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GREECE AND THE GREEKS Selected GREECE, in carrying on in Asia Minor, against the Turkish Nationalists, what may be called the only major war now in progress, attracts attention anew to the prolonged presence of the Greeks on the Tvorld stage. There are few parallels to the strik ing racial phenomenon of Hellenic continuity throughout the vicissitudes of 2,000 years. Modern research has penetrated the dark byways of medieval Greek history, and we now know that the Greeks, whatever their temporary fate, have preserved un broken the thread of their national existence. The firmest bond which unites the Greek of today with his illustrious forebears of the golden age is the Greek language, the essential elements of which remain as they were in the days when the tongue served as the medium of the noblest poetry and the sublimest philosophy which the race has yet produced. 'This tongue traces its unbroken lineage back through medieval and New Testament Greek to the classic speech of Plato and of his contemporaries. And yet, with all this continuity of language, there exists now in Greece a linguistic condition of af fairs around which centers a contro versy at once comic or tragic; for there are in Greece two languages, or, rather, the one language in two forms—one written by the newspa pers, spoken by the educated classes, and used in parliamentary debates and in public documents, including the Scriptures, the circulation of which is regulated by law; and the other a vernacular used by the masses of the people, containing many words of foreign origin, especially Turkish and Italian, arising from those periods of foreign occupation, with a much sim plified grammar rarely reduced to writing, except for private communi cations. The former is the cultured tongue; the latter the popular idiom; and between the two there rages a merciless warfare, in which fanatical students of the university have lost their lives, ministers their portfolios, and a Metropolitan of Athens his miter. Greece of'today looks back only three generations, if one places its ori gin in the war for independence, which was concluded by the protocol of London in 1830; and, witnessing the progress which in that brief span has been made in a land of such sparce resources, one cannot see how praise can be withheld from a people who have accomplished so much. When the city of Athens passed from Turkish control and was desig nated as the capital of the new free kingdom <jf Greece, it was a mere handful of wretched huts clustered about the Acropolis. Today it is a thoroughly modern city, with splen did streets, magnificent public build ings, handsome residences, attractive OUR MOTTO—“IT IS NEVER TOO LATE TO MEND” " 1 - * parks, and most of the modern im provements of which • western cities boast. The building of this city alone in a land of such scanty resources is fairly comparable to the development of our own rich West, and as meri torious when all the circumstances are considered. Indeed, had the Greek of today nothing to his credit save the building of the attractive capital of his nation, that alone would be sufficient to rank him among she con structive agencies of the modern world. In this city of old memories and new hopes, Greek life centers now as in its classic days, and here ancient and modern Greece are inextricably mingled in a curious medley of mo dernity and antiquity, which colors the most ordinary of every-day affairs. On every hand arise the shattered monuments of its splendid past, and even the tiniest fragments which serve to link the life of the present with the days that are gone are most carefully preserved. The Greek government is keenly alive to its responsibility for the safe guarding of its antiquities, and tp , de partment of archaeology, und'* r " the charge of the ministry of education and religion, is painstakingly organ ized and prudently administered. The mtisedms at Athens are handsomely housed, conveniently arranged, ac curately catalogued, and open to in spection and study without fee, this latter being a point of great pride with Athenians. In addition there are now, at various points in the king dom where research is going on, smaller museums devoted to the pre servation of the treasures of the lo cality. Crowning the city of Athens stands the sheer and mighty rock of the Acropolis, dominated by the Parthe non, matchless even in its ruins, which projects the changeless purity of its lines against the background of the changing centuries, which have made of it in turn the shrine of the vestal, the church of the Christian, the mosque of the Moslem, and now and ever the ideal of all lovers of the beautiful. Near at hand cluster the chief remnants of the glory that was Greece; on the one side the tiny gem of the Temple of the Wingless Vic tory, so chaste and delicate in its pro portions and outline, and on the other the Erechtheum, with its unique porch of the Caryatides. Hard by the stairs of the imposing Propylaea rises the sturdy rock of the Hill of Mars, whence St. Paul de clared the unknown God and inci dentally took the Athenian measure for all intervening time. At a little distance stands the rough-hewn Bema, where Demosthenes and Ctesiphon strove in matchless phrase, while just below rise the ivory-tinted columns of the Temple of Theseus, best pre served if all the classic remains. Against such a background it is easy to project the ties of sentiment which bind the life of the Greek of today to that of the classic worthies from whom he claims direct descent. Stillwater, Minnesota, Thursday, August 11, 1921. With only a slight shock one will learn that the man who gives him his morning coffee bears the tremendous name of Themistocles. And yet it is difficult to visualize the modern Athenian with those who once walked his streets. It is only in the islands or deep in the country, where the Albanian flood which swept across the Attic plain has never reached, that one finds the facial lineaments and the bodily grace which the ancient sculptor has taught the modern world as being common to all Greeks of classic time. Greece is essentially a land of agri culture, pre-eminently intended to be such; but, owing to the tremendous drain by emigration from the rural districts, the progress of agriculture has been painfully deficient. In many places the land is tilled only by women and girls. Many of the men have gone off to America. Many find the Athenian climate agreeable. Cold winds there are, to be sure, in winter, blowing down from the snow-capped hills above the tr" M or blowing up from the sea at Phaieron; but there are no frosts roses bloom during every month of the year; oranges ripen in the open air, one may pick his breakfast fruit from the trees outside his win Gw. The summer heat is easily endurable, the absence of rain removing the hu-* midity which makes American mid summer so intolerable. One cannot truthfully say that midsummer nights in Athens are really cool, but there is a sensible difference from the heat of the day and a freshness which al ways makes sleep possible. At the beginning of the hot season, there is usually an exodus of the court, the diplomats and the wealthy from Athens. To take their places there flock to Athens and to the sea side hotels at Phaleron and to villas and resorts at Kephisia-in-the-hills numbers of rich Greeks from Asia Minor and from Egypt; and the whole city reverses the order of its winter life, turning night into day and spending most of the hours be tween sunset and sunrise out of doors. Everywhere about the town, on the roofs of clubs or hotels, in the gar dens or on the terraces of restaurants, beneath the pepper trees of the parks, and even in the streets, tables are spread, and probably as many as 100,- 000 people dine in the open air each night of an Athenian summer. Throughout Greece—and indeed throughout the entire Balkan region —English is much heard, because t of the great numbers of Greeks who have returned home from America; and few travelers in the Peloponnesus will fail to recall at almost every rail road station the eager face thrust in at the carriage window and quivering with the demand, “You fellers from America ?” Circulating libraries were first es tablished in London in 1750, and in Birmingham in 1751. They increased so rapidly that some men proposed to tax them.— Ex. Vol. XXXV: No. 2 INDUSTRY 5,000 YEARS OLD Selected ’ ABOUT 4,983 years ago, a four teen-year-old Chinese Empress named Si-Ling Chi observed a little worm busily spinning fibre on the leaves of a white mulberry tree. After she had watched this fascina ting process until her curiosity was satisfied, she began to exercise her in genuity by trying to gather up and reel the fibre. Soon she made a demonstration to the ladies of her court and interested them in this new and absorbing amusement. Together the Empress and her court ladies busied themselves with the task of weaving this fibre into fabrics and embroidering with it. The results delighted them. So far the Emperor looked upon this absorbing hobby of his little con sort with tolerant amusement. To him and to the wise men of his court it was only a pretty game for foolish women. But one day he was startled out of his indifference when Si-Ling Chi presented him with a beautiful ceremonial garment made from the worm’s fibre. A garment of such a dazzling sheen had never before been seen at the court of China, and from then on it became the fashion for all members of the court to wear clothes made of this wonderful new fabric. In this way the wearing of silk be came the fashion throughout all China. The culture of silk became a national industry. China grew rich through the export of silken fabrics to India, Persia, Arabia and other parts of Asia. So valuable was this industry to China that it preserved the secret of silk culture with jealous care and death was the penalty decreed for found taking or sending out of China the silkworm, its eggs or the seed of the white mul berry^ tree. And for centuries neigh boring countries sought vainly to ob tain from China the secret of silk. But about 350 B. C., however, there came into China a Prince of India who won the love of a Chinese Princess. Together they eloped into India, and the Princess, in order that she might be able to enjoy her fa miliar occupation in her new home, carried with her some silkworm eggs and seeds of the white mulberry tree. She smuggled them through by con cealing them in her sandals. Not long afterward she disappeared mys teriously from her husband’s palace and was never heard of again, but the secret she brought with her remained in India, and soon the courts of the Rajahs were alive with vari-colorcd silken costumes. Newspapers in China are sold two and three times over. Papers of the previous day’s issue are redistributed among the lower class population. They are then distributed again by being sent out to the villages and country districts where they are sold at a fraction of the original cost. — Ex.