for the Russian government, is situated at the junction of the Kola and Tuloma rivers. Before the war it had only about 600 inhabitants, according to a war geography bulletin of the National Geographic society. In peace times the chief occupat ion of the people of Kola is fish ing, which is profitably followed by the natives from May to August. Kola is well within the arctic circle, being in latitude 68 minutes 52 seconds. It is 335 miles westward of Archangel, the great White sea port of Russia. The Peninsula of Kola makes up the major part of what is known as Russian Lapland. It is bounded on the north by the Arctic ocean and on the south by the White sea. Its area equals that of the state of New York and is largely a plateau having an average elevation of 1,000 feet. Library for Every School To develop “the reading habit” in each pupil should be one of the chief aims of every teacher, says the Progressive Farmer. Train any child so he likes to read, so he is a real book lover, and he will educate himself even if he never goes to school another day. More over, if a school has a good library it should aid greatly in educating the older people whose school days over, but whose learning days should never be over. The saying of old Thomas Carlyle, “The true university of these days is a collect ion of books,” is true, — Selected.