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SNOWFLAKE * HAS SIX STA'S
Farmer, Who Hat Photographed Over 4JXX), tajra Many Things Are Designed From Them. Lacemakere, Jewelers, designers of silks, wall papers and table linens, and eten bakers and confectioners, are now borrowing the ornamental designs for their products from snowflakes, writes Wilson A. Bentley, snowflake photog rapher. During 41 years Bentley, who Is a fanner of Jericho, Vt, has photo graphed more than 4,000 snowflakes, and asaerts he has found no two alike. He adds that no two could possibly be alike, since the sliape of a snowflake depends on temperature, humidity and chemical and electrical content of the atmosphere through which It falls. It Is inconceivable, he says, that any two snowflakes could ever encounter exact- ly the same atmospheric conditions In their Journey to earth. In one respect, however, Bentley de clares all snowflakes to be alike—all • are some variation of a six-pointed star. Though a casual look at the snowflake may seem to Indicate that It departs from this form, microscopic in spection will always show the six points. Bentley began studying snowflakes with a microscope at the age of six teen. Later he acquired a microscopic camera and had completed quite a gal lery of snowflake photographs before he realised that the work he was nurs ing as a hobby had any commercial value. Then a lace manufacturer bought some photographs from him and since then he has found a steady market for his pictures.—Popular Sci ence Monthly. DOMESTIC HELP IN PRUSSIA Employees Are Regulated by Law— Must Work 1S Hours Dally, and Have Two Houi£ for Meals. In Prussia, as In New Zealand, the hours of work for domestic help are regulated by law. Domestics shall not be kept on duty for more than 13 hours a day, out of which two hours must be allowed for meals. On every second Sunday and on ofllcial holidays their work must cease at Bp. m. After nine months’ continuous employment a household employee Is entitled to one week’s holiday with full pay, plus an allowance for board. Furthermore, the act requires each employee to have a "dlenstbuch.” In which are entered the owner’s name, age, appearance (backed up by a pho tograph), particulars of former situa tions and wages received, together with “reasons for leaving” and “char acter.” All these entries are signed by the employer and officially stamped by the police at each change of situation, so their accuracy la Indisputable.— Detroit News. Rain Shifts Ranch. It is not often that a man goes to bed at night with his property in ene country and awakens next morning to find some of it in another, but such la the case which baa recently happened on the United Statea-Mexlcan border. An International boundary change, in whlcb a portion of an American ranch baa become Mexican territory, baa taken place owing to the heavy rains in northern Mexico. After the waters of the Rio Grande had sub sided. Ben Kell, a Texas rancher, found that the course of the river had changed somewhat and part of his landa were in Mexican territory. Kell la reported to have gone to Reynoaa, In the state of Tamaulipas, to register the property now in Mex ico. The inhabitants of a sagebrush town were seated on a cracker box exchang ing desultory conversation. “You know then) hot cakes what the feller flips In the window of the For lorn Hope restaurant T” v “Yea, I know ’em." “Ever try ’em?" “Yea, I’ve tried ’em." “What do you think of ’em?" The citizen thus appealed to gazed flectlvely toward the foothills for ome minutes and then rendered Judg ment. “That feller’s not a cook; he’s a Jug gler."—Judge. “Now. Mr. Professional Censor, I suppose yon have read many books that yon think the pnbUc should not readr “I hare." “You have looked at and censored many plays that yon consider Immoral and bad tor other people to seer* -1 barer “And yet, Mr. Professional Censor, after all this reading and Investigation It has not affected you? In other words, yon are still Just ss moral and undented as you were before —” (Order In the court I) —The Nation. The Wrong Ticket. It was dusk, and the ticket Inspector wdnt to the young couple on the back seat of the bus. The youth, slightly Impatient at the Interruption, thrust out his folded tickets. “We do not stop there," said the In* spector, politely. • "Where r Inquired the youth. “At tbs pawnbroker’s." Real Results. “Tour medicine bss helped me won derfully.” wrote the grateful woman. “A month ago I could not spank the baby and now I am able to thrash my husband. Heaven bless you.”—Boston Transcript j ' • Immune.. HOW THE HATION IS PROTECTED FROM SERIOUS DISASTER City Without a Reserve Water Supply Against Destruction by Fire Likened by Bankers’ Committee to Business Situa tion Without Federal Reserve System. \ A vital element in everybody’s prosperity Is that mysterious sounding "something or other" called bank reserve, says the Committee on Public Education of thr American Bankers Association, adding: “It Isn’t an easy matter to make simple and Interesting, but Its Importance to every man, woman and child la the country makes the effort worth while.” The Com mittee continues: Money on deposit must always be ready for depositors when they desire It Banks must also be ready to loan money, when needed, to their customers, »r business would be hampered. In other words, prosperity depends largely on (he ability of the banks to meet these demands—that Is, depends on the “bank reserves." The problem of handling reserves has been difficult The Federal Reserve Bystem has met the problem more satisfactorily u»«» any other method ever tried In this country. The Orest Solution Our banks are managed by officer* and directors, elected by their own stockholders. They are Interested In helping the town to grow and prosper, but Just as a local telephone station is valuable to the Interchange of thought because It belongs to a system whose wires reach to all parts of the nation, so the local bank Is valuable to the Interchange of bust ness because of Its connections with other banks In the United States, finding its strength and Its usefulness in being part of a system. For many years a plan was sought whereby our thousands of separate* and Independent banka could get to gether and cooperate for the Improve ment of our banking methods, and for mutual protection In enlergencles. both for themselves and customers. We had periodical money panics, dan gerously disturbing to business, and chargeable, in large part, to defects in our banking and currency system There was no central bank from whlcb the Individual banks could get assistance In time of trouble. Panic conditions caused weak banks to fall, and even strong and sound Institutions to be Imperilled. Hankers, business men, and leaders In Congress for years made a careful studyof banking and finally Congress passed a law providing for the establishment of twelve great Federal Reserve Banks, each designed to serve as a sort of central bank for such banks In Its allotted territory as might become members of the Federal Reserve Bystem. It retained the American plan of Independent banks doing business un der the management of their own di rectors and officers. About 10.000 banks have become members of the Federal Reserve Bystem. The mem ber banks in each district own the entire stoek of the Federal Reserve bank there, and elect two-thirds of the directors. The other directors are appointed by the Federal Reserve Board at Washington, the Govern mental body having supervision over the Reserve banks, though It does not operate them. Its members are appointed by the President of the United Btates. The Federal Reserve banks bold member banka’ reserves. Formerly GETTING THE IDEA Closer fellowship between bankers end farmers was and s resolu tion adopted affirming faith In the efficacy of the corporative marketing Idea at a meeting of the American Bankers Association Agricultural Commission. — N*ws /tom. SAVINGS MORE THAN DOUBLE IN DECADE Now York.—Reported savings de posits la banks and trust companies at the United Btates hare more than doubled In amount during the past decade, sad the number of accounts hare Increased by about 141 per cent, figures compiled by the Barings Bank Division,. American Bankers Assort* tion, show “If distributed equally tnong out entire population, the savings deposits in 1»11 would hare given ft* to oacb each bank carried In its own vault the cash required by law as a legal reserve so that It would be rehdy to pay depositors on demand. The gold supply of the country was thus scat tered among thousands of Independent banks. When Fire Rages This situation may be likened to the old-time water supply la a town Each house bad to depend on Its in dividual well, tank, or cistern. Pie tore such a town attacked by dre. If the water was low In one well, from drought, or excessive use, water would have to be borrowed from a neighboring well. Suppose the water In that well also was at a low level. Thus the safety of all was sacrificed because no RESERVE water supply was at hand. The fire would .become a conflagration. Under the Federal Reserve System, we have a series of modern reservoirs, located In various parts of the coun try. each serving the needs of the banks In its own district In each of these reservoirs credit Is stored up to be supplied to the various banks, as the need arises. Each reservoir Is in turn connected with all* the others so that when the supply In one be comes low, the others may be tem porarlly drawn upon. By gathering the gold reserves of the member banks into the twelve Re serve banks, a result has been ob talned like that yielded >y the con structlon of a great city water supply Each member bank formerly had to depend almost entirely- upon Its own resources In making loans to its cus tomers. When it had loaned all of Its own money, It could do no more, even though the merchant manufacturer or farmer customer had great need of more credit, antf was seeking it for highly Important and necessary purposes. Hence arose what was called a “tight money” situation Now the member bank can, and frequently does take the notes of Its customers to the Federal Reserve bank, and borrows there In much the same way as the customer borrows from the member bank. Tbla reserve-storing and loaning work of the Reserve System Is only part of tbe wonderful protection and service It la rendering the nation. adult and child la ths oountry," tbs Division's report says, “but la 1111 the portion of each would hare boos no less than $151." The officially reported savings de posits are as follows: Deposits Aeoouats 191 S $8,426476,000 12.684411 IMS 17451.475.000 SO4SS4S4 Increase .. 106.7% 140.0% | “This remarkable growth is attrlb utable to Improvement la the service# of the banks for sarars and to tbs more consistent oaavass for account! through advertising and soliciting/ the report says. THE NORTHWESTERN BULLETIN-APPEAL FRANCE HAS HUGE EMPIRE Colonial Holdings In Africa Exceed Those of Britain by About One-Fifth. . Instead of North America and India, Africa Is now the moat Import eat field of French colonial development, writes Henri M. Barzun in Currqat History Magazine. Here tbs French posses sions have an area of 4,800,000 square miles; that Is 17 times_ the size of France Itself, and a colored population equal to the number of France’s white Inhabitants. The French colonies in Afrlcfi, whlcb exceed those of Great Britain by about one-fifth, suggest a kind of confederation, slowly built up by the gradual acquisition of 20 prov inces from 1830 op to the Versailles treaty. A beginning was made with the annexation in 1830 of northern Al geria, to which were added the colonies of Gabon, Congo, Übangl, and Chad In 1841; Guinea and Ivory Coast In 1843; Somaliland in 1864; Tunis In 1881; Sen egal in 1889; Volta, Dahomey, and Mauritania In 1893; Madagascar and Reunion In 1896; southern Algeria in 1902; Niger and Morocco In 1912; and the German Cameroons In 1919. Tbe value of the African empire Is seen in Its trade both with France and with the world at large. Production Is already nearing 3,000,000 tons yearly for the whole dominion, mostly raw materials for manufacturers and food staffs for export. As for the commer cial balance, the day Is expected when the 700,000,000 francs of prewar trade will reach 5,000,000,000. There could be no better prospect for French pros perity at home and for French ex change In foreign countries. Especial ly In Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia, ag riculture is being developed on a large scale. Tbe farms and cultivated fields cover Immense areas, comparable only to tbe American Middle West. This necessitates the use of modem agricul tural implements suen as Harvesters, reapers, binders, threshers and trac tors, creating a market for American manufacturers of these machines. TO DECIPHER MANUSCRIPTS >hotographece Find Ink Which Has Faded Into Illegibility May Btill Be Opaque to Ultra-Violet Raya Photographers have found that they can obtain very dflTerent effects when quarts lamps are used in place of tbe more common sources of light Tbe reason is simple enough. Tbe quarts allows the ready passing of the so called nltra-vlolet rays of light, which will not penetrate glass, and these In turn produce a different effect from the rest of tbe rays. With colored vases, flowers or dress goods the effects are equally surpris ing and sometimes may lead to Impor tant applications. For Instance, a French photographer has found that Ink which has faded Into Illegibility may still be opaque to the ultra-violet rays. By photographing documents on whlcb the ink had been faded he has been able to restore the legibility Moreover, the Investigator has found that In some old documents, dating back to the Twelfth cegtury, his quartz light photographs showed the original wording, which had later been changed in a still legible Ink. Buch a decipher ing of old manuscripts which hereto fore have not been readable ought to add greatly to oar knowledge of other days. In the present, when many old manu scripts are being discovered, this proc ess Is Invaluable. In photographing subjecta with in tense contrasts the difficulty of secur ing the.required amount of detail in the shadow without getting overdensity In the high lights la a common experi ence. Tbe nse of films makes it pos sible to overcome this difficulty by a simple expedient. Two negatives are made —one for high lights with a short exposure and the other fully timed for the shadows. The parts desired in each negative are then coated with celluloid varnish and the remainder re moved with the well known red prua alate and hypo reducer. When these two negatives are superposed in reg ister their combined effect la that of a properly timed negative. The method is, of coarse, one requiring some dex terity In the blocklng-out process and is restricted to films of negligible thickness. He Should Worry. A Jew who had borrowed money from a friend used to walk up and down his bedroom night after night till he nearly drove his wife crasy. After he had been at It about s week she said to him: “Moses, vy do you valk up and down de room all de nlghtr He sgld: “I.valk up and down de room, Rebecca, because I am so vor rled. I owe leases $lO and I cannot pay him." “Veil," said his wife, “If I vos you I should go back to bed and let Isaacs valk up and down his room. It's hts vorry, ain't ItT* Bins Tree of Great Span. The spreading pine of Karasakl, on the shore of Lake Blwa, Japan, was one of the best known trees of tbs world, and one of the oldest It was only 80 feet high, but It hsd a span of 154 fast for many years It was visit ed by pilgrims, and tourists from other countrlqs made a point to see It Re cently a solemn ceremony was conduct ed by a high priest In the presence of many other priests to transfer the spirit of this 1400-year-old tree to a youthful descendant of 800 years, which sapling will receive the honors Isng accorded to the sacred pine. Organizations To Assemble At The Sanhedrin Over 500 Delegates Expect to Assemble, Says Simmons in Comment Chicago, 111.—The Lincoln League, political, national, representative, practical and daring, has completed arrangements for a mammoth session In Chicago, February 11th and 13th. Postmaster Oeneral Harry S. New will represent President Coolidge at the session. Hon. John T. Adams, chairman of the Republican national committee, will be a special gu<.st of honor, and will bring a message of political hope, according to arrange ments. United States Senator Medill McCormick will deliver the address on Abraham Lincoln, February 12. Among other distinguished visitors who will probably be present are Sen ator George W. Pepper of Pennsyl vania, who presented the resolution in tbe Republican national committee representing Southern representation, and Frank H. Hitchcock of New York and National Committeeman W. M. Butler of Massachusetts. According to Roscoe Simmons, president of the Lincoln League, more than 500 delegates and visitors are expected from all over the United States. There is a national commit teeman from each state, according to .lie organization, and the convention will be made up of two delegates from each congressional district, and four delegates-at-large from each state. Robert R. Church of Memphis, Tenn., is chairman of the executive committee, Henry Lincoln Johnson of Atlanta and Washington is secre tary, Walter L. Cohen of New Or leans, La., is treasurer and Perry W. Howard of Mississippi and Wash ington is legal adviser. It is predicted that the attendance at the ssesions will be larger than in 1920, when the organization brought together the most representative group of men and women ever assem bled for the consideration of political advancement. Next to the Repub lican national convention, there is more interest shown in the Lincoln League sessions than in any other national political gathering. Subjects of nation-wide interest will be presented before the conven tion for consideration and action. Among them will be: 1. Migration and Its Political In fluence. 2. Best Methods to Defeat Class- Legislation. 3. Jim Crow Cars. 4. Colored Americans and Polit ical Parties. 5. Congressional Election. 6. Politics and Industrial Oppor tunity. The day sessions of the convention will be held in South Park Methodist Episcopal church, and the night ses sions in Greater Bethel A. M. E. church. Robert S. Abbott ia chair man of the local Lincoln League committee, and Phil A. Jones chair man of the committee of arrange ments. SHORT CUTS This is the time for a “We did it” chorus, rather than for an "I did it” solo. There were 3,682 patients admitted and 2,338 surgical operations per formed last year at Freedmen’s hos pital. Dr. W. T. Merchant of Louisville will be one of Kentucky’s “Big Four" at the Cleveland convention. Philadelphia can at least boast of having more colored centenarians than either New York or Chicago. Harry Wills has been offered $300,- 000 by tfex Rickard for twawbouts next summer, with Firpo and Demp sey. Approximately 93 per cent of the Detroit colored males, 10 years of age and over,- are gainfully employed. Colored farmers In Halifax County, North Carolina, are making splendid progress with the aid of their Farm Loan Association. Baltimore has almost as many 1111- terata colored persons, 10 years of age and over, as New York, Chicago and Philadelphia combined. There are more colored effauffeurs In Pennsylvania than in any other state. New York ranks in second place, followed by Virginia, Georgia, the District of Columbia and Mary land. (By the Associated Negro Press) Larget Than 1920 (Lincoln News Service) PASSENGER TRAIN SAFEST PLACE FOR FIFTY MILLION TRAVELLERS Great Northern Railway Establishes Remarkable Safety Record By Transporting Thousands of Peisons Daily for Six Years Without a Single Fatality. St Paul, Feb. I—Nearly fifty million passengers were carried on Great North ern railway trains more than four billion miles during the last six years without a single one being killed, it was disclosed here today in the annual report of C. L. LaFontaine, general safety superintend ent The unique record, attributed to the in tensive safety work conducted by the Great Northern, finds no duplicate in the reports of any other Northwest railroad. Officials of the transcontinental system commended the care given by employes to assure maximum safety in the opera tion of passenger trains as one of the major factors making possible this rec ord. Millions of dollars are spent every year in keeping locomotives and cars, rails and road-bed and safety appliances in first-class working order to permit the rapid movement of trains with a maxi mum of safety to passengers, executives also emphasized. Indicative of the large investment made to protect passengers and employes is the annual report of C. A. Dunham, signal engineer, which shows approximately $7,000,000 spent for safety appliances. An additional $1,000,- 000 will be spent this year to extend au tomatic block signaling, for automatic train control and for other safely de vices. GREETINGS TO THE The NORTHWESTERN BULLETIN-APPEAL ON ITS SECOND ANNIVERSARY AS A WEEKLY NEWSPAPER Compliments of DR. L. R. HILL. E. A. STARKS, Surgeon-Dentist, 1656 Grand Ave. 303 Court Block. SAMUEL RANSOM, DR. J. WIALTON CRUMP, 294 No. St. Albans St. Physician and S trgeon, nnnwv 306 Court Block. o^VV, ILI l E RROWN -305 Rondo St. J. LOUIS ERVIN, oaMTTEL WRIGHT Attorney at Law. SAMUEL WRIGHT, 309 Court Block. 689 Arund el St. DR. JOHN R. FRENCH. XHSSaw, Surgeon-Dentist. 2628 Snelling Ave. 2 Detroit Bldg. Minneapolis. UI 73 < 9 V^VabwXa T St RY SHOP> Anthony Ave. FRANK HOWARD RICHARD STOKES, Rondos? 603 “• E FAULKNER SAM WILLIAMS, m StASny A*.. ,13 “• A “ lh “' M A ROT . NOBLES HAUSER. ‘AJSBSU 257 Rondo Bt. W B DAVIS 88 • A* BROOKS, «U Rocdo St. 257 Rondo St ARTHUR STONE, St Interior Decorator, 311 Wabaßha st ,177 E. Acker St. KELLEY TURNER, THBO. RUFFNER, • ’ Agent for Oakland 6. 762 Iglehart St. CHAS. MILLER, THOS. WOODFORD, Se * - Bt * Jamea A- Ml E- Church * 928 E. Lawson St. GEORGE W. HAMILTON, rfrt ft i is Attorney at Law, 305 Court Block. 579 Wabasha St JOHN LaCOSTE, c. l. McCullough, 1119 A ">- 3648 Columbus Ave. C. L. LOGAN, Minneapolis. 379 Carroll Ave. ELMER H. CARTER. Sec. Urban League. —when you read The Bulletin Appeal You Get the Happenings All Over the United States Everybody Is Reading the Bulletin-Appeal . Why? Every Issue Contains Real Live News r vj ./* *. V rX% 0 “The safety showing of the Great Northern at the end of the six-year peri od is a splendid tribute to the army of employes, particularly those engaged in the handling of trains, and emphasizes the exceptional efforts being made by the company to keep passengers in less dan ger of injury actually than they are on the ‘ streets of the average city,” said Superintendent LaFontaine. ■. During the last six years, Great North ern 'trains carried 47,022358 passengers an average of 85 miles each without a single fatality. This is an aggregate pas senger movement of 4,012,023,277 miles. Safety appliances maintained by the Great Northern at a cost of $1,200,000 a year exclusive of new equipment, in cludes approximately 1,900 miles of au tomatic block signals, interlocking plants, crossing bells and wig-wags, illuminated crossing signals and related equipment which cost the company $6,500,000. In 1924 automatic block signals will be in stalled over sections of trackage exceed ing 200 miles and 120 miles of track will be equipped with train control devices which will automatically halt a train should it enter a block already occupied by another train.