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. t . • ' OUR MOTTOj—‘*lt Is i!f®Ter Too Late to Mend.** Established 1887 •it SEVEN WONDERS OF THE WORLD An Interesting' Account of Some of the World's Great Natural Wonders Witnessed by the Author Paper Read Before the Prison Chautauqua, by L. J. W. HILE enjoying one of those delightful Satur day afternoons in our Recreation Park m y companion had just been telling about a tour that he had taken through the western states and had been describing, with much enthu siasm, the splendor of the Grand Canyon of Arizona. Also the scenic views of Idaho, Wyoming and Colorado. Also that most wonder ful place on earth, the Yellowstone National Park of Montana, includ ing its many gigantic mountain peaks, its deep crystal gorges, its fertile valleys of green, which wend their way throughout the snow-capped and mineral-laden mountains; and its many geysers sending forth great streams of hot water. i “Old man,” he said, punctuating his enthusiasm with a slap on my shoulder which doubly assured my attention, “it is one of the seven wonders of the world!” Meditating on these words, I have wondered which of all the great wonders of this vast world really should be the chosen seven. And I have often felt that whoever placed a limit of seven on super fine samples of nature’s handiwork must either have had a restricted vision or have judged the tempera ment of the entire human race as being identically the same as his own. For myself I judge accord ing to the depth or the intensity of my own emotions at the time. What sets my own pulse pounding might easily leave my dearest friend as cool as an icicle. I have stood on the heights of Quebec on a cold winter’s day, watching the battle between the dwarf-like ferry boat and the com paratively gigantic ice floes of the St. Lawrence. The tiny vessel with its human cargo takes a straight course up stream and then aided by the onrushing mass of broken ice gallantly ploughs away to the landing station at Levis. That sight almost convinced me that in a pitched battle against na ture man can hold his own. It was the same at Niagara Falls, where the weight of the falling torrent is used to furnish the electricity to illuminate the homes and to furnish power for factories and stieet cars, and, in fact, Niagara Falls furnishes the power, light and heat for many of the surrounding cities. This is where the “Maid of the Mist” gambols among the whirlpools and mocks the hungry currents. There are many mighty water falls on this earth which also have the distinction of being classed among the seven wonders of the world. A few of them are: The Niagara Falls. '• The Victoria Falls on the Zam besi River in Africa, where one can stand upon a large rock in the center of the falls and see the mighty floods on both sides, ex tending a half a mile or more to each shore, dropping down into the terrible pit 400 feet below. The mist of the falling water is so thick one seems to be in the center of a great storm. The Falls of Iguaza, on the Par ana River in South America, are also placed among the seven won ders. There are those who claim they are greater than the Falls of Niagara, or the mighty .Falls of Victoria. Now comes the Falls of La Guayra, like most of the wonders of the world they are said to be the mightiest on earth; there are seven separate falls. These falls are in the Alto Parana and just above them the river opens out in to a lake which is over two miles wide and about five miles long. At the end of this lake it rushes through a deep gorge and falls over 300 feet. There are many more falls all of which are claimed to be one of the seven wonders of the world. There are so many wonderful things to be seen I doubt if anyone knows which is the most wonderful. The Mammoth Cave, with its 200 or more miles of passageways, while only three miles northeast is the Onyx Cave, the most beautiful cave that has so far been discov ered. The scenic views of our western coast, especially Alaska, to my mind is one of the most beautiful sights of all the world. I have seen so much beauty that the mem ory of it is like a panorama of glory upon glory. I have stood on the edge of glaciers in Alaska awed by the picture spread before me. I have seen the grandeur over Mount Diablo, in Jamaica, at dawn, the tropical splendor of the drive from Clombo to Kandy in Ceylon. I have seen volcanoes at night sending a stream of fire hun dreds of feet in the air, while riv ers of fire ran down the mountains to the sea below. I have watched the sun turn sapphired-sea, azure clouds to vermillion as it went down on .this glorious scene. There are many more wonders of God’s earth I have beheld, yet nowhere have I found anything I could say was the most wondrous. Certainly no one who has ever passed a week-day in Venice will have failed to see the pigeons fed at the hour of noon. Many thou sands of these birds come at noon. They never mistake the hour. They never come at ten or eleven. When the bell of St. Marks begins to clang out the hour of noon not a bird can be seen; before the bell ceases the air will be black with them, and doves by the thousands fly to the windows. On Sunday no grain is given. The old bell jars out twelve o’clock, but no birds appear. Can they count? Do they know when Sunday comes? This is also one of the wonder-sights of the world. There is no doubt in my mind but what there are many here that have seen this great and glorious sight of feeding the pigeons at Venice. Again, South America is not without some of the wonderful scenic views of nature’s handi work, excluding the workmanship of mankind. In South America, however, confronted with the sights of mar ble-tipped peaks of the Andes Mountains, and before the spectacle of weary clouds reposing on the snow-capped summits, ’man is finally put back in his place. Stand ing on the summit of one of na ture’s pyramids in the Andes, a human atom is faced with a men tal reflection of his true insig nificance. There in the Andes one feels impelled to follow the exam ple of the Indian worshipper who, with arms extended towards the blazing orb, would beat his breast and, on bended knee, offer a prayer of thanksgiving to the setting sun. Leaving Buenos Ayres on a Sun day morning I obtained my first glimpse of the Andes Monday morning upon awakening at Men doza. The Carro Gloria, the fore runner of range after range of higher summits, stands out in striking relief in the morning Stillwater. Minnesota, Thursday. December 19. 1918 sunlight. Leaving on the narrow gauge, one gains a passing glimpse of the immensely productive vine yards which form the basis of the fabulous wealth of the province of Mendoza. Following a winding path marked by the course of the Mendoza River, the train enters the truly mountainous region at' Catcheuta, a terminal, the waters of which are noted for their bene* ficial qualities- Leaving Catcheuta the train passes through tunnels and past whirling rapids to pa&se later in the center of the fertile plateau of Potrerillos. There, at an altitude of nearly 9,000 feet above sea level, and surrounded by high peaks, the green poplars and sweet scented fields of waving grass are in striking contrast to the barren splendor of the outlay ing ranges of mountains. Large herds of cattle and slick horses give the place a beautiful rural as pect which is brought into relief by the frowning shadows of the mountains beyond. Arriving at Puente del Inca, situated at an altitude of about 11,000 feet, is the Hotel Ameri canos, under American and British management. Between the station and the hotel is the marvelous nat ural structure, the Puente del Inca itself. As a center for the holiday maker and the seeker of health the location is ideal. The air is dry, refreshing and invigorating. The Puenta del Inca is a block of cal careous rock through which the waters of the Mendoza River have excavated a natural arch. The re sult is a natural bridge across the river, and the solidarity of the structure is increased by the cal careous waters which, in coming out of the soil under the bridge, leaves a brick-hard coating of lime, the surface of which is 'covered with many shaped stalactites in many shades of color. This bridge is of elliptical shape, about 175 feet long, and about 80 feet wide, with a moulding twenty to thirty feet thick. The height of the sur face of the bridge is about 100 feet from the waters below. The val ley of Puente del Inca is a veritable hotbed of mineral springs. The waters of the sources known as Champagne, Venus and Mercury are used to an immense advantage in treatment, by baths, of various ailments. The baths connected with the hotel are reached by an under ground tunnel. These immense tiled baths are filled with sparkling water and by means of an outlet a continuous flow and absolute uni formity of temperature are assured. The effect of the Champagne bath was, to express it mildly, surpris ing. The waters from this source possess many of the qualities of the festive amber liquid. The wa ter is sparkling and the bursting bubbles and seething foam produce a most pleasant sensation, and above all the effect of immersion in the water is invigorating to the verge of a mild form of intoxica tion. It is a custom with tourists who visit Puente del Inca to submit such objects as strawhats, old shoes and such like to the tender mercies of the calcareous waters. At the end of about ten days these objects become petrified, assuming the ap pearance of a light pink colored earthenware of a lighter color than our common flower pot Another of the strange works of nature, and one which keeps a si lent and relentless watch over the hotel is the image known as “El Dios de los Inca,” standing on one of the ledges of the mountain which tower over the hotel, is this huge stone boulder taking the form of a human being. The head may be clearly seen from the foot of the slope, while the body seen at close quarters, lends itself in no small measure to the completion of the illusion. Surrounding this strange effigy there is a legend of a bold and ambitious warrior of the Incas who, leaving his Indian wife, started out in search of wealth and power. Many sunsets followed the day of his departure and still the watcher watched in vain. It seemed that the bold and ambitious warrior was never to re turn. Before the home of the abandoned woman another warrior raised his voice in passionate out bursts of entreaty, seeking to cap ture the affections of one who heeded him not. But despite the truthful fidelity of she who watched and waited by day and night, pray ing to her heathen god for the re turn of her loved one, many ugly tales were whispered among the tribes. And when' one day the lost one did return, laden with treasures and with light of conquest in his eyes, the false tidings reached his ears. With savage fury he fell upon the innocent woman and dragged her by the hair to the edge of the cliff, seek ing to avenge an imaginary wrong. When the innocent victim of his wrath made a final despairing ap peal to the god who, though an swering her prayer, had denied her heart’s desire. The mountains trembled, the god of the iDcas spoke, and the figure of the avenger remained petrified. From that day on the tribes worshipped the effi gy as personifying the might and power of their god. Admitting that the telling of the legend may have helped while away the hours of many a moun tain twilight, the fact remains that the dimensions of the image strangely suggest that the bad, bold warrior was very much puffed out with rage at the time of his petrification. At least he must have been suffering from a swollen head, for the size of the petrified image is indeed such that had the hero been caught alive, his scalp, petrified in the calcareous waters of the Inca, would have made a bowl of sufficient dimensions to contain as fine a brew of punch as ever graced a festive Christmas board in the merry days of little old New York. Another one of nature’s wonders, Lake Titicaca, situated on the top of the Andes Mountains at an alti tude of about 13,000 feet, is one of the most beautiful lakes on earth. This lake is 145 miles long, and 70 miles wide, with a depth of about 400 feet. It is nearly as large and resembles Lake Ontario. There are many steamboats on its silvery waters with a registered tonnage of more than 700 tons, which would be a credit to the ocean service. There are many tourists who go from Mallendo, a seacoast city, by rail to Puno, at which port they cross the lake by steamer on their way to La Paz, and other cities and mining towns in that vicinity. The memory of my journeys through parts of South America, and many other parts of the world, is a possession worth more than a bag of gold. Although not al ways sailing on a satin sea, it is a possession which no man can take away, and it is a capital which will earn a high rate of interest as long as I retain the power of reminis cence. It is a memory of a few of the wonderful sights of natures handiwork. It is a peep into a wilderness o f stern, ominous mountains, swirling creeks, mighty rivers and flower-laden banks, here and there smiling plateaux with palm trees and green fields, grassy lakes, racing torrents and, crown ing all, the snow-capped summits of nature’s highest mountains. Such is a brief description of a few of the many “seven wonders” that are to be found all over the surface of this vast world. EARLY WESTERN CANADA Unique Journey of Troops and Other Events of Early Days in That Interesting' Country Selected LITTLE more than a century ago Lord Sel kirk brought his first |lsliojLJJ[j getting the banks of the Red River, and by founding his colony established the nucleus of our western farming Provinces. The chief place in all that country was Fort Gary, standing on part of the site of the present city of Winnipeg. A description of Fort Gary, as it was thirty years later, has been preserved by the writings of the traveler, Hargrave, who entered the country from the south. The steamboat had come to the Red River, and Hargrave traveled by one down the Red River and land ed at St. Boniface opposite Fort Gary. The public means of communi cation with the Fort Gary side of the River was a scow-ferry, worked by a rope stretched across the river. The young men, who operated the ferry, were often away enjoying themselves on the river while pass engers had to wait. Such was the case when Hargrave arrived at St. Boniface, and he and his party crossed in a “dug-out.” “It had no seats,” writes the traveler, “and we were obliged to kneel down, one behind the other, on some damp straw, hastily scattered over the wet interior, while a boy, seated on the stern *of the docile boat, with a single oar, worked alternately on either side of the dug-out, paddled us quickly across.” Climbing the steep bank they saw Fort Gary before them —“a collection of houses surrounded by a wall, part of the oblong of which is built of stone and part of large logs. The stone portion is supplied with four bastions used as maga zines for the storage of various articles.” It was Sunday and, the Royal Canadian Rifles were setting out for York Factory to take ship by the Hudson Bay route for Great Britain. The coming of this regi ment is one of the interesting epi sodes in the history of the Canadi an West. About the year 1845 a dispute arose between Great Britain and the United States respecting the western portion of the boundary between Canada and the republic to the south. It was known as the Oregon Boundary dispute. It stirred up considerable feeling, but in the end was amicably settled by negotiation. At this time a British regiment was sent out to the West, coming by ship to the shores of Hudson Bay and thence up the rivers to the prairie country—the route fol lowed by the Selkirk settlers thirty years before. In a little book bearing the sim ple title, “Red River,” the traveler, Joseph James Hargrave, F. R. G. S., gives an account of the coming of those soldiers, of which most of our histories make only brief men tion. “For a space of time extending over fifteen years,” writes Har grave, “a regular military force was quartered at Red River. In 1846 a wing of the Sixth Regiment of foot, a detachment of Artillery, under command of Colonel Crofton, were ordered to the settlement where they arrived in the autumn of the same year. The entire party consisted of 18 officers and 329 men. “They reached their destination by way of York Factory on Hud son Bay, over the route between Vol. XXXII: No. 20 which point and the settlement they conveyed their guns and stores by the usual means of in land transport used in the country. They were sent out under secret instructions from the War Office. “Colonel Crofton remained him self for one year, at the close of which he was succeeded by Major Griffith, who along with the troop under his command, returned home in 1848.” At about that time Lieutenant- Colonel Caldwell became Governor of the Red River settlement, and he took with him into the West a force of enrolled pensioners, num bering 56, Engaged to serve for seven years. They were induced to go partly as settlers, each ser geant being promised a free grant of forty acres of land after arrival in the colony, each corporal thirty acres —small grants, to be sure, in comparison with the vastness of the unoccupied area then available, and even small in comparison with the grant now given to the home steader. There was, however, rea son for the smallness of the grants, because the area set aside for the purpose was very limited, in fact, it was found to be too small to per mit all the promised grants being given and an arrangement had to be carried out, whereby sums of money were given the pensioners instead of land. In 1855 the seven years’ term of enrollment expired, and the corps were disbanded, the Colonel returning to England along with a number of the men. Others went to Eastern Canada, while the remainder stayed in the Red River settlement. For two years there were no troops in the colony. Then a com pany of Royal Canadian Riflemen went out. This corps formed part of a regiment recruited for service in Canada, although maintained at the expense of the Imperial Gov ernment. After the first two years of its service had expired, the entire ,body of officers were relieved by gentlemen from other companies of the regiment, and in 1861, after having been stationed in the coun try for four years, the company returned to Eastern Canada by ship, sailing from York Factory, on Hudson Bay. From that time (1861) to 1870, there were no troops, in the Red River settlement, which accounts for the mastery Reil obtained and held from the summer of 1869 to September, 1870, when the Red River Expedition, led by Sir George Garnet (the late Viscount) Wolse ley, arrived at Fort Garry. Such, in outline, is the story of the going of British-Canadian troops to the Canadian West from the time of the Oregon Boundary dispute until the transfer of the West —then known as Rupert’s Land —to the Dominion of Canada, and the creation of the Province of Manitoba, which absorbed the Red River, or Selkirk Settlement, that straggled along the banks of the Red and Assiniboine Rivers, near the site of the present city of Winnipeg. Fort Gary, the old Hudson Bay trading post, was the capital of the Red River Colony and the nucleus of Winnipeg. The fort, the tpare houses, the enclosing walls, have long since disappeared, but the main gateway to the Fort still stands—a monument recalling those long ago days, when the making of the Canadian West had scarcely commenced.