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By Mr. M. V. H.
The Open Shop question seems to be one of the leading topics of the day, so far as financial and industrial men are con cerned, for it is difficult to find a trade paper or a business magazine that does not contain some sort of write-up on the subject, usually an interview in which some prominent industrial man voices his opinion. I have read a number of good arguments, both pro and con on this sub ject and am convinced that the open shop principle has many strong advocates. The Industrial world today is practical ly at a standstill, but I think that if the United States Department of Labor had taken a thorough census of the nation’s industrial plants during the war to ascer tain just what percentage of them were operating on the open shop plan it would have been found to be fully fifty per cent. Some of the largest plants in the country today are open shops. A few that I could name are the Harley-Davidson Motor Co., the Ford Motor Co., the Bethlehem Steel Co., the Star Drilling Machine Co., and many others to numerous to mention. A closed shop advocate will invariably bring up in an argument and endeavor to point out that when an employer engages Union men he can feel secure in knowing that he is getting skilled workmen. Their' card is presumably to show that they have served their apprenticeship, passed certain examinations, and proved their ability. Well if all union men were master work men and skilled in their respective lines there could be no grounds for dispute there, but the truth of it is many are not. It seems a union card in almost any trade is very easily secured nowadays without a man serving an apprenticeship. For a specified sum a man can generally get a union card in any trade; as long as such conditions exist it doesn’t seem that £# union card is of very much account. I would run an Open shop if I were an employer. One reason would be that it gives the employer the chance to set wages as he sees fit, and he is not then obliged to receive dictations from union officials along the lines of wage scales et cetera. Union men at times make demands for wage increases that are often beyond the scope or power of a concern to contend with and this often brings on a strike or walkout. It does not require a great deal of agitation to stir up labor troubles and unrest amongst union men. If a labor agitator happens along and says he thinks that they ought to strike, they’ll agree in a minute, no opposition whatever. The con cern may be spending large sums in na tional advertising or may be experiencing a period of business depression and the granting of wage increases to their em ployees at such a time would place it in jeopardy. Union men have no doubt learned by this time that a strike or walkout does not always bring the desired end. They have gone back to work time and again without receiving their demands and were only too glad to get their old jobs back again and at the same wage. They have suffered a loss as men on strike duty are only paid a small amount by the union • and the company loses through the cur tailing of production. ***** r . £ &r % It seems that more harmony exists in a plant where the open shop principle pre vails and periods of strikes and labor troubles are not experienced. The em ployee feeling that he is getting a square deal, being paid a fair wage, hasn’t any leasons for dissatisfaction. Union men do not ever think they are getting a square deal, always being of the opinion that their rate of remuneration should be just about twice what it is. I make the contention that the closed shop deprives tl\e competent and energetic man from advancing as he is restrained from giving the best that is in him, for THE OPEN SHOP the reason that he is held down and not permitted to do more than the incompetent man, consequently he cannot earn as much as he could in an open shop. Thus one of the prime causes for the incentive to ad vance is taken away from him. In fur therance of my argument I contend that the closed shop deprives a man of the liberty granted him by the Constitution of the United States and is a menace to the welfare of the citizens of this country. In my opinion the closed shop is unconstitu tional and should not be permitted to exist. I predict that within a few years the Government will take a hand in this matter and then the closed shop will be no more. Note —Read before the Pierian Chau tauqua Circle, at their bi-weekly meeting, Sunday afternoon, October 23, 1921. FRISCO HEARS HARDING’S TALK Thousands of people gathered together in two vast audiences, one at New York and the other at San Francisco, heard Said old Gentleman Gay, “On a Thanksgiving Day, If you u'ant a good time, then give something away” So he sent a fat turkey to Shoemaker Price, And the Shoemaker said, “What a big bird! how nice! And, since a good dinner s before me, I ought To give poor Widoiv Lee the small chicken 1 bought.” “This fine chicken, O see!” said the pleased Widow Lee, “And the kindness that sent it, how precious to me! I zuould like to make someone as happy as I Til give Washivoman Biddy my big pumpkin pie” “And O, sure,” Biddy said, “’tis the queen of all pies! Just to look at its yellow face gladdens my eyes! Noiv its my turn, 1 think; and a sweet ginger-cake For the motherless Finigan Children Til bake. “A sweet-cake, all our own! 'Tis too good to be true!' Said the Finigan Children,.Rose, Denny, and Hugh; “It smells sweet of spice, and ive'll carry a slice To poor little Lame Jake —who has nothing that’s nice.” “O, I thank you, and thank you!” said little Lame Jake; “O what bootiful, bootiful, bootiful cake! And O, such a big slice! I will save all the crumbs,„ And will give ’em to each little sparrow that comes!” And the Sparroivs they twittered, as if they would say, Like old Gentleman Gay, “On a Thanksgiving Day If you want a good time, then give something away!” —Marion Douglas President Harding’s address and the fun eral service over the body of an unknown American soldier at Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, D. C., on Armis tice Day, November 11. Telephone equip ment installed in front of the President’s stand in the huge Arlington amphitheater, carried the President’s voice over wires to New York and San Francisco, where it was transmitted to audiences through loud speaking devices recently perfected by en gineers of the Bell System. Through “loud speakers” installed at Arlington, the President’s words were carried to the thou sands of U. S. troops and civilians as sembled about him on the hillsides who otherwise would not have heard him. This was the greatest funeral service the world has ever known. Never before in histpry has the head, of any nation been able to address such vast numbers of peo ple. Never before have the words of any leader been carried to vast audiences as sembled in opposite portions of his coun try. It indicates that the day is not far distant when the President can speak from his office in the White House to audiences assembled in every part of the country. While the address at .Washington was ! yjVt. held at noon, the clocks at San Francisco showed nine o’clock in the morning. Telephone engineers say that this pro ject is one of the most important and diffi cult they have ever undertaken. It is another great scientific achievement and not merely a connecting of opposite ends of the country together by long distance tele phone. The “loud speakers” which were used in carrying the President’s voice out over the great audiences at Arlington, New York and San Francisco, have been per fected only recently. The apparatus re quired is complicated and formidable and it could not be manufactured in necessary quantities to extend the program to cover more cities. Through this newly created equipment, it will be possible to transmit the speech of an orator over long distance wires and have it reproduced through a “loud speaker” where desired, with as mhch force and power as though the orator were in the presence of his audience. What was done t ,on Armistice Day to carry the president’s voice to the two great A <&0O& Slljankaijtumtj cities on either coast simultaneously, will eventually make it possible for represen tative audiences throughout the land in every state to hear an address by their chief executive at one time. What this achievement will mean in future history is almost beyond imagination.—£#. If you work for a man, in heaven’s name work for him. If he pays wages that supply you your bread and butter, work for him, speak well of him, stand by him, and stand by the institution he represents. I think if I worked for a man I would work for him. I would not work for him a part of the time, but all of the time. I would give an un divided service or none. If put to a pinch, an ounce of loyalty, is worth a pound of cleverness. If you must vilify, condemn and eternally disparage, why, resign your position, and when you are outside, damn to your heart’s content. But I pray you, so long as you are a part of an institution, do not condemn it. Not that you will injure the institution—not that—but when you disparage the concern of which you are a part, you depreciate yourself. —Elbert Hubbard. PULLETS AND HENS By a Fancier About the first of October is the time to think about winter quarters for your flock. The wise poultryman will have separate quarters for his hens and pullets. It is very unwise to house them together. Think of it in this way. The hen has laid many eggs, she knows the symptoms and when the time comes to lay her first egg, of the winter quota, she gets upon the nest, lays the egg, gets down and goes about her business of eating and sleeping and thinks nothing about what the pullet might call her “troubles.” On the other hand the pullet is very different, she knows something is wrong, but she doesn’t know what it is. She has never laid an egg, she has fever, then maybe a chill, cramps, and other pains. She gets very nervous, rushes around a lot more than is good for her, gets sweaty, and finally goes into a cold corner of the coop to cool off. By the time she has laid her first egg the chances are that she has caught a cold, and this in late fall and early winter runs to roupe. Her mouth is parched and dry, she goes to the common drinking fountain, gets a drink, and leaves a few thousand roupe germs for the rest of your flock to pick up. Pullets require very different feed and care from hens and unless they get it you will have a lot of trouble. Their house must be warmer and free from draughts. In other w r ords if you w r ant to get results from pullets you must help them lay. In another article I will take up feeding for eggs. THE PASSING OF THE COWBOY At the recent convention of the Texas Cattle Raisers’ Association, held in San Antonio, it was proposed to take steps to perpetuate the memory of the old-time cow boy and the almost extinct Texas long horn steer. The typical man and animal may be done in bronze and erected as a monument upon the grounds of the State Capitol. The original cowboy has passed the way of the longhorn. It is stated that there are thousands of cowboys in Texas today who have never seen a steer of the original type that formerly roamed the range of the state. Occasionally one of these wild rangy animals is met with upon the ranches of the Rio Grande border, but even there it is a curiosity. Picturesque and with a native charm the Texas cowboy is always a figure of interest. With his sturdy broncho, western saddle, leather chaps and large hat, he is distinctively an American product. But little evidence of the old days re mains, and there are vast differences in early ranch life and that of today. The longhorns have been replaced by short horn, heavier cattle. The bucking Span ish pony, is becoming rare. Branding is now made easy by the use of pens pro vided with chutes. Round-ups are largely diminished. No cowboy dashes out to rope a peaceful Hereford or muley. Trail driving is replaced by railroad shipping. Even the broad-brimmed hat of the cowboy is being threatened by the Panama. Until fairly recent years the cowboy made his own hat. This w T as done by digging a hole in the ground the shape and size of the head and fitting a piece of wet raw hide to it. Frank S. Hastings, manager of a large ranch in Jones County, Texas, says of the modern cowboy: “They are, as a class, an industrious, hard-working lot of men with a strict sense of right and wrong, with the deepest respect foT property, law and order, fairness and respectability. The cowboys that I have known are, as a class, men whom it has been a privilege to know.”— Ex. f