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THE kingdom of Bulgaria is bounded on the north by Ru mania. On the west is Yugo Slavia and Greece; the Black Sea and European Turkey are on the east. On the south is part of Greece, the Aegean Sea and the Turkish province of Adrianople. It is on the south and west that this country’s boundaries have been most affected by the war. Under the terms of the treaty handed to her representatives last September Bul garia lost an important strip of terri tory which, before the war, gave her a coast line on the Aegean Sea. She also lost a small area on the western frontier, including the town of Strumnitza with the surrounding dis trict all of which will be included in the new Serb-Croat-Slovene state of Jugo—or Yugo—Slavia. The treaty above referred to is called the Treaty of Neuilly (where it was signed on, Nov. 27, 1919). By its terms Bulgaria renounced all claims to Thrace and Macedonia; her army was reduced to 20,000, all ranks and she agreed to pay an in demnity of 2,250,000,000 francs be sides recouping the Allies for the cost of armies of occupation. The present area of Bulgaria is about 42,000 square miles and the population is estimated at 5,500,000. The prevail ing religion is the Orthtodox Greek Catholic and it was not until 1916 that the Gregorian calendar was sub stituted for the Greek. The Bulgars are not true Slavs but came originally from Tartar stock which is closely allied to the Turkish. In the tenth century they adopted the Christian religion and soon learned to speak the Slav language. They are hated by the true Slavs and the Serbs and are “historic foes” of the Greeks, as well as bitter enemies of the Turks. From the Danube frontier a plateau slopes up to the wild heights of the Balkans (“stony hills”), which have several peaks over 7,000 feet, and the historic Shipka Pass. Between the Balkans proper and the Rhodope Balkans is the fertile river-basin of the Maritza, upon whose banks stand two of the largest towns in Bulgaria—Philippopolis and Adrianople. The Maritza finds its way to the Aegean Sea near the for mer Bulgarian port of Dede Agach (now included within the zone of territory whose fate is to be decided at a future conference of Allied na tions). The only coastline which Bulgaria possesses today is her Black Sea coast line between Balchik and Sveti Ste fan, and her only sea ports are Varna and Burgas. It is as well to pcint out, however, that the Allies have guaranteed Bulgaria “economic out lets to the Aegean Sea”; that is to say, Bulgaria will probably be per mitted to make use of Dede Agach for the import and export of goods. The Plain of Rumelia (the Mar itza Basin) lies sheltered between the Balkan and Rhodope mountain masses, and is much warmer than Northern Bulgaria. Here roses grow OUR MOTTO—"IT IS NEVER TO LATE TO MEND" in profusion, especially in the Tunja valley f they are used in making the famous attar of roses. There is abundance of good pas ture, especially on the lower moun tain slopes, and sheep and cattle are reared in large numbers. Cheese is made from sheep’s milk. Live stock finds its way to Varna and Burgas for export. The dense forests are full of good timber, and there are large numbers of sawmills, which are run by water power. Othere products are coal, iron, gold, silver, lead, copper, man ganese, eggs and cocoons. Bulgaria is agricultural rather than industrial, so there are few large towns. Sofia, the capital, on the Isker tributary of the Danube, is the only town which has more than 50,000 inhabitants. Across Bulgaria runs the main trunk line from Central Europe to Constantinople—part of the much vaunted German Berlin-Baghdad line. It passes through Sofia and down the Maritza Valley, via Philippopolis and Adrianople to Constantinople. Sofia is an extremely important focus of roads and railways, and its strategic value has led to its protec tion by strong forts. Education is free and compulsory. Tsar Boris 111, is the ruler, having succeeded to power on the abdication of his father, Oct. 4, 1918. The Legislature has 213 representatives. Executive power is vested in the Tsar and is exercised by a council of minis ters appointed by him. Turkey for some years has been growing smaller, and prospects are she may disappear entirely from the map of Europe ere long. The Turks are descendants of Central Asian tribes. Becoming Mohammedans in the seventh century, they began a westward march of conquest that first gave them the Eastern Roman Em pire (Bysantine Provinces), and by the middle of the fourteenth century they had spread into Southern Europe, taking possesion of the entire Balkan peninsula. In the sixteenth century they extended their authority into Egypt, Northern Africa and Spain, etc., as well as into Hungary. Then their power began to decline. In 1699 the “Peace of Carlowitz” freed Hungary from the “Terrible Turk.” In the nineteenth century the African dominions, with the ex ception of Tripoli, broke away or were occupied by other powers. In the latter part of the century the northern states of the Balkan penin sula asserted their independence. In the first decade of the twentieth cen tury war broke out between Italy and Turkey, with the result that Tri poli and Benghazi were ceded to Italy under the Treaty of Ouchy. In 1912-13 war with the Balkan States cut off another big slice. The western boundary, which extended to the Adriatic and northward to Austria (Bosnia-Herzegovna), comprising the Stillwater, Minnesota, Thursday, June 17, 1920. BULGARIA AND TURKEY Selected districts of Macedonia, Thrace and Albania, was moved eastward by the Treaty of London (1913). The new boundary started at Enos on the Adriatic coast and ran to Midia on the Black Sea, giving Adrianople to the Bulgarians. In the second Balkan war Adrianople was recovered. In the course of the Great War of 1914-18, the Allies freed Mesopo tamia, Palestine and Syria from Tur kish rule, and tribal revolts in Arabia ended Turkish suzerainty in that pen insula. Turkey’s rule in Europe is now restricted to the European vila yets of Constantinople, Chatalja and Adrianople. The British Premier has declared that the countries freed from Turkish rule will not again be sub jected thereto. Latest reports show that Turkey is in a very unsettled state, with threats of revolt and hos tilities against the Allied powers, the results of which cannot be foreseen. Old Customs in Andes Huancayo is one of the most inter esting cities of Peru. It lies near the south end of a wide portion of the Man boro Valley, and hence is an im portant agricultural region devoted largely to the raising of barley. Its elevation is too high for fruits of similar crops. In the winter it enjoys perpetual sunshine, which, in the high dry air, possesss an agreeable warmth. As the centre of the trade of the sur rounding country it is famous for its market, which in magnitude and in terest ranks second only to the famous Indian market of La Paz in Bolivia (according to Professor Edward Berry and Professor Joseph T. Sin glewald, Jr., of the Williams Me morial Expedition to South America, in a letter to the Baltimore News). As in all South America, the great market day is Sunday morning, which we were to miss seeing on account of leaving on Saturday. This was an other reason that made us regret the “Yanqui” promptness of our animals. However, market day on a smaller scale is every morning, so that we did not completely miss seeing the Huan cayo market. The native market of Andean towns epitomizes very successfully the native life—the smallness of scale and simplicity to which the needs or neces sities of man can be reduced even in a comparatively rigorous climate, if he is satisfied to or knows no better than merely to exist. The market people are chiefly women. They squat in the street with their wares spread in front of them. In many instances their entire stock consists of one llama load, that is, 100 pounds; yet each has tramped at least one day, and possibly two or three days, to reach the market. The meagre profits of a business of that magnitude are ample to justify the journey. Their wares usually consist of a small pile of potatoes, a pile of aji (the uni- HI STOKJCAL SOCIEry Vol. XXXIII: No. 46 versally used condiment of the coun try)! possibly a few vegetables, and, if unusually pretentious, as many as a half-dozen dirty-shelled eggs. To this may be added a chicken or two walking around at the end of a short string. Another woman sells fire wood. She has a few piles of twisted, gnarly sticks of wood which she has carefully counted out and estimated with her eyes. Fuel is one of the scarcest products of the country, and both buyer and vender scrutinize the stock most carefully—the vender to see that she does not give more than is absolutely necessary to make a sale, the buyer to see that she gets as much as possible for her money. Another has a pile of bread in front of her in small, round pieces, hard as a rock, and made without salt. Still another who came from a greater distance has a small pile of ruit—shivelcd green apples and perhaps a few oranges. While on the subject of business in the native Andean towns, a few words concerning the stores may be added. The front room of nearly every house is a store, which undoubtedly, in part, accounts for the scarcity of customers. The stock is almost invariably the same, as is also its arrangemnt. Close to the door is a small counter, back of which are three or four dingy shelves. At least two of the shelves are filled with dark green bottles that contain aguardiente, the “firewater” of the Andean Indians, and “chicha,” a milder beverage. The other shelves are generally empty, but sometimes they display a small stock of bread, local cheese, and several cans of sar dines. The Andrean towns display little variety in style and architecture. The walls of the houses are made of thick mud bricks, are without windows, and ingress and egress is by a single solid wooden door, whether the house consists of one or more rooms. The fire for cooking is built on the dirt floor and the smoke finds its way out through the door, so that the up per part of the doorway is blackened with soot. The human occupants, dogs, hogs, guinea pigs, and chickens, share the floor on a democratic basis. The streets are paved with rounded stream cobbles, and both sides slope toward the central gutter that serves as the town sewer. Since the streets are narrow, the smells of the houses and the stenches of the gutters mingle with little dilution, giving these towns an “aroma all their own.” As one of us remarked, if he were blind and set down in one of these towns he could recognize it by its smell.— Ex. In Missouri recently a warden of the Biological Survey of the Depart ment of Agriculture arrested two men for hunting wild geese from an aero plane. The prisoners flew in their own machine to the office of the United States commissioner. The national law forbids hunting from aircraft, and several states, among them California, Michigan, New Jer sey, North Carolina and South Caro lina, have passed similar laws.— Ex.