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■ORE than half a century after his death Abraham Lincoln still is the most influential name and his personality is the most magi cal in American history. There is no mys tery about this. The explanation is simple. Lincoln was a president who was human. Human in his genius for statesmanship and in his frailties. Human in his love for story telling and relaxation, and intensely filled with the humanity that will not know ingly do an unkind or unjust act. It is not that he was perfection in any of the walks of life in which fate turned his steps, for there were better lawyers in his time; there were even better story tellers than Lincoln; surely it would not be difficult to name better military officers than Lincoln was, or more learned men and greater ora tors than he. But Lincoln was a man of the people and Americans like that'kind of man, writes Joseph Jackson in the Philadelphia Public Ledger. They hoard every scrap of writing that the man ever wrote. His walking sticks, his dilapidated old law books, his broken-down book-case, everything that once belonged to him or in which he had set his name, is treas ured. / Not long ago in New York they sold at auction a slip of paper on which he showed that, good politician as he was thought to be, he was a poor hand at guessing results of a presidential election. Yet this slip of paper brought $1,025, and Lincoln had not even signed it, but it was known to have been written by him. It might be mentioned here that Lincoln proved himself to be a very poor prophet, and overestimated the strength of General McClellan, his political opponent in the elec tion of 1864. According to Lincoln’s esti mate he felt sure of the New England states and a few others, totaling 120 votes in the electoral college, and he set down as “the supposed Copperhead vote” the states of New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Dela ware, Maryland, Missouri, Kentucky and Illinois, and their 114 votes he believed would be cast for General McClellan. As a matter of fact, however, only New Jersey, Delaware and Kentucky went against him, and he carried the election by a vote of 212 to 22. V There were reasons for Lincoln’s be lief that the states he had set down as “Cop perhead” would go against him. The drafts of men had been resisted in more or less energetic form in many of these common wealths, notably New York and Illinois, and the large number of sympathizers there might easily lead to his conclusion. But what he had not taken into the fullest ac count was that the majority of men in the North were loyal to the Union, regardless of politics or their natural sympathies, and they stood by Lincoln to the end. If anyone were asked to name the most illustrious example of what we have called the self-made man in America, there would instantly occur the name of Lincoln. In a country of self-made men he stands in high relief. There is no one to take a place be side him, for not only did he overcome every natural difficulty placed in his way, in his determination to achieve an education, and they were numerous, but along with it al ways went that equally strong determina tion not to achieve success by any unfair / r v He-admitted that his education was “defective,” and that was a weak word for it. Many men with a great deal more have been failures. And Lincoln had every op portunity of becoming a failure, but he rea lized his educational weaknesses and strove to remove them. That he did remove them seems to be testified to by many writers. At one time—probably it is to be seen there yet—there was exhibited in one of the colleges at Oxford a printed copy of a letter Lincoln wrote to a mother who had given five sons that the Union might be preserved. A label beneath this copy of the letter bears . the simple comment that this is “one of the finest specimens of pure English extant.” And that comment by one of the great est universities in the world is on the work of a man who never had a year’s schooling in his life. Martyred President Most Illustrious Example of What World Calls Self Made Man v Selected OUR MOTTO:« M lf Is SI ever Too Late to Mend." tA * - &S. - « ABRAHAM LINCOLN It is small wonder that Lincoln’s life is upheld to the poor boy as a shining example of what determination to learn and succeed will do. Lincoln’s grandfather, like many others, followed the magnetic Daniel Boone into the wilderness of Kentucky. The Lincolns at that time were not poor folks, as many have believed, for the grandfather, whose name also was Abraham, sold his property for $17,- 000 before he set out for the unclaimed lands where some say the mammoths still existed. But when later he died, Thomas, the father of the future president, did not in herit much, if anything, and had to start out for himself at an early age. He married Nancy Hanks, the neice of the man he worked for, and she became the mother of Abraham Lincoln, the president. Kentucky then (1809) had been a state for seventeen years, but it was a wild wilder ness of a land. There were few books, no schools in the modern sense, and little hope for anything but hard work. It was exactly the kind of country for a great man to make a start in, for unless he had some ele ments of greatness he never would achieve his goal. It was a country of hard knocks, as well as hard work, and it all made for econ omy of time and study. Lincoln’s mother, who was a bright, delicate woman, taught her son as much as she could. A visiting schoolmaster gave him some lessons in the ordinary “Three R’s.” The country was so sparcely settled and so distant from civiliza tion that at the little church the services that were held were conducted by itinerant clergymen. The boy Lincoln grew up here in a small log cabin that was without windows, and whose wide chimney was built on the outside of the cabin. At night a log in the fireplace gave all the illumination the place afforded. By this firelight, to the music of crackling burning logs, young Lincoln, ex tended flat on the floor, studied and worked out little problems in arithmetic, which in that section was regarded as of greater im portance than a deep knowledge of English literature. Lincoln’s mother died when he was nine years of age, or about a year after his father moved to Indiana, and the following year his father married Mrs. Sally Bush Johnston. Contrary to the impression, main ly created by the old fairy tales, the second Mrs. Lincoln was a model stepmother. At the same time young Lincoln was working as a farm hand. He borrowed books from neighbors and greedily devoured them. The one book that impressed him most was Weems’ “Life of Washington.” He received his exalted idea of the Father of His Country from that book, which dei fied the first president rather than told his life. But Lincoln believed in it and it in fluenced his life. He read “Robinson Crusoe” and Bun yan’s “Pilgrim’s Progress” and a history of the United States, and it was on these that he founded all his knowledge of biography, history and literature. But he knew those books by heart, for he had to memorize them, as they all were borrowed. He walked miles to a store where a St. Louis newspaper was taken to borrow it, and thus he received his news of current events. And all the while he was working, and working hard. Now ferrying, now plowing, but always in this backwoods country, for he was quite a young man when his father re moved to Illinois. Lincoln was about twenty-two at the time when he forsook farming and sought a position as a clerk in a country store. Whether Lincoln ever would have been heard of had not the Black Hawk war oc curred about a year after he went to work at New Salem, Sangamon county, remains a question. It need not bother any one, how ever, because the war did occur and Lincoln did go into it as a captain of volunteers. This might be said to have been the turning point in his career. Up to this time he had not found himself. He was study ing, but drifting. He does not appear to have had any aim in his life beyond the am bition to educate himself and to succeed. Lincoln afterward said that his exper ience in the Black Hawk war gave him Stillwater, Minnesota, Thursday, February 12, 1920. greater pleasure than anything that had oc curred to him up to that time. He had no opportunity to distinguish himself in, that little conflict, but he returned to New Salem a man of more public importance than when he left it. He started a store, but it failed, and the debts fell upon him. He was ap pointed postpiaster, the first federal office he ever held. He ran for the legislature, but was defeated. But the next election he ran again, and was elected and later returned for another term. While he was keeping a general store he began the study of law. He once said that one of his first books was a copy of the laws of Indiana, and that was about all the law he knew up to that time. It was while serving as a legislator in Illinois that Lincoln first turned his atten tion to the blot of slavery, which he began to oppose with all his might and influence. After he decided to retire from the legisla ture he started to practice in 1837. He re moved to Springfield, where the remainder of his days, until he went to Washington as president, were mainly spent. In 1846 he was elected to a seat in con gress, but he declined re-election and settled down to the practice of his profession in Springfield. Lincoln spent his spare time in the store of his friend, Joshua Speed, which was the rendezvous of many prominent men in that section. He was famed for his stories and for his keenness in debate. It was in this little general store that Lincoln first met Douglas in debate. Douglas was regarded far and wide as a little giant in debate, and he remarked that the store was no place for him to debate any question with Lincoln. By this time Lincoln had become some thing of a politician. His party was the Whig. He took a lively interest in political “By the People” I ET us cherish in our hearts Xf) those undying words of Abra ham Lincoln, the first American to reach the lonely heights of immortal fame. Take his message, carry it and proclaim it broadcast throughout the Nation; help our people to realize the patriotic duty resting upon them, each and all, as free-born citizens of this great democracy. Let them highly resolve that “government of the people, by the people, and for the people * * * shall not perish from the earth.” affairs, and finally took part on the Whig side in a joint debate with the Democrats. Lincoln was the last speaker in that debate, but his words took the deepest hold of the spectators and added greatly to his reputa tion. It was in Springfield that Lincoln mar ried Mary Todd, who it is interesting to note, was also sought in marriage by Dou glas, who thus became Lincoln’s opponent in love as well as in politics, but was beaten by him in both. •' As a lawyer Lincoln might have ap peared lazy to those who did not understand his methods. He disliked office work and the drawing of legal papers, but when a case had to be brought to the attention of a jury or a court Lincoln was in his element. He was a born debater and story-teller. He knew how to get the jury in good humor and how to make his point to them reach home. He had the genius for putting the human touch to all he did, and his home ly smiles and good stories often went further than his opponent’s knowledge of the law. But it should not be imagined that Lin coln knew no law, for that would be a mis take. He often would sit up to the small hours of the night reading law and studying a case, while his opponents probably would be soundly sleeping. When he went into court he was master of his case, and that goes a long way toward winning a verdict. The practice of law was bebinning to take a firm hold on Lincoln to the exclu sion of politics when the Missouri Com promise was enacted. That roused him, and from that time onward he was strongly for the abolition of slavery. His position was known throughout the country, for he had stumped the East for Taylor years before, and the stories of his quiet humor and fund of anecdote had pene trated the East, consequently, when it was (Oonttnutd on pago 8, eohmn 8) WATER POWER AND ITS DEVELOPMENT Paper Read at Chautauqua Circle, Sunday February 1, and Presented on Behalf of Class “D” By F. E. W. ■l] ITH the exception of power de rived from the wind, the power developed by the force of water B======i was the first we had to lessen the burdens of the human race and is the most natural and economic source of power. A good many of us will remember the old grist mill which still exists in a few rural communities, to which the grain was taken to be ground into flour and feed and whose machinery was operated by the force of water, and it is a big step from these primitive mills to the immense electric tur bines which are in operation today. The old grist mill was located alongside a river with at least a fair and steady fall of water and a dam was built across the river and from a short distance back a canal was dug to the mill. The backwater from the dam passing into the canal and back again to the river below the dam had more or less of a fall and therefore force to it. This force was transmitted by a paddle wheel in the canal to the mill and the crude machi nery was thereby operated. The next step forward was the locating of these mills at waterfalls along the rivers and in this manner taking advantage of the natural fall of the water and also as with the greater fall of water more force was de veloped and there has always been a constant demand for more power to operate our in dustrial plants. As time went on, it was learned that there was a great deal of waste power with the old-fashioned paddle wheel and by Amer can inventive genius, the method of obtaining this power was entirely changed so that in modern water power plants there is very little loss. The present day water power plants are located at waterfalls where there is con siderable of a drop to the water, the old canal still remains, but from the canal the water now passes through so-called tunnels into turbines and after passing through these turbines is released at the base of the falls. These turbine wheels are either con nected direct to the machinery for the opera tion of the plant or to electric generators and in this manner the power may be trans mitted to any point within several hundred miles at which it is more convenient to use; this latter method being the one most com monly used today as our water power plants are generally located at points undesirable for manufacturing purposes, although we have examples of both methods in use in the Twin Cities, as without water power it is doubtful whether Minneapolis would have become the center of the flour milling busi ness, which had its origin and is still main tained to a great extent by the power de rived from St. Anthony Falls. We also have located there, electric power stations which derive at least a portion of their power from the Falls to supply the surround ing country with light, heat and power. These water power electric stations are called Hydro-Electric plants and it is only within comparatively recent years that these plants have been put into operation. I believe that the greatest assembly of these Hydro-Electric plants is located at Niagara Falls, as this is one of our greatest water falls both as to volume of water and also as to the height of the falls and it is through these immense Hydro - Electric plants that a very large number of manufact uring establishments who use considerable electric power have located at that point. These great Hydro-Electric plants also fur nish very cheap light, heat and power to the cities and country for many miles around. Water power has also recently been used as the power to electrify a considerable milage of one of our great trancontinental railroads, which is planning on extending this electrification throughout the Western mountains, and in this way eliminate the task of hauling coal great distances for their locomotives, and thereby relieving themselves of an immense transportation problem. The electric locomotives are enabled to move lar ger and heavier trains and this is particularly an important item on the heavy grades which are necessary in the mountain country, and I fully believe that this power to be the solu tion of one of the great problems in rail roading through the mountains. Vol. XXXIII: No. 28 We also have water power used exten sively in the paper mills of Maine, New Hampshire, Wisconsin and Minnesota, which greatly reduces the cost of paper as these mills are quite often located at points where fuel would cost considerable. The present development of water power is only in its infancy, particularly in the Western country we have many ideal sites for developing large amounts of power that have not been touched and the recent coal strike has brought home to us forcibly the dependence our commercial industries have put into coal and has shown us the potent advantages of Hydro-Electric plants for our power. One of the principle advantages of water power over all others is in its cost. The mechanical equipment costs no more than for a steam driven plant, which means that the water power can be developed with out the cost of fuel, which today is a very large item and will continue to be more so in the future and we are just beginning to realize the importance water power will play in helping to supply one of the big factors in our industrial development in the near fu ture and, that is, cheap power and more of it, and will solve the problem of various difficulties under which the American public is suffering. Powhatan Has Thriller A thrilling drama of the sea was writ ten recently when the United States trans port Powhatan almost foundered while 500 miles east of New York, while on her way to Europe with 271 military and civilian pas sengers, including 75 former service men and officers, who were proceeding to French bat tlefields to begin the work of returning the bodies of American soldiers to the United States. On Sunday the Powhatan sent out its call for aid, coupled with the information that the fire room of the ship was flooded, that the water was gaining and that the Powhatan was in grave danger. Rescuing vessels reached the scene of the near-tragedy quickly enough, but were prevented from rendering aid by a stormy ocean, lashed into fury by a strong gale. Tow lines of heavy cable passed to the distressed ship snapped like cotton strings and days and nights passed without a single progressive step in the work of rescue. Those on the Powhatan had neither light nor heat and at night in the darkness, with heavy waves breaking over the vessel many of them had very little hope. However, the storm had abated suf ficiently to permit of fresh attempts at res cue and during the day the 271 passengers were taken off and placed aboard the Nor thern Pacific, bound for New York, while the Powhatan itself was taken in tow for Halifax. The Powhatan, a twin screw steamer of 8,220 tons, formerly belonged to the Hamberg-American line and in 1914 was chartered by the Red Cross to take doctors and nurses to Europe. The ship was seized by the United States government when we entered the war and used as a transport under the name Powhatan, carrying thou sands of our fighting men to Europe without a mishap. In its past history it carried ex- Emperor William to London and Roosevelt and his party to Europe when in 1909 he set forth on his African hunting expedition.— Exchange. Borrowing $53 with wich to pay his passage and expenses, Simon Benson, of Port land, Oregon, then 16 years old, came to America from his native Norway. Benson is 67 to-day and worth—well, he’s a millionaire. Benson first entered business for him self at Black River, Wis., where he owned a store. Fire wiped out his property and he was broke. Borrowing money again, he went to Oregon, worked his way into the logging business—and went broke. He then bought a yoke of oxen—on credit—and kept on going until he became one of the richest timber men in the west. Benson is known as Portland’s most public-spirited citizen. He has given half a million in roads and parks and has founded a polytechnic school.— Selected. .